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Listing 68 - 20 of 1965 results.

Effective Application of Local Teaching Aids for Cost Control in Learning Islamic Studies in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Abdullahi Adamu Sulaiman, Muhammad Alhasan Yunus, Aliyu Umar
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Formal Islamic Education received tremendous boost with rapid increase in the number of Schools and Teachers in the recent past in Northern Nigeria generally and Nasarawa State specifically. Predictably, Pupils enrolment also incredibly expanded. This burst of Islamic educational activities brought in its marked changes, some positive, while others negative. Thus, the rapid increase in enrolment figures and the clamour for better and quality Islamic education by educationally conscious parents began to impose pressure on available resources. Loud grumblings started to manifest from members of the public about deterioration in the quality of Islamic education offered pupils in many Islamiyyah Schools. It is in view of the above that this paper attempts to explain the use of local teaching aids for cost control in learning Islamic Studies in Nasarawa State.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the importance of using local teaching aids in the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Nasarawa State.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3

Evaluation of the Relative Viability of Anthropometric Parameters, Aerobic Capacity, Spinal Mobility, Abdominal Muscular Endurance, Back and Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Predicting the Balance Performance of Young Adult Males

Research Article
Author(s): Joseph A. Balogun, Felix O. Odusaga, Adesola O. Ojoawo
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Background: The physical-and-physiological factors that modulate balance performance are currently not well elucidated in the extant literature. Objectives: This study investigated the viability of using demographic factors, physical and physiological variables to predict balance performance. Methods: 150 adult males consented and completed all the 17 tests required. Their anthropometric indices (leg length, thigh and calf circumferences, height, body weight, quotelet index, body surface area), dominant leg isometric muscle strength (quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), spinal mobility (back extension and forward flexion), aerobic capacity, isometric back extensor strength, abdominal muscular endurance and the non-timed criterion unipedal stance performance with eyes opened and eyes closed were measured using standard protocols. Results: Significant positive correlations were obtained between several of the independent variables. Thigh circumference was significantly related to quadriceps femoris strength (r = 0.545, p<0.001), hamstrings strength (r = 0.4.57, p<0.001), plantar flexor strength (r = 0.249, p<0.002), and dorsiflexors strength (r = 0.2496, p<0.002).  The 17 independent variables combined contributed significantly (F = 2.051, p<0.05) to the prediction of balance performance with eyes opened. Unexpectedly, only 20.9% of the variance in balance performance was accounted for by the 17 independent variables. Stature and the plantar flexor muscle strength were the two viable predictors of balance performance when the eyes is opened; stature contributed 5.5% and the plantar flexor muscle strength contributed 3.8%. Abdominal muscular endurance contributed 3.1% out of the combined 14.4% variance in balance performance when the eyes are closed. Conclusions: From a practical perspective, the contribution of the 17 physical-and-physiological variables monitored in this study to the prediction of balance performance is dreary; therefore, follow-up studies should explore other independent variables.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is the first to evaluate the viability of using multiple combinations of physical-and-physiological variables to predict balance performance. The regression equations derived in this study can be used to estimate the balance performance of young adult males.

Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

Factors Influencing Consumer Purchase Intention of "KU Phuphan Black-Bone Chicken Product" in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand : A Study Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

Research Article
Author(s): Jitpisut Bubphapant
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The purpose of this research was to study the factors influencing Thai consumers’ purchase intentions of KU Phuphan Black-bone Chicken product in Sakon Nakhon Province by using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). KU Phuphan black-bone chicken is the rare chicken breed which is completely black inside and out despite its white feathers, developed by Thai researchers in Sakon Nakhon province and now was widely known as the economic animal. It was discovered that many previous studies conducted to focus on the genetics and nutrition; however, there was a lack of research concerning the marketing and consumer aspects. The quantitative research approach was adopted in this study. The research data was gathered using a questionnaire designed from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Using a total sample of 400 respondents who have recognized KU Phuphan Black-bone chicken product, a survey was developed and conducted in Sakon Nakhon province, Thailand. The results revealed that all three factors influenced consumers’ purchase intention. Attitude toward behavior and subjective norm had positively influenced on purchase intention. Consumers who had higher purchase intention of KU Phuphan Black-bone chicken product had significant higher attitudes about buying the product. In addition, an influence of subjective norm factor like parents, peers and media also played an important role in considering purchasing the product. Meanwhile, perceived behavior control factor such as availability of product and place to buy least influenced on purchase intention. Findings provided by this study will be helpful for marketers of KU Phuphan Black-bone Chicken product and others relevant to this business for planning, adapting and improving theirs related marketing activities.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the marketing and consumer perspectives of KU Phuphan Black-bone chicken, the economic rare breed developed by Thai researchers. The results can be applied for developing marketing strategies which will benefit agricultural scenes in Thailand for the better and sustainable.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

Educationally Game-Based Learning Encourages Learners to be Actively Engaged in their Own Learning

Research Article
Author(s): Ann Hilliard, Harriett F. Kargbo
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
In our schools and universities today, learners have been exposed to a lot of technology applications. Therefore, the natural order of learning could be enhanced by the use of games. Using games through the application of technology provides the learner with lots of hands-on activities. Game-based learning activities are highly engaging and it helps the student learner to find ways of solving problems by various means. Using technology game-based learning devices give the learner also immediate feedback of a skill obtained or mastered. Educationally game-based learning is designed with the purpose of helping the learner to interact within an organizational experience by learning skills and knowledge to improve literacy. Educationally game-based learning is just another way to incorporate learning through the instructional process facilitated by teachers. Teachers must continue to seek ways to address how learners learn best. By using game related activities, the teacher has the opportunity to add value to a variety of instructional enhancers. With the effort of improving literacy across disciplines, teachers can use game-based devices to motivate and engage student learners more in their own learning. Students are motivated to learn and to be engaged in their work when the work has meaning, relevancy and is linked to real-world application.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4

Tourism Price Competition Index for National Destinations

Research Article
Author(s): Ramazan Goral, Erkan Akgoz
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Visitors are aware towards touristic goods and service prices and take cost of tourism package involving touristic goods and services into consideration in decision of choosing destination. Addressing cost of touristic goods and service package with destination choice and touristic demand made price competition a current issue in tourism. The destination that has comparative price advantage among alternative destinations is accepted as having high tourism price competition power. In this scope the first aim of our study is to develop a method that can make tourism package price comparison in rival national destinations. The second aim on the other hand depending upon the first aim is to form price competition towards alternative national destinations. In this scope basing on Household Budget Study of Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK), tourism package prices of the most important 4 destinations of Turkey were compared and price competition index was calculated.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Hidden Experiences of Doctoral Students in Research Courses

Research Article
Author(s): Fatemeh-Al-Sadat Robati, Forouzan Tonkaboni
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The present study investigates the hidden experiences of students in the doctoral programs. This qualitative study was performed using the phenomenological method. The data were collected through the interview. The population consists of PhD graduates whose study period had passed. Using normal purposeful sampling, 45 graduates were interviewed. Strauss and Corbin method of data analysis was used for the analysis. 252 thematic phrases were divided to the five main themes: "The lack of cross-border communications", "failure in doing the main task", "lack of social justice", "lack of economic justice", "non-equality of universities" and "lack of equal opportunities".
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the experiences that PhD students acquire in universities while passing research courses and conducted by authors. 

Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4

OFDM Channel Estimation Based on Novel Local Search Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Research Article
Author(s): Ali Kareem Nahar, Mohammed Moanes Ezzaldean, Sabah A. Gitaffa, Hussain K. Khleaf
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
A novel Channel Estimation (CE) approach in multi-carrier wireless communication systems, such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system and Code Division Multiple access (CDMA) via a combination of Local Search (LS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed in this study. The CE is vital towards overcoming the effect of channel fading, which causes the degradation of the Bit Error Rate (BER) and the jamming of pilot symbols. The CE expressions were derived as an objective function to study the effect of improving BER in MC-CDMA/OFDM for a frequency selective Rayleigh fading environment. The number of particles for each single swarm was used to determine the best fitness solution, and is being computed from an average BER value. The proposed channel estimator was tested under the fast fading channel in a multi carrier communication system with and without interpolation methods. The simulation showed that the proposed CE of the MIMO-OFDM system can significantly result in better BER performance compared with other techniques at different modulation types, mean square error (MSE), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, and channel lengths.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates new formula for modify local search and particle swarm optimization algorithm LS-PSO.

Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2

Contribution of Meat towards Nutritional Security - An Analysis through Consumption of Different Food Items among Meat and Non-Meat Consumers in Karnataka

Research Article
Author(s): T. Senthilkumar, M. Thirunavukkarasu, V. Muralidhar
Journal: Journal of Nutrients

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Abstract
Human diet and nutritional status have undergone a sequence of major shifts, stated as the nutrition transition. The present study was conducted to explore the contribution of meat towards nutritional security among rural, semi-urban and urban households in Karnataka with the sample size of 90 meat eating respondents and 30 non-meat eating respondents. Conventional analyses like mean and percentages were used for the present study. Apart from these analyses, the calorie and protein intake based on the respondent’s intake of food items of plant source, non-meat animal source and meat animal sources was worked out and discussed. As a whole, calorie and protein intake per consumption unit per day was found high in urban area followed by semi-urban area and awareness on calorie and protein intake among rural area in Karnataka was proposed.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributed the per capita consumption level of meat towards nutritional security in terms of calorie and protein intake at rural, semi-urban and urban households. Also conveyed the importance of meat consumption among children and senior citizens about the balanced nutrition including meat consumption to meet the recommended dietary intake of protein and calorie.

Medical Sciences » Journal of Nutrients » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Anaeto F.C., Okereke - Ejiogu, N, Ohajianya D.0, Korie, C.O, Dike, N.F, Uke, P.C
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
This study analyzed the determinants of farmer’s use of land reclamation practices in oil producing areas of Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained with structured questionnaire from 172 food crop farmers selected through multistage sampling procedure. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the level of use of land reclamation practices, while inferential statistical technique (logit model) was used to estimate the determinants of farmers ‘use of land reclamation practice. Results showed   low level of use of land reclamation practices (x =1.5) among the farmers, and land filling was better practiced than other land reclamation practices. Determinants of farmers ‘use  of land reclamation practices were level of education, farm size, extension  contact, annual  farm income, social organization membership, availability of land reclamation technology, and access  to information. In order for land reclamation practices to mitigate the land degradation and soil fertility loss experienced in the  oil producing areas of Imo State, government should adequately motivate the extension personnel to  follow-up the use of the introduced land reclamation practices by the farmers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on determinants of farmers’ use of land reclamation practices using multivariate logistics analysis. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that education, farm size, extension, farm income, social organization membership, availability of technology and access to information significantly determined farmers’ use of land reclamation practices.

Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

The Risk of Ovarian Cancer in Women Fed with Milk Obtained from Goats Having Different Birth Type and Kid Sex

Research Article
Author(s): Murat CIMEN, Ozlem ERTEKIN, Duygu ULAS, Tolga INAL
Journal: Cancers Review

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Abstract
The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of kid sex and birth type of goat on milk content (fat, lactose and pH) and ovarian cancer risk in women. With an object of specifying the difference among milk parameters (lactose, fat and pH) with respect to birth type (20 single and 20 twin) and sex of birth (20 male and 20 female) in dams, 80 native (kil) Goats based on birth type  and sex were divided in to four groups (single, twin, female, male). Milks obtained from dams giving birth to twins and single kid showed significant differences in terms of lactose rates. Lactose level (5.12%) of the dams giving birth to one offspring was found higher than that of goats (4.70%) have twin kids. Also, birth type in dams had a significant influence on milk fat rates. The fat rate of milk (3.74%) obtained from single group was found higher than milk fat rate (3.45%) of twin group. There was no difference between single and twin group for milk acidity (pH). There are no differences between different sexes (male and female) of birth with respect to all milk parameters. According to findings obtained from this study, preferring the milks of the dams giving birth to twins can be relatively advantageous for the ovarian cancer risk. It is known that the contents of milk are proving to be a major risk factor in the development of ovarian cancer. However, exposure to risk factors such as high milk fat and lactose levels in milk from goats giving birth to single kid doesn’t means that ovarian cancer will necessarily occur.
Contribution/ Originality
This is the first study on relationship between milk obtained from goats and ovarian cancer risk in women. The paper's primary contribution is finding that which milk increases ovarian cancer risk. This study contributes in the existing literature by demonstrating the importance of milk obtained from goats on ovarian cancer risk.

Medical Sciences » Cancers Review » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

FPGA Implementation of MC-CDMA Wireless Communication System Based on SDR-A Review

Research Article
Author(s): Ali Kareem Nahar, Sabah A. Gitaffa, Mohammed Moanes Ezzaldean, Hussain K. Khleaf
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Software Defined Radio (SDR) has the flexibility to modify the characteristics of the receiving and transmitting radio device, without physically adjusting the hardware, due to development in the system. Because of the increasing need for wireless communication applications so as to enable consumers to communicate anywhere through information led to the emergence of many communication devices to include the large amount of applications that  every one of the devices needs power and thereby increase the total power. This study confirms that the wireless communication system for secured transmit data, fast and inexpensive; can be done by implementing using Partial Reconfiguration (PR) modern technology in FPGA developing based on SDR. The Speed and performance can be improved. The area also can be decreased. The new Xilinx, Vertex Series FPGA, provides the provision of PR. The power consumption can be reduced by applying power reduction techniques in the blocks. The combination of MATLAB (Simulink and M-file) and Simulink HDL Coder offers flexible capabilities for analysis, design; simulation, implementation, and verification. With all these capabilities, in a single system to reduce the time spent tuning for reducing the algorithms and models during rapid prototyping and experimentation and less time on HDL coding.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature review for implementing MC-CDMA wireless communication system using Partial Reconfiguration (PR) that is a new technology in FPGA.

Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

How the Principles of the Sharing Economy Can Improve Organizational Performance of the US Public School System

Research Article
Author(s): Stephen K Callaway
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
The US public school system is struggling with issues of student achievement. Therefore, the current study will examine education in the context of public goods, identifying three key dimensions of education as public goods and club goods. Then using agency theory, the paper addresses how school districts may be organized into local responsibility centers (RCs), to encourage local participation and better measure performance. The paper also identifies how the collaboration (sharing) economy may offer insight into all of these issues, examining four small case examples of organizations that illustrate the principles of the sharing economy. The paper then develops a proposal for revamping public education, based upon these principles.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper critically reviewed the literature on public goods and club goods, specifically focusing on its application to education. As such, this study contributes to the existing literature by presenting a new way of assessing public education, and therefore develops novel and insightful recommendations on educational reform.

Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Experimental Model Validation and Control of a Lactic Fermentation Process

Research Article
Author(s): Dan Selisteanu, Monica Roman, Dorin Sendrescu
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
In this work, the nonlinear dynamical model of a lactic fermentation process is widely analysed and control experiments are achieved. More precisely, a production of yogurt by Streptococcus termophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in batch operation is taken into consideration. The process model is expressed by a set of nonlinear differential equations that describes the evolution of concentrations in the fermentation process. To validate the model, several simulations are performed in the Matlab programming and development environment. Furthermore, two experimental setups are used for batch fermentation experiments. From control point of view, the temperature and the pH are the basic dynamical factors that need monitoring and control in order to regulate the microbial growth and the lactic acid production. Different control architectures and tuning procedures are implemented. Specialized data acquisition and control software tools are used to perform the experiments. By using the features of these software tools, the time evolution of various process variables can be plotted and analysed. Several comparisons between the results obtained via simulation and with the two bioreactor setups are achieved.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s main contribution is to validate the dynamical model of a lactic fermentation process by using simulators and laboratory bioreactors. A production of yogurt by Streptococcus termophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in batch operation is considered. Different control architectures and tuning procedures are implemented, and several comparisons are achieved.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Perturbation Functions for Compact Database

Research Article
Author(s): Sergey I. Vyatkin
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
3D Objects based on perturbation functions are considered in this paper.  For shape creating a set of algorithms and software based on function-defined surfaces that perform an interactive rate and enable intuitive operations was proposed. Interactive modification of the 3D objects allows us to provide high level of detail leading to a photo-realistic appearance of the resulting shapes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses a new technique for free-form representation created by mean of the analytical functions which have the following advantages: fewer data for mapping curvilinear surfaces (short database description), fewer geometric operations, simple animation and deformation of surfaces.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

PAPR Reduction Using Eight Factors Rotating Phase Shift Technique Based on Local Search Algorithm in OFDM

Research Article
Author(s): Ali Kareem Nahar, Ahmed N. Abdalla, Ali Y. Jaber, Mohammed Moanes Ezzaldean
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), Multi-Carrier (MC) system, is a popular standard in wireless communication for its enabling high throughput data transfer.  However, the MC signal usually has a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which involves a wide-dynamic-range, power consuming amplifier.  Whenever the signal height is greater than the amplified linear region, the signal is distorted. In this paper, propose a novel scheme that rotating phase shift (RPS) technique based signal scrambling is proposed to reduce PAPR in OFDM systems.  In addition, the pilot phase signal is picked out by RPS technique applied new algorithm the local research to alleviate scrambling information corruption and show discernible advancements. So, our technique improves over the existing ones in the same category.  The transmitted signal of OFDM is tested with Mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.16e standard, that compared the various phase shift with a slight computational complexity is studied.  The simulation result shows that original signal at pilot-assisted QAM is capable of bringing down the electrical PAPR by about 3.5 times as a modest complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) point of 10-3 for M=8 low complexity.  In addition, the best phase-shift factor was selected to reduce the monetary value of computational complexity.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis eight factors rotating phase shift (RPS). The proposed method is applied local research algorithms to reduce peak-to-average power ratio based on OFDM.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 2

Determination of the Seasonality of Bovine Tuberculosis Disease from the Risk Based Disease Management

Research Article
Author(s): Berrin Senturk
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
This study is among major epidemics in the world and Turkey is conducted to evaluate the seasonality of the risk factors of the disease bovine tuberculosis. The seasonal distribution of Turkey’s outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in the 2005-2014 year was investigated in this study. Office International des Epizooties outbreak data was used to determine Turkey’s monthly bovine tuberculosis outbreak data at the provincial level for this evaluation. Turkey's 81 provinces, seven geographic regions, and 12-month outbreak data are evaluated. The distribution of the four seasons of the outbreak to the coast and inland are analyzed for the determined seasonality of the disease. In the study, it was found that Turkey reached the highest number of outbreaks of the disease throughout the summer at a rate of 29.44%. In the study, the risk of bovine tuberculosis disease, diseases of the seasonality of the summer months when the investigation come to the fore, has been carefully assessed in terms of planning for disease control measures. As a result, reveals how it should be used in the identification of disease-specific risk that results obtained in the fight against the disease in this study and the importance of the fight against the disease. Taking control of the disease and timely measures for the disease will contribute to the reduction of costs related to the disease.
Contribution/ Originality
This study reveals that the bovine tuberculosis disease fighting plans should be prepared with an understanding of disease-season relationship by a country level.

Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

On Adomian Polynomials and its Applications to Lane-Emden Type of Equation

Research Article
Author(s): E. U. Agom, F. O. Ogunfiditimi, P. N. Assi
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
In this paper, we generate the Adomian polynomial for major nonlinear terms which are mostly common in differential equations. And we applied it to Lane-Emden type of equations whose nonlinear terms are exponential functions. The result we obtained by modified Adomian decomposition method (ADM) gave a series solution which is the same as the Taylors series of the exact solution.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the use of Adomian decomposition method. It explicitly provide the Adomian polynomials of frequently occurring nonlinear terms in a linear functional. And, for the first time, applied to obtain an exact solution to the Lane-Emden type of equation.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

Analysis of an Eco-Epidemiological Model with Disease in the Prey and Predator

Research Article
Author(s): Lihong Wang, Fanghong Zhang , Cuncheng Jin
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
We analyze and formulate an Eco-Epidemiological model with disease in the prey and predator, study the existence of the non-negative equilibria, obtain the sufficient conditions of locally asymptotical stability of the equilibria, then analyze the global stability of the positive equilibria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of Eco-Epidemiological model. We get the conditions of local asymptotic and the existence of the boundary balance, and we proved the positive balance point is global asymptotical stability by constructing Liapunov function.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

Assessment of the Quality of Antenatal Care Rendered at a Northern Nigeria Primary Health Care Center, Zaria, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Madugu NH, Abdul M A, Sabitu k, Mandara M, Bawa U
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Background: Primary health care facilities are the closest to the community and are easily accessible to pregnant women and their children. Ensuring quality Antenatal care by skilled attendants at this level is pre-requisite to reducing pregnancy complications and over all maternal mortality Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the adequacy of antenatal care rendered at this level of care. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Babban-dodo primary health center, Zaria.  An exit Questionnaires was administered to 400 pregnant women. Information on their demographic status and information about the Antenatal care just received was obtained focusing standard protocol for antenatal care. Result: showed that the women were not rendered all the full component of ANC. History of feeling unwell was not asked in 88%, examination including blood pressure check was done in only 37%, Obstetrics examination was done in more 80% of the women however symphsio-fundal height was not measured with tape. The women were sent to do most of the routine investigations, as they pay for these investigations and the revenue collected is used to partially run the hospital. There was only one nurse midwife at the center; community health workers were the sole providers and no medical doctor visit the hospital. Ninety six percent of the respondents were satisfied with the services while 3.6% were dissatisfied. Conclusion: There is total disregard for standard of care for antenatal services expected at this level. There is the need for re-assessment of all primary health care centers that are the first point of contact with our pregnant women, if reducing maternal mortality rate is great concern to all of us.
Contribution/ Originality
This study further demonstrated that the quality of antenatal care in primary care facilities in Nigeria particularly in the Northern part of the country is poor and indirectly explains why maternal mortality and morbidity is very high.

Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3

Hypersensitivity to Natural Rubber Latex Gloves among Albanian Dental Students: The Role of Exposure Duration

Research Article
Author(s): Alketa Bakiri, Dhimiter Kraja, Skender Skenderaj, Doris Mingomataj, Elizana Petrela, Cerciz j Mingomata, Ariol Rama, Ervin C. Mingomataj
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Latex allergy is a common occupational disease among healthcare workers who use latex gloves. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of allergy to latex gloves among dental students and the role of exposure duration in latex allergy. In this prospective study, a total of 240 students completed a self-administered questionnaire aiming at providing information about glove, working habits, signs and symptoms related to glove use, precautions taken to minimize it, etc. The challenge and patch tests were performed through latex gloves, and skin prick test with commercial extracts. The questionnaire items and diagnostic tests revealed that one-fourth of subjects were suspicious for latex gloves hypersensitivity. Their mean value for skin reactions like contact urticaria, irritant or allergic dermatitis was between 10% and 14%, while for non-cutaneous symptoms the mean value was under 5%. The average latex exposure (in hours) is estimated to be about 214±71 (SE), with a maximum of 11500 hours. The correlation between studied variables and the time exposure to latex gloves revealed weak to moderate relations with respect to reported latex allergy, eczematous reactions, hand erythema after glove wearing, irritant reactions during wash/washout procedures, concentration oscillations during usage of latex gloves, or dyspnea attack during latex exposure. Due to the relationship between allergic reactions to latex gloves and some medical histories during school practice, it seems to be necessary to undergo pre-matriculation evaluation and periodic health surveillance of dental students.
Contribution/ Originality
AB designed the questionnaire, assisted students to complete them, conducted diagnostic tests and collected the data; DK and SS coordinated and helped with the study design and conduction; DM assisted on students’ enrollment in the study and helped with the study  design from the stomatological perspective; EP assisted on statistical analysis of the data; ÇM coordinated the students’ enrollment in the study; AR assisted on manuscript copyediting, EÇM drafted the manuscript.

Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3