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Listing 97 - 20 of 1962 results.

Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity

Research Article
Author(s): John Nkeobuna Nnah Ugoani
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study investigated the relationship between activity cost management and its effect on enterprise productivity using the exploratory research design. It focused on critical factors that lead to cost-effectiveness. A sample of 113 respondents participated in the study, and data collected from secondary and primary sources were analyzed through descriptive and regression statistical techniques. The result showed that activity cost management has significant positive effect on enterprise productivity. The new result is important because an enterprise is effective when it attains its goals, but productive only when such goals are achieved efficiently. Through the exploration and result, the study clearly highlighted that factors such as activity-based cost management, cost-benefit-analysis, internal control, ratio analysis, zero-base budgeting, internal accountability, and transparency, as well as cost leadership form the basis for enterprise productivity. An effective board of directors is imperative in any enterprise to provide necessary cost leadership for cost-effectiveness and enterprise productivity. The study was limited by insufficient current academic literature, therefore, further study could examine the relationship between activity cost management and enterprise failure. Based on the result, it was recommended that activity cost management practices must be intensified in public enterprises as a measure to reduce the heap of fraud prevalent in such enterprises.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few recent studies that have investigated the relationship between activity cost management and enterprise productivity using descriptive and regression statistical techniques to achieve the desired result. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that there is significant association between activity cost management and enterprise productivity.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 05-2019 Issue: 4

Effects of Hydroclimatic Variability on the Spatial Dynamics of Ponds (Simenti, Kountadala and Oudassi) of the Gambia River Basin in the Niokolo Koba National Park (Senegal)

Research Article
Author(s): Cheikh Faye, Boubacar Solly, Bouly Sane, AIssatou Cisse
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
With climate change, West African watercourses have undergone profound changes with large runoff deficits, faster dryings and very severe low flows. These modifications have led to a sharp decrease in water resources and a drying up of some water bodies. This article evaluated the effects of hydroclimatic variability on the spatial dynamics of a few ponds (Simenti, Kountadala and Oudassi) in the Gambia Basin in the Niokolo Koba National Park, NKNP, (Senegal). Data from five sets of images are used for pond trend mapping (Landsat, Google Earth and Sentinel). The hydroclimatic data used in this study include precipitation, temperature, evaporation, and discharge data from the Gambia Basin subjected to trend (Mann-Kendall) and rupture (Pettitt) tests. The results show that the trend is positive and significant for temperatures and evaporation and negative and significant for precipitation at a 95% confidence level. The surface area of the ponds, from 40.3 ha in 1975, increased sharply to 79.3 ha in 1988, then rose slightly in 1999 with 80.2 ha and in 2010 with 83.4 ha before to shrink sharply from 67.8 ha in 2019 due to rainfall deficit and the expansion of aquatic vegetation. Recommendations were made on how to improve the problem. Faced with the scarcity and drying up of water in these ponds of Niokolo Koba Park, water transfer operations such as those noted with the Simenti pond to save animals, remain fundamental according to some conservatives.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the exist literature by evaluating the effects of hydroclimatic variability on the spatial dynamics of a few ponds (Simenti, Kountadala and Oudassi) in the Gambia Basin in the Niokolo Koba National Park, NKNP, (Senegal).
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan

Research Article
Author(s): E. M. Eldey, A. M. El Naim, T. I. Ali
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
An experiment was conducted for two winter seasons during 2016/017 - 2017/018 at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kassala (New Halfa), Sudan to investigate the effect of seed rate and Variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on grain productivity under New Halfa environment. The treatments consisted of three seed rates (119kg/ ha, 143kg/ ha and 167kg/ ha) and two cultivars (Condor (early mature) and Bohin (medium mature). A complete randomized block design (CRBD) with four replications was used. The results revealed that the lesser seed rate (119 kg/ ha) had a lower grain yield compared with the mid seed rates (143kg ha-1) or highest seed rate (167kgha-1). Cultivars had significant differences in the total seed yield. Condor gave the highest seed yield. It could be concluded that the seed rate of 143 kg or 167 kg/ha recommended to improved seed yield in New Halfa area of Sudan.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effect of seed rate and Variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on seed yield under New Halfa environment, Sudan.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Opeoluwa Adeniyi Adeosun, Fisayo Fagbemi
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
The paper examines the asymmetric relationship between commodity prices and fiscal performance in Nigeria between 1984 and 2017 using the non-linear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) cointegration technique. In the analysis, the existence of a long-run cointegration relationship between the oil prices, cocoa prices and fiscal outcome is confirmed as well as the asymmetric impact of commodity prices. The study shows that changes in oil prices have a substantial influence on both debt (% of GDP) and external debt stocks. It is demonstrated that since Nigeria’s fiscal operation is largely financed by the proceeds from commodity exports, especially crude oil, in the long run, unanticipated rise or decline in oil prices could have significant effect on public debt levels in the country. Further evidence reveals that an increase in cocoa prices positively and strongly enhances debt (% of GDP), but with no evidence of such effect on external debt stocks, indicating that an increase in cocoa price may not result to a large reduction in external debt stocks. In sum, the study asserts that there is a host of potential significant impacts associated with primary commodity prices (cocoa) on fiscal policy design and economic development in both long and short run. Hence, the study posits that to cushion the effect of commodity price fluctuations, it is crucial to launch several initiatives that would enhance the diversification of the economy. This can be better achieved through the provision of financial incentives and strong regulatory framework for the development of agricultural sector.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by examining empirically possible asymmetry in the nexus between commodity prices and fiscal outcomes in the context of Nigeria.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

The Efficacy of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Insecticide Treated Nets against Anopheles Mosquitoes

Research Article
Author(s): Aye Mya Thandar, Phyo Wai Win, Soe Soe Htwe, Maung Maung Mya
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
Field bio-efficacy of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 times washed PermaNet 2.0, Icon LLIN, Deltamethrin and Icon treated cotton and Nylon nets (ITN) against wild caught Anopheles mosquitoes were tested with WHO cone test Kit method in Myaebinthar village Myothit Township, Magwe Region. Mosquitoes were exposed in cones for 5min and 15min fixed exposure period under room temperature in raining and cold season. Knockdown effect was measured after 60 min of exposure. In raining and cold season, a total of 221 and 196 mosquitoes, consist of 8 and 6 species of Anopheles adults were collected. Maximum number of An. culicifacies was caught followed by An vagus in cattle bate k net, human bait and lowest was collected in morning resting collection. In both season maximum number of main vector An. minimus was caught on human and cattle bait collection between 21:00 and 24:00hours. The bio efficacy of 0 and 5 washed all PermaNet 2.0, Icon and deltamethrin LLINs and ITNs found 100% knockdown ability with all caught mosquitoes. An.minimus and An.culicifacies found to be 80-100% knockdown effect against 10washes with PermaNet 2.0 and Icon LLINs in both season. Knockdown efficacy was significantly declined between 5 and 20washes,100-60% knockdown on LLINs and 90-20% for Deltamethrin and Icon treated nets in both season. PermaNet 2.0, Icon LLINs were found higher wash resistance ability till 15 washes than deltamethrin and Icon treated cotton net but nylon net was found lowest wash resistance needs repeated treatment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature to develop a testing method for investigation the bioefficacy of ITN nets and LLINs nets.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Rashed Hasan Polas, Mohammad Imtiaz Hossain, Abdul Saboor Asheq, Nihad Hossain, Md. Akib Javed, Li. Nianyu
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study examines the relationships between product quality, service quality, pricing strategy and store attributes with customer satisfaction through perceived value using a sample of 211 from 3 hypermarkets in Malaysia. Our results reveal that there are relationships between product quality, service quality and store attributes with perceived value. Furthermore, a positive and significant relationship is also found. However, this study didn’t find any conventional relationship between pricing strategy and perceived value. This study adds to the growing literature of sustainable development of hypermarket. Recently, International marketplace is targeted by so many hooked up outlets, because they're searching out new capacity marketplace growth. This study focuses on determining the factors that influence on customer satisfaction in the hypermarkets. It is to identify the reasons that impact on customer satisfaction towards hypermarket in Malaysia. In addition, this investigation considers the most noteworthy explanations that improve customer satisfaction towards hyper markets in Malaysia.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the relationship between product quality, service quality, pricing strategy and store attributes on perceived value towards customer satisfaction for the sustainable development of hypermarket through empirical analysis and analyses whether customers become satisfied through the perceived value.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 5

Effects of Constructivist Instructional Method on Low Achievers Academic Performance and Retention in Automechanics in Technical Colleges

Research Article
Author(s): P.I. Okoye
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
The study determined the effects of constructivist instructional method on low achievers’ academic performance and retention in automechanics in technical colleges. Two research questions guided the study and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study was a non-randomized quasi experimental research design. The population was 121 National Technical College II (NTC II) students offering automechanics trade. Two intact classes with a sample size of 88 were purposively selected from technical colleges in the State. Automechanics Performance Test (APT) was used to collect data. Findings revealed that low achievers taught automechanics using constructivist instructional method performed better with higher post-test and retention scores than those taught with conventional method. It was concluded that constructivist instructional method could enhance students’ academic performance and retention in automechanics. Hence, teachers should be made to use the method in teaching to enable students with learning difficulties learn and retain concepts so as to improve their academic performance.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper primary contribution is finding that constructivist instructional method could enhance students’ academic performance and retention in automechanics.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

A Retrospective Assessment of Syphilis Seroprevalence among Pregnant Women, Cape Coast, Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Ato Kwamena Tetteh, Sadick Arthur, Prince Bram, Charles Baffe, Godsway Aglagoh, Gifty Rhodalyn Tetteh, Edward Agyarko
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
This is a hospital-based cohort study, which aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women who sought antenatal care at the Cape Coast Metropolitan Hospital (CCMH). We retrospectively analyzed secondary data of 2,640 term pregnant women, who gave birth from January, 2016 to December, 2018. Data was compiled from the CCMH delivery register. Out of the 2,640 pregnant women who delivered from 2016 through 2018, 107 [4.1%, 95% CI: 3.3 – 4.8] tested reactive (2016, 1.5%, 40/2640; 2017, 1.0%, 26/2640; 2018, 1.6%, 41/2640). Seroprevalence among the primagravida (those with first pregnancy) was 0.8%, while that among the multigravida (? 2 pregnancies) was 3.3% (?2 = 37.562, p = 0.021). Pregnant women within the age group of 22-31 years were the most reactive, 2.3% (60/2640), followed by 32-41 years, 1.1% (30/2640). A prevalence of 1.9% (50/2640) was recorded among Junior High School holders, while 0.2% (5/2640) was found among those who have attained tertiary level education. A Relatively high prevalence of 3.0% (78/2640) was recorded among informal workers compared to the unemployed, 0.9% (23/2640). An appreciable proportion of 18.9% (499/2640) had no syphilis testing record indicated in the register. Early detection of syphilis and treatment of infected partners, rapid testing for ANC non-attendants at the maternity/obstetrics and gynecology departments is highly recommended either before or after delivery, as laboratory services may not be available in the nights when most deliveries occur.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing information, a three year socio-demographic trend of syphilis infection among pregnant women along coastal communities. It also reports for the first time, syphilis prevalence among women with different gravidity in Cape Coast, Ghana.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State

Research Article
Author(s): Juwon Johnson Orugun, Hakeem Tomi Saliu, Stephen Makoji
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This study focused on the effect of socio-cultural diversity on the performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State. The study thus examined the effect of age difference, gender, ethnicity, religion, physical abilities and cultural beliefs on the patients’ satisfaction, financial performance and technological innovativeness of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State. The study used a descriptive research design. The population (1460) of the study comprised of the staff of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State. The sample size of 304 was determined using Sallant and Dillman’s sample size method. A two-method sampling technique was used. The data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Multiple Regression analysis. Finding shows that age difference, physical ability and religious differences have significantly positive effect on patients’ satisfaction; as against ethnic difference which has inverse effect. Ethnicity, cultural and gender differences have positive effects on the financial performance; as against age and religious differences which have significantly negative relationship. The study concludes that diversity in terms of age, physical ability and religion are taken seriously and managed very well in the Health Care Organizations of Kogi State. This study therefore recommends that the management, government and other stakeholders should invest in diversity management training and development programmes to widen the opportunity to create patients’ satisfaction and achieve other goals in the Health Care Organizations in Kogi State.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature. It is one of the few studies on the subject matter, and it made used of new estimated methodology. The primary contribution of the study is that diversity variables affect performance in Health Care organizations. The study was able to build arguments around these diversity variables and proven using scientific approaches.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Onyeizugbe Chinedu Uzochukwu, Okoroji Nnadozie Uchenna
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
Currently, the rate at which information is flowing from employer to employee makes it almost difficult for employees to ensure that all records have been read before attempting to destroy them. This study therefore examines organizational memory and employee performance in federal parastatals in Enugu state of Nigeria. The specific objective is to determine the extent of relationship that exists between shared knowledge and employee commitment of the parastatals in Enugu state of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and descriptive survey design was used. The study was anchored on Social Learning Theory by Bandura (1976). The population of the study is 120 staff and 92 were sampled. The data used was a primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, 23). The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between shared knowledge and employee commitment. The study recommends among others that parastatals should ensure that their employees are competent so as to measure to the innovative changes in the organization.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the level of relationship that exists between organisational memory and employee performance with specific focus on shared knowledge and employee commitment of Federal parastatals in Nigerian environment.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Eco-Friendly Use of Fly Ash for the Management of Root-Knot Nematode and Acid Rain in Pumpkin Crop

Research Article
Author(s): Gufran Ahmad, Abrar A. Khan
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Fly ash (FA) production has stridently been due to unjudicious demand of electricity for fulfilling the human needs. Generation and disposal of FA has been a serious concern in the current scenario. However, FA can be used for soil amelioration that may improve physical, chemical and biological properties of the degraded soils. Simulated acid rain was prepared by adding the HNO3 and H2So4 in the ratio 3:1 and maintained the different pH levels (5.0, 4.0 and 3.0). In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted in net house during 2017-18 to evaluate the efficacy of fly ash for the alleviation of simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) with or without root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita inoculations. The result indicated that the different growth, yield, biochemical variables of Cucurbita moschata were significantly (P?0.05) enhance at 30% FA amended soil with lower level of SAR (pH5.0) and reduced the nematode population . After 30% of FA (40% and 50%) and all the levels of SAR (pH5.0, pH4.0 and pH3.0) were harmful to the plant growth, yield and, biochemical parameters and also reduce the nematode population as compared to control. From the result it appeared that the best level of fly ash was 30% with pH 5.0 of simulated acid rain, where lowest level of acidity (pH5.0) showed no harmful effect. However, in case of root-knot nematode the suppression was showed at all the levels of fly ash and simulated acid rain like in terms of root gall, soil population and eggmass.
Contribution/ Originality
The study indicated that the lower levels of fly ash (5%, 10%, 20%, 30%) soil amendment were found beneficial for pumpkin crop even after treated with different acidity levels of simulated acid rain (5.0, 4.0 and 3.0 pH). Moreover, all the levels of fly ash and simulated acid rain were significantly reduced the root-knot nematode, M. incognita population.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Exploratory Research to Create a Dynamic Framework for Strategic Style

Research Article
Author(s): Chen Sheng
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Enterprises can employ various strategic styles. These include specialization, vertical integration, diversification, and internationalization. At present, there is no general dynamic framework for strategic style which could be used by entrepreneurs during a period of diversification. Different strategic styles obtained from a review of the literature enable the researcher to formulate the optimum combination of styles necessary to building a complete dynamic framework for entrepreneurs. Based on the two directions of localization and internationalization, this study established a strategic rationalized and scientific framework. In addition, to improve the reliability and stability of the enterprise, the framework has been formulated to manage and ameliorate risk during the different stages. Based on an empirical investigation, the study evaluates the results achieved by enterprises that adopted the most appropriate strategic style. Thus, the researcher intends to provide correct strategic framework through which enterprises may diversify successfully. A qualitative method is used throughout.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of few that investigate the dynamic framework for different strategic styles. By exploring the structure of various strategic frameworks, it becomes possible for entrepreneurs to select that which is most appropriate to their circumstances when entering upon a diversification phase.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Effectiveness of Gamification of Web-Based Learning in Improving Academic Achievement and Creative Thinking among Primary School Students

Research Article
Author(s): Seham Aljraiwi
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Gamification is one of the most significant modern trends in educational technology. The present study aims to identify the effectiveness of gamification of web-based learning on academic achievement and creative thinking among primary school students. A learning environment was designed based on gamification of web-based learning. A quasi-experimental approach was utilized to identify the effect of the independent variable, gamification, on the dependent variables, academic achievement and creative thinking among participants. An academic achievement test and the Torrance test of creative thinking were applied to the participants. Results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the means of scores of the experimental and control groups in the post-test academic achievement test and the Torrance test of creative thinking in favor of the experimental group. This suggests a high level of academic achievement and creative thinking after using gamification. The study recommends training in-service teachers in the use of gamification for web-based teaching of English.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature that deals with gamification and the possibility of employing it to improve student academic achievement. It also tackles its effectiveness in improving student creative thinking, a subject that very few studies have covered.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Conceptual Understanding, Procedural Knowledge and Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics: High School Graduates Work Analysis and Standpoints

Research Article
Author(s): Masooma Ali Al-Mutawah, Ruby Thomas, Abdulla Eid, Enaz Yousef Mahmoud, Moosa Jaafar Fateel
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study measures the mathematical abilities high school graduates’ in Bahrain. Mathematical abilities encompass conceptual understanding, procedural knowledge and problem-solving skills in the five content domains which are Number and Operations, Algebra, Geometry, Measurement, and Data Analysis and Probability. While procedural understanding focusses on performing facts and algorithms, conceptual understanding reflects a student's ability to reason and comprehend mathematical concepts, operations and relations which will be helpful in solving non-routine problems. A test consisting of questions from the five content domains was administered to students where they demonstrated conceptual understanding and procedural knowledge which enabled them to solve problems in various real-life situations. Structured interviews were also conducted to test their mathematical abilities and suggest ways to improve proficiency in mathematics and eliminate misconceptions. The results show that conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills are positively correlated. This research also endeavors to correlate students’ performance in this test with their high school GPA.
Contribution/ Originality
This study explores the relationship between mathematical abilities: conceptual understanding, procedural knowledge and problem-solving skills in high school graduates in the five mathematics content domains: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, and data analysis and probability.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Forecasting the Results of Students Attending School in Vietnam by Geographical Area

Research Article
Author(s): Son Huynh Van, Hong Nguyen Thi Minh, Khuong Nguyen Vinh, Loc Sam Vinh, Vu Giang Thien
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study attempts to forecast the results of school students in Vietnam by geographical region analysis. Results show variations between regions. In the Red River Delta region, it is forecast that in the decade 2015 to 2025, the number of children attending to school will increase slightly. In the Midlands and Northern Mountains region, the average number of children attending school should increase gradually by 2.4 percent over five years. In the North Central and Central Coast regions, student numbers have increased and decreased erratically. In the Central Highlands, there has been an average rate increase of 3.45 percent over five years. In the Southeast region, student numbers at all levels are expected to increase by an average of 3.9 per cent over five years. In the Mekong Delta region, student numbers are expected to increase by one percent over five years but experience a 1.8 percent reduction by 2035. These data will be critical to planning for the education sector in the coming decades.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by use of a new estimation methodology for analyzing and comparing student numbers at each education level within an appropriate time-frame.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Investigating Effectiveness of Disability Friendly Education Training Modules in Indonesian Schools

Research Article
Author(s): Abdul Salim, M. Furqon Hidayatullah, Permata Primadhita Nugraheni, Dian Atnantomi W
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effect of disability friendly education training on teachers’ understanding by applying disability-friendly education training modules. The research design adopted the pre-posttest method given to the same group before and after training on imparting disability friendly education. Classroom teachers in inclusive schools under the Ministry of Religion in Surakarta were the subjects of this research. The validity of the instrument was tested by using content validity on the feasibility or relevance of the contents of the test instrument through rational analysis by expert judgment. The results showed that the paired sample T-Test score was -17.736 with significant level at 0.000, which means <0.05. It suggests that there is a significant difference in the score of the average teacher's understanding of disability-friendly education before and after training, and the difference is statistically significant too. It can therefore be concluded that disability friendly educational training is effective to improve teachers' understanding in public schools.
Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this research is to find out whether training modules can prove effective in developing understanding among teachers of public school about persons with disabilities. This study is unique in proving that training intervention can make schools become disability-friendly schools for persons with disabilities.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State

Research Article
Author(s): Adamu, B.B, Ayisa T.T, Ideh, R.R, Oyedokun, N
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
This study elucidates the susceptibility of leaf and seed extract of Carica papaya on mosquito population breeding in rice fields. The study was conducted in Bida, Niger State using two rice fields sampled for two weeks. Mosquito immature stages (Larvae) were used throughout for the experiment. The leaf and seed extract of Carica papaya were prepared on instars and evaluated Larva stages were evaluated in the laboratory. Mosquito instars larvae stages (L3-L4) were exposed to a concentration of 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml, and 50mg/ml of each prepared Larvicide, (Leave and seed extract of Carica papaya) within 24hours, the percentage mean survival of the Larvae were recorded. At a concentration of 10mg/ml, 100% of the Larvae died within 3 to 12hours of exposure to seed and leave extract of Carica papaya. The mosquito growth and development were inhibited. However, both the leave and seed of Carica papaya can be used to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats of which the seed of Carica papaya is the most effective, especially in rice fields.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to existing literature by the ways to control mosquito larvae infested farmlands using Carica papaya seeds extract. It employs sequential estimation formula which determines the concentration of extracts which mosquito larvae are susceptible.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Patterns, Correlates and Knowledge of Health Implications Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Mix-Method Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Abiodun, Oluwaseun Oyebode, Taofik, Olatunji Bankole
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Heavy consumers of alcohol are more likely to indulge in social vices due to cognitive impairment and students who engage in high alcohol intake are more likely to perform poorly in their academics. This study describes the patterns of alcohol consumption and investigated the correlates of and knowledge of health implications related with alcohol consumption in the studied locations. This study was a cross sectional research design and employed the mix-research methods. The quantitative data was generated through a survey with 400 respondents selected through a proportionate sampling design from Kwara State College of Education, University of Ilorin, and Federal Polytechnic, Offa. The qualitative evidence was captured through 10 in-depth interviews using a snowball sampling technique to recruit students who are heavy consumers of alcohol. The quantitative data was analysed using Stata version 14. The chi-square and multiple regression analysis results showed that amount of alcohol consumed and perception of were significantly associated with students’ knowledge of health implications associated with alcohol consumption (p<0.05). Results of the multiple regression showed that students’ knowledge on health implications associated with alcohol consumption contributed about 10% to amount of alcohol consumed and their perception of alcohol consumption. Results of the qualitative study revealed that students were of the view that moderate consumption of alcohol was needful with no negative health implications arising from it. The study concluded that students’ perception of the health implications related with consumption of alcohol influenced amount of alcohol and measures taken to reduce quantity of alcohol consumed.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have explored mix-method research technique to validate the correlates of alcohol consumption; and it study provides guidance to proffering solution to the perception and knowledge of students on health risks associated with alcohol consumption amongst college students.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Investigating Employment and Career Decision of Health Sciences Teachers in the Rural School Districts and Communities: A Social Cognitive Career Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Dos Santos Luis Miguel
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Teachers’ shortage in the field of K-12 teaching in general and health subjects teaching in particular is one of the most significant challenges in both developed and developing countries, particularly in rural school districts and communities. Leaders at rural school districts strive to establish connections and plans to recruit experienced health educators from different sources and satisfy the on-going manpower demands in rural areas. This study examined two premises: First, why health professionals and staff from urban regions decide to change their career to health science teaching in rural communities and school districts. Second, how to recruit and retain health professionals and staff to rural communities and school districts. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis model was employed to explore the beliefs of 11 health professionals in the rural school district. Stable employment, money sources, and understanding of teaching mission of health science education were three major areas of study. The findings of this study would serve as a blueprint for rural communities and school districts to attract potential health professionals and staff into the current education system.
Contribution/ Originality
This study investigated the reasons why frontline health professionals decide to switch their career to health sciences teaching in rural communities based on Social Cognitive Career Theory. It contributes to the existing literature on teachers’ education programmes, rural school workforce, and second-career teachers in the field of health education.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Crude Extracts of Two Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Some Bacterial and Fungal Test Pathogens

Research Article
Author(s): Selam Habtom, Sibhatu Gebrehiwot
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activities of crude extracts of Solanum incanum and Datura stramonium L. against four bacterial disease-causing species namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli) and two fungal pathogenic species (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger). Crude extracts of roots of S. incanum and leaves of D. stramonium L. were prepared using absolute ethanol, methanol (99.8%) and distilled water. The potential efficacy resulting extracts were assessed by determining zone of inhibitions on cultures of six selected pathogens by applying disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts against the same pathogens was determined using the broth dilution method. Chloroamphenicol and Tilt were used as positive controls for bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively, while Dimethyl Sulfoxide was used as a negative control for both. The results showed that all the methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts, with the exception of the methanolic crude extract of D. stramonium, had the highest growth inhibitory effects as compared with the water crude extracts on all bacterial pathogens. The methanol crude extract of S. incanum had highest zone of inhibition (22±1.15 mm) against S. agalactiae with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 25mg/ml. Similarly, the methanol crude extract of S. incanum had shown significant antifungal activity against A. niger with inhibition zone of 25.13±0.4mm and a minimum inhibitory concentration of 125mg/ml. The results of the present study indicate the potential of these medicinal plants in treating some bacterial and fungal infection.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing information regarding the antimicrobial (selected bacterial and fungal pathogens) efficacy potential of Solanum incanum and Datura stramonium crude extract.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2