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Listing 95 - 20 of 1962 results.

Financial Literacy of Telebachillerato Students: A Study of Perception, Usefulness and Application of Financial Tools

Research Article
Author(s): Elena Moreno-Garcia, Arturo Garcia-Santillan, Aracely De los Santos Gutierrez
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The aim of this empirical study is to explain how students of a Telebachillerato in Veracruz, Mexico perceive financial variables like income, money management, savings, investment, spending and credit. Telebachilleratos are high schools for rural communities in Mexico assisted by educational audiovisual support and two or three teachers to explain material to students. Hence, the hypothesis raises the existence of a factorial structure that underlies and that allows to explain the perception and knowledge of students towards these financial topics. For this empirical study, the Financial Education Test by Contreras-Rodríguez et al. (2017) was used, which presented an internal consistency of ? = 0.859, and was applied upon 368 students enrolled in different semesters of a school year. The data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis with the criterion of extraction of main components. The findings show a favorable perception towards the variables that were analyzed. There is significant evidence in the “income” variable, for instance, about the clear conviction of students that study and training constitute a bridge that will help them earn a good income when they enter into a job. In addition, it was also perceived that extracurricular courses were another potential source to improve their income.
Contribution/ Originality
This research is one of the few that have explored the Telebachillerato students, who belong to a vulnerable socioeconomic sector of Mexico. This study analyzes the perception of this population segment towards financial tools to ascertain allows to appreciate that educate in financial topics to these young people can not only improve their economic condition but motivate them to keep studying.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Responsible and Sustainable Tourism: A Comparison of Community Perceptions

Research Article
Author(s): Paul V Mathew, Sara Sareena Thankachan
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Responsible tourism (RT) has emerged as a significant means of implementing a pro-community, pro-poor, and sustainable program. As the term is relatively new, it is attracting considerable attention worldwide. However, it is often confused with sustainable tourism (ST) due to sharing similar underlying principles. This article thus endeavors to analyze the theoretical basis of both concepts by examining community perceptions in tourist destinations. A structured survey questionnaire was first administered among 387 residents from four tourist destinations in the Indian state of Kerala. Following the data analysis, it was observed that responsible tourism is significantly linked to sustainable tourism. Furthermore, the former fulfills the objectives of the latter in such a way that rather being different from sustainable tourism, it is a limited version of it. Whereas sustainable tourism is more a theoretical concept, responsible tourism is an action component with more practical implications. Consequently, the findings provide insights for academicians and policymakers into defining and implementing both concepts at various levels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study offers two contributions to existing discussions on responsible and sustainable tourism: (1) it is unique in its attempt to validate both concepts through community perceptions; (2) it is one of only a few studies to investigate the relationship between the two concepts, which share similar attributes.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Self-Esteem, Optimism and Burden of Care among Relatives of Cardiovascular Disease Patients in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Southwest, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Stephen Ishola Babatunde, Taofik Olatunji Bankole, Rasheed Adebayo Yinusa
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
Providing informal care, particularly for a person needing assistance for daily activities as a result of chronic illness such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a demanding task which requires time, dedication and preservation. In spite of burdens that caregivers of CDV patients are faced with, there are dearth of studies that have explored the level of the burden of care among relatives of CVD in Nigeria. This study addresses this gap by raising the question: to what extent does care for CVD patients affect caregiver’s psychological, behavioral and physiological daily lives. The study was a cross-sectional survey and it adopted the purposive sampling technique. Primary data were sourced from 200 caregivers/relatives from three tertiary hospital: Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Federal Medical Centre Owo and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Complex Ile-Ife. The outcome variable is caregiver’s burden, and the key explanatory variables are self-esteem and optimism. The Zarit (ZBIS), Rosenburg Self Esteem and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) standardised psychological scales were employed to measure caregiver’s burden, self-esteem and optimism. Pearson r was applied using Stata version 13. Results showed that a significant proportion of the caregivers experienced moderate to severe levels of burden. Also, results showed that caregivers’ burden was not significantly associated with Self-esteem (r200 = 0.04, p >.025) and optimism (r200 = 0.07, p >.025). It was imperative to provide professional help and supportive counselling to caregivers of CVD patients, in order to reduce their burden, strengthen the coping skill and thus improve their quality of life.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is that it documents empirical findings that are useful for research, clinical practice and counselling; as such document provides insights on the experience of these informal caregivers are strategies for valuable intervention programmes to reduce the burden among relatives of cardiovascular disease patients.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Pricing Strategy of Supply Chains with Uncertain Remanufacturing Rate and WTP Discrepancy

Research Article
Author(s): Tong Shu, Qi Liu, Shou Chen, Shouyang Wang, Kin Keung Lai
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
A well-known conclusion in extant literature on remanufacturing is that the overall supply chain profits tend to be higher when the used products are recycled by the retailer. This article builds a model of a closed-loop supply chain consisting of a single retailer and a single manufacturer and analyzes the impact of recovery rate and remanufacturing rate on pricing strategy of closed-loop supply chains when consumer willingness to pay for new and remanufactured products differs. In the model, the retailer recycles all used products and the manufacturer exploits the used products recycled by the retailer to make remanufactured products. This article investigates the performance of supply chains with centralized and decentralized decisions, and the Stackelberg’s game model is deployed to find whether recovery rate and remanufacturing rate can significantly affect the product prices and output of supply chains when the consumer willingness to pay varies. Meanwhile, the rise in recovery rate and remanufacturing rate leads to increased overall profits in closed-loop supply chains. This further indicates that the optimal profits of closed-loop supply chains in centralized decisions are higher than those in decentralized decisions.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the uncertainty of recovery rate and remanufacturing rate in the closed-loop supply chain of remanufacturing. It also considers that the uncertainty of preferences cannot be ignored in the pricing decision of remanufacturing production.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Post Disaster Recovery Process of Landslides in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Aranayake Landslide - Sri Lanka

Research Article
Author(s): E.N.C. Perera, D.T. Jayawardana, Manjula Ranagalage
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
The basic principle for the recovery of residential area from a landslide disaster is restoring the damaged area to its condition before the disaster. This study focuses on evaluates the recovery process and reinstallation of pre-disaster economic functions after the landslide occurred in the year 2016 at Aranayake, Sri Lanka. Estimated values of the collapsed infrastructure is 7,806 USD, and the affected region generates 200 000 USD for the annual country GDP. In contrast, 887 families directly or indirectly affected by the landslide. The primary data were obtained from comprehensive questioner survey of affected household (n=120), semi-structured focused group discussions, and key informant discussions. Recovery was assumed as a function of emergency recovery (ER), infrastructure resettlement (IR) and long-term recovery (LtR). Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to model the association between dependent variable Recovery and independent variables ER, IR and LtR. The findings revealed that, there is no systematic procedure used to monitor the progress of recovery programme. LtR has a profoundly positive effect on recovery with compared to IR and ER. Results suggest that ER and IR are individually insignificant but they effect on recovery jointly. Multiple regression model can be expressed as Recovery = 0.205+ 0.640ER + 0.124IR + 0.249LtR. The finding of this study is recommended to establish an institutional framework to monitor, evaluate and rectify the disaster recovery process with standardized indicators, procedures, and guidelines. Further, it is recommended to adopt a community based long-term recovery approach for sustainable landslide disaster recovery.
Contribution/ Originality
In many projects landslide disaster recovery limited to damaged infrastructure development in contrast, this study recommended the significant of long term recovery plan in any recovery project. Further this study proposed a recovery model which allowed monitoring recovery in a manner that is rapid, independent and reliable.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Microbiological and Physicochemical Changes in Palm Wine Subjected to Spontaneous Fermentation During Storage

Research Article
Author(s): Folake Titilayo Afolabi, Akeem Temitope Owoola
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This work aimed to isolate and identify yeasts obtained from palm wine subjected to spontaneous fermentation during storage. A total of forty (40) yeast isolates were from spontaneously fermented palm wine. The yeast counts obtained ranged from 5.46 x 104 cfu/ml at day one to 3.00 x 102 cfu/ml at day twenty-two. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated at all stages of fermentation. The pH dropped from 3.70 at 24 hours to 3.37 at 360 hours. Total titratable acidity of the wine increased from 2.28% at 24 hours to 4.50% at 528 hours. Total sugar of the stored palm wine from decreased from 4.0211g/10 ml at 24 hours to 0.6417g/10 ml at 528 hours was observed. The reducing sugar content of the stored palm wine decreased from 13% at 24 hours to 0.960% at 456 hours was also observed. Ethanol content of the stored palm wine increased steadily from 21.06 mg/ml at 24 hours to 88.99mg/ml at 456 hours as the storage time increases. Palm wine whose storage time is not beyond 120 hours is not injurious to the health of consumers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the isolation of yeasts that are accountable for the spontaneous fermentation of palm wine during storage and also to determine its physicochemical characteristics.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

Research Article
Author(s): Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini, Simon Dickmu, Alfons Renz, Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie, Jacques Francois Mavoungou, Rebecca Garabed
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The study aimed at detecting the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA in Stomoxys niger niger and cattle. Flies were collected using a Vavoua trap pitched 50m from the center of the herd and by net-catches on clinically sick (n=5) and symptomless cattle (n=5). Vesicular Epithelia Tissues (VETs) from sick cattle were analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt RT PCR) and serum from randomly selected animals without clinical signs was examined by serological test (NSP-ELISA Kit) for the presence of FMDV antibodies. Of a total of 568 Stomoxys trapped using the Vavoua trap, two species were identified namely 196 S. niger niger (34.51 %, 9. 33 Snn/t/d), 101 S. omega (17.78%, 4.80 so/t/d) and 271 non-biting Musca sp. (47.71%, 12.90 m/vavoua and day). The dissected mouth and legs of each fly caught were screened for FMDV using the rt RT PCR. FMDV RNA was found in the epithelial vesicles of all clinically sick animals (n=5, with mean Ct of 27.98456) and 3 out of 5 were serologically positive in the clinically in-apparent cattle group. The overall S. n. niger (most abundant species) contamination rate with the FMDV irrespective of collection method was 40.3 % with females (49.0 %) being slightly more contaminated than males (21.7%) (OR =0.45, P= 0.1506) and legs being more often positive than mouth-parts (P=0.02002). Flies were contaminated less frequently on animals without clinical signs than those on animals with clinical signs, but this difference was not significant (P=0.69680).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the mechanical transmission potential of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease by an African stable fly (Stomoxys niger niger). The FMD virus carrier status of wild S. n. niger was associated with the fly collection method, sex and anatomical part.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Antimicrobial Activities of Garlic and Ginger Extracts on Some Clinical Isolates

Research Article
Author(s): Iotsor, B. I., Iseghohi, F., Oladoja, O.E., Raji, O.R., Yusuf, Z., Oyewole, O.A.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The antibacterial activity of n-hexane and methanol extracts of ginger and garlic was determined in vitro against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae using agar well diffusion technique. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids and triterpenes in the plant extracts. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of garlic were observed to be more potent against S. dysenteriae with maximum zone of inhibition of 27 mm at 40 mg/ml and 29 mm at 80 mg/ml. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of ginger were observed to be more potent against E. coli with maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm at 40 mg/ml and 19 mm at 80 mg/ml. The MIC of the methanolic extract against the test organisms was determined to show values between 5 and 20 mg/ml. In comparison, the n-hexane extract had MIC values between 2.5 and 10 mg/ml. The methanol extract of ginger had MIC values between 10 and 40 mg/ml while the n-hexane had MIC values between 10 and 20 mg/ml. The MBC of methanol garlic extract was between 10 and 40 mg/ml. The n-hexane garlic extract had MBC values between 2.5 and 20 mg/ml. The methanol extract of ginger had MBC values between 10 and 40 mg/ml while the n-Hexane ginger extract had MBC values between 10 and 20 mg/ml. The result of this study showed that the extracts had activity against the test organisms and as such could be used for drug development.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the use of garlic and ginger for their antimicrobial properties aside from their use as spices. These plant-based extracts provide hope for solving antimicrobial resistance problems since it is difficult for microorganisms to develop resistance to them.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Effects of Medical Security Satisfaction and Trust in Doctors on Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from China

Research Article
Author(s): Xiaomei Gong, Jiaping Zhang
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
How to improve residents' well-being is regarded as an important goal of sustainable economic development. Although health care has an important impact (directly and indirectly) on subjective well-being (SWB), existing literature rarely empirically investigated the impact of individual’s satisfaction with health care on SWB, especially in developing countries like China, where the health care level has obviously lagged behind the public health needs and the speed of economic development. In addition, China is also facing a tense doctor-patient relationship situation in recent years. Based on the data from the Chinese Social Survey (CSS) for 2015, this paper empirically analyzes the impact of medical security satisfaction and trust in doctors (to reflect doctor-patient relationship) on Chinese people’s SWB. We have adopted a variety of methods for robust test, and used the propensity score matching (PSM) method to deal with the endogenous problems that may be caused by “selection bias”. The results show that both the medical security satisfaction and trust in doctors have positive effects on SWB, indicating that the improvement of medical security and doctor-patient relationship can contribute to Chinese people’s SWB in the new era. This study has certain guiding significance for the implementation of “healthy China” strategy, and further enriches the related research of health economics.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which has directly investigated the predictors of individual’s subjective well-being from the perspective of health care satisfaction. This paper further enriches the relevant studies on health economics and has important policy implications for developing countries.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Mohd Alsaleh, A.S. Abdul-Rahim
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This study identified the effects of economic factors on technical efficiency (TE) rate in the bio-energy section for the European Union zone (EU-28). A Tobit framework estimation was used to investigate the economic factors of TE rate in the bio-energy sector for the EU-28 zone during the period among 1990 through 2013. The findings point that economic determinants have a significant impact on TE rate of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 countries. The empirical findings suggest that labor input and gross domestic product (GDP) significantly affected the TE of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 zone through the duration of this paper. The results obviously inviting governors and politicians to investigate the TE rate of the bio-energy sector within the EU-28 zone. This paper gives further facts and details to the senates of the bio-energy sectors, as they require to get a further comprehension of the impact TE has on bio-energy production execution. In addition, the findings of this paper have suggestions for financiers who concentrates significantly on revenues from their direct-investments.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature in investigating the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 region. This study uses new estimation methodologies such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the Tobit Model to investigate the impact of economic determinants on the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU28 region during the period between 1990 and 2013.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Examining the Implications of Differentiated Instruction for High School Students’ Self-Actualization

Research Article
Author(s): Afaf Aljaser
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Adopting differentiated teaching and learning strategies has proved effective in addressing students’ diverse capabilities and potentials as well as developing their skills. This study examines the implications of differentiated instruction for self-actualization among high school students. For achieving this purpose, the quasi-experimental approach was adopted. The sample consisted of (58) high school students from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. They were subdivided into an experimental group comprising (28) students taught in a differentiated classroom environment and a control one comprising (30) students taught in a traditional classroom environment. Two scales, a differentiated classroom environment scale and a self-actualization scale, were prepared and applied upon the participants. The results showed a high level of self-actualization among the experimental group students, indicating that differentiated instruction improved their self-actualization skills. Differentiated instruction provided students with an environment suitable to make them feel self-confident, establish positive relations with their classmates, and positively interact and cooperate with them. In the light of these results, the author recommends holding training courses and workshops to qualify teachers for designing and utilizing differentiated instruction.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the implications of differentiated instruction for self-actualization. It enriches the existing literature of learner-centered education since it aims at considering learners’ individual differences and self-actualization skills. Studying the implication of differentiated instruction for self-actualization has a promising significance.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Production of Biosurfactants Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa for Biodegradation of Herbicide

Research Article
Author(s): Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun, Ayams, Jude Ndanusa, Abioye, Olabisi Peter
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study was aimed at isolating Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the soil to produce biosurfactant for degradation of herbicide. The soil sample was collected from oil polluted site in mechanic workshop, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria and transferred to the microbiology laboratory of the University in a sterile polyethylene bag. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the soil and identified using microbiological and biochemical assays. The isolate was screened for biosurfactant production using haemolytic assay, drop collapse, oil spreading and emulsification test. Biosurfactant production was carried out using mineral salt medium for ten days. The ability of the biosurfactant produced by P. aeruginosa in degrading herbicide was tested on five concentrations of herbicide (5%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) and the results showed biodegradation percentages as 56.4%, 53.1%, 32.6%, 29.8% and 26.2% respectively revealing that degradation was higher at lower concentrations. This suggests that herbicide could be biodegraded especially at low concentrations using biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that biosurfactant could be produced from bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and this could be used for degradation of herbicide that has remained an environmental problem.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Michael A. Akume, Gylych Jelilov, Benedict Akanegbu
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The impact of military spending on domestic output is contentious and therefore requires further analysis on a country by country basis to determine its level of significance. Nigeria’s military contributions to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sub-region and the recent rise of various insurgencies, particularly, Jam??at Ahl al-Sunna lil-Da?awah wa al-Jih?d’ (Boko Haram) – arguably the most fatal insurgent group – has increased Nigeria’s military expenditure. This study investigates the impact of this increase in military spending on the economic well-being (measured by GDP per capita) of Nigerians using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration for the period from 1988 to 2017. The results suggest that there is a positive relationship between military spending and economic well-being in Nigeria. However, the impact on citizens’ wellbeing is not instantaneous as the variable is only significant after the current year spending; which does not last longer than a year. The study therefore recommends that defense spending be strategic, and that all earmarked funds for defense be deployed appropriately so that increases in wellbeing can be more long-term as opposed to lasting for only one year.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature on military spending and growth. This study uses an adapted model.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 05-2019 Issue: 4

Combined Antibacterial Activity of Honey Bees (Apis Florae) and Embelia Schimperi Extracts Against Standard and Clinical Isolated Bacteria

Research Article
Author(s): Muluken Dejen, Tilahun Yohannes, Tesfahun Bekele
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Despite tremendous progress in drug development and treatment, infectious diseases caused by bacteria are still a major threat to human and animal health mainly due to drug resistances. These the ever-increasing threats demand a global effort to search for novel solutions. Different parts of plants and bee’s honey have been used, separately or in combination, as a source of therapeutic agents in traditional medicine since ancient time due to bioactive compounds they contain. Therefore the objective of this study is to determine the antibacterial activity of crude extract of Embelia schimperi leaves and combined with bee’s honey (Apis florae) against some standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. The In-vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was tested at different concentrations by using agar well diffusion method and measuring zone of inhibition. The data was analyzed by ANOVA. Both the clinical and standard bacteria showed sensitivity to E. schimperi with inhibition zones ranging from 7.17 ± 0.29 to 28.96 ± 0.25. The ethanol extract of E. schimperi leaves and ethanol extract blended with honey have showed significant inhibition against the tested organisms than the chloroform extract and chloroform extract blended with honey respectively. The inhibition zone was lower against S. aureus during both the Chloroform leave extract and the chloroform blended with honey. The highest inhibition zone was observed against E. coli with the ethanol leave extract and against K. pneumonia with the ethanol mixed with honey. Therefore, the E. schimperi leaves extract and synergy with honey has witnessed broad spectrum antibacterial activity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of the antibacterial effects of leaf extracts of E. schimperi. It is the only study that investigated the synergetic effects of leaves of E. schimperi with honey. Therefore, the synergy of the leaves with honey has shown promising antimicrobial effect.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Ali, Md. Tanvir Alam Himel
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the impact of social and psychological barriers on the negative intention of female students to be an entrepreneur and to analyze the mediating role of psychological barriers between social barriers and negative entrepreneurial intention. Total of 791 female students were surveyed from Bangladesh through an on-line questionnaire. Four hypotheses have been developed and tested on the total sample. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to measure the validity of the data and the relationship among the variables. The study endorsed that social barriers have a significant negative association with the negative intention toward entrepreneurship that indicates social barriers do not significantly reduce the entrepreneurial intention. Psychological barriers as mediating variable have a significant and positive relationship with social barriers and those barriers also have a significant positive effect on negative intention toward entrepreneurship. Psychological barriers partially mediate the relationship between social barriers and the intention toward entrepreneurship. Thus, social barriers through psychological barriers significantly influence the entrepreneurial intention and reduce the inclination of female students toward entrepreneurship.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates unique findings that social barriers do not directly contribute to reducing the entrepreneurial intention, but psychological barriers significantly reduce the intention of the female students toward entrepreneurship. Besides, psychological barriers play a mediating role between social barriers and entrepreneurial intention.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region

Research Article
Author(s): Tilahun Aemiro Tehulu
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
While many African countries raise 15% or more in tax revenue, some countries like Ethiopia still do not raise the necessary amount of resources to allow for the sound functioning of domestic institutions and basic service delivery. Therefore, this study investigated the perceived effect of selected factors on tax revenue mobilization in Ethiopia. Data is collected through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using univariate statistics namely one sample T-test and other descriptive statistics including proportions and means. The findings revealed that the political instability of the country has negatively affected the normal business operation of firms; reduced investments due to lower confidence of investors and negatively affected the taxable income of business firms. The results, however, revealed that closeness to general elections doesn’t affect normal business operation of firms. The findings also revealed that there is high corruption by tax officials in our region; taxpayer awareness creation to report any corruptive practices is also weak; measures by the tax authority to improve the accountability of tax officials are also limited or none and those corruptive practices have negatively affected the amount of tax the revenue office could mobilize. Finally, the study uncovered that the present tax audit practice does not reduce tax evasion and other irregularities in our region and that the awareness of taxpayers of tax audit per se doesn’t make the tax payers render a satisfactory tax return. We also found that the tax administrative structure lacks autonomy and there is the inadequacy of skilled and competent employees in the tax administration.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the relationship among tax revenue mobilization of the recent political instability, the level of corruption, the present tax audit practice, the level of autonomy of the tax authority and competence of revenue collectors in Ethiopia, specifically, in Amhara region.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs

Research Article
Author(s): Tilahun Aemiro Tehulu
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
In Ethiopia, MSEs have become the favorite of policy makers as they are believed to play a critical role in addressing both poverty reduction and economic growth goals. Over the years, while some MSEs have grown extremely large and profitable, many others have failed or have not been as successful as they might have been. This study seeks to identify the factors that hamper the success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Amhara region of Ethiopia since studies aimed at assessing the same are virtually missing. This study employed a quantitative research approach using a descriptive survey design. The data was drawn from a survey of 316 MSEs in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Statistical models including One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and T-test are used to analyze the data apart from other descriptive statistics such as percentages and mean. The study has revealed that working premises, marketing and financial factors are the three most serious factors that hamper the success of MSEs. We suggest that since the real challenges of MSEs change over time, the challenges of MSEs must be studied at some periodic interval to identify the real challenges of MSEs of the time and take appropriate action timely.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature by revealing the critical factors that hamper the success of MSEs and may help the local government to devise ways to support these enterprises in efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development by 2030.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Plants Extract

Research Article
Author(s): Dina S. Ahmed, Teeba Hashim Mohammed, Mohsen Hashim Risan, Liqaa H. Najim, Salam A. Mohammed, Rahimi M. Yusop, Emad Yousif
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
The development in the eco-friendly and cost-effective green synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles utilizing several natural resources like microorganisms, plant, flower and fruit extracts is an emerging area of nanotechnology. In recent years, the development of efficient green chemistry methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles has become a major focus of researchers. One of the most considered methods is production of metal nanoparticles using organisms. Among these organisms plants seem to be the best candidates and they are suitable for large-scale biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles produced by plants are more stable and the rate of synthesis is faster than in the case of microorganisms. Moreover, the nanoparticles are more various in shape and size in comparison with those produced by other organisms. The advantages of using plant and plant-derived materials for biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles have interested researchers to investigate mechanisms of metal ions uptake and bioreduction by plants, and to understand the possible mechanism of metal nanoparticle formation in plants. In this review, most of the plants used in metal nanoparticle synthesis are shown. Researchers have focused their attention on understanding the biological mechanisms and enzymatic processes of nanoparticle biosynthesis as well as detection and characterization of biomolecules involved in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Many biomolecules in plants such as proteins/enzymes, amino acids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, alcoholic compounds, and vitamins could be involved in bioreduction, formation and stabilization of metal nanoparticles. Genetic modification of plants with improved metal accumulation capacities is the future approach to increase the productivity of these organisms in nanoparticle synthesis.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to develop the efficient green chemistry methods which have investigated synthesis of metal nanoparticles
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia

Research Article
Author(s): Anh Tru Nguyen
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study examines the relationship between financial development, economic growth, and inflation five developing Southeast Asian countries between 1997 and 2016 using a vector autoregressive model. The results revealed that: inflation positively affected money supply and stock market capitalization, but GDP per capita growth rate negatively; GDP per capita growth rate was positively correlated with domestic credit to the private sector; money supply positively affected stock market capitalization and inflation; domestic credit to the private sector exerted a positive influence on GDP per capita growth rate, but negative on inflation; and stock market capitalization was negatively related to inflation. Further, a directional relationship runs from GDP per capita to inflation, from inflation to money supply, and from inflation to domestic credit to the private sector. Policies are recommended to promote economic growth, reduce inflation, and achieve sustainable development in Southeast Asia. First, inflation should be carefully controlled as it causes a decline in the GDP per capita growth rate. Second, GDP per capita growth rate should be promoted owing to its positively effect on domestic credit to the private sector, which has been an important catalyst for economic growth in Southeast Asia over recent decades. Finally, domestic credit to the private sector and stock market capitalization should be fostered because of their contribution to reducing inflation and increasing the GDP per capita growth rate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by clarifying the causal relationship between financial development, economic growth, and inflation in five developing Southeast Asian countries between 1997 and 2016, using a vector autoregressive model.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 05-2019 Issue: 4

Attitude to Age and Socio-Demographic Information Reporting: The Unseen Challenges to Sustainable Development Goals

Research Article
Author(s): Okafor Samuel, O., Okoye Onyinyechi, E.
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The study investigated the prevailing factors over age reporting and other socio-demographic information during the Nigerian population census. The study was carried out in south eastern Nigeria, using the cross sectional survey method. The sample size was 597 respondents, males and females aged 26 and older. The analysis examined the latent factors that affected the reporting of age and other socio-demographic status of the citizens using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. From the data, the study demonstrated that age reporting can be predicted by educational level (?= .075, t= 1.965, P<.05), the means of information about the population census (?= .126, t= 3.272, P<.05) and the citizens’ understanding of the census as a means of knowing their needs by the government (?= .343, t= 8.943, P<.05); similarly, reporting of occupational status can be predicted by educational levels (?= .130, t= 3.263, P<.05) and the citizens’ understanding of census as a means of knowing their needs by the government (?= . 263, t= 6.592, P<.05), etc. The study revealed the loopholes that affected the 2015MDG target and set a pace to achieve the post-2015 SDGs. The study has raised a concern for the empirical evaluation of census participation and socio-demographic status reporting.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on population studies. It uses new estimation methodology and originates age-reporting studies. It is one of very few studies which have investigated age-reporting. The paper contributes the first logical analysis of age-reporting. Its primary contribution is finding that census data are not absolutely dependable. This study documents age reporting lapses.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2