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Listing 94 - 20 of 1962 results.

A Structural Framework for Distributed Electronic Voters Register

Research Article
Author(s): Emmanuel Etuh, Umar Zayyanu, Onyebuchi Destiny Jacob
Journal: Journal of Information

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Abstract
Electronic Voters Register is a key deliverable of the pre-voting stage in an E-voting system that has become a key component of governance in this 21st century. E-voting system is generally grouped into three phases: before-voting, during-voting and after-voting phase. Before-voting handles the enlistment of eligible voters into the voters’ database which is a determinant factor for a successful election. Just being enlisted is not a guarantee that a registered voter will participate in an election unless the voter is present at the particular polling unit where the voter registered, on account of change of location, the voter must request for transfer of data to the new location before the election to qualify for voting. So many voters have been disenfranchised due to inevitable relocation which poses a serious challenge in the efficiency of the voters register. This has greatly reduced the total number of eligible voters in the existing system. The Purpose of this research is to design a structural framework that eliminates the hurdles voters go through to become eligible to elect their preferred candidate. Once the Direct Data Capture (DDC) system registers a voter at each polling unit, a locally distributed database across all the registration centers collate and transmit the data to the central database through the States thereby eliminating duplicates from any quarter, redundancy, and need for transfer request as a result of migration. The most suitable approach is the distributed database model that implements a tree data structure for efficient electronic voters register.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution in the proposed framework is the eradication of disenfranchisement due to change of location and seamless registration of voters that produces efficient Electronic Voters Register devoid of duplicates thus laying a solid foundation for a transparent E-Voting.
Computer Sciences » Journal of Information » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Correlation between Financial Difficulties and Financing Strategies among Market Stallholders in Batangas City

Research Article
Author(s): Amor A. Ilagan
Journal: Financial Risk and Management Reviews

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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between financial difficulties and financing strategies among market stallholders in Batangas City. Specifically, the study sought to determine the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, highest educational attainment, market section, number of years in operation, average monthly business income and stall location. The researcher also assessed the financial difficulties experienced by market stallholders and the extent of utilization of financing strategies in terms of internal financing and debt financing. Moreover, the researcher also determined the correlation between financial difficulties and financing strategies, the significant difference on the financial difficulties experienced by market stallholders and extent of utilization of financing strategies of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. The findings of the study revealed that there is a correlation between financial difficulties and internal financing and another correlation between financial difficulties and debt financing utilized by market stallholders. An extension activity was proposed as an output of this study so that market stallholders would understand the different financing strategies banks and other microfinancing institutions are offering.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the financial difficulties of market stallholders. The study uses a new estimation methodology as a survey questionnaire in determining the correlation between financial difficulties and financing strategies. This study is one of the very few studies about financing strategies utilized by market stallholders.
Economics » Financial Risk and Management Reviews » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Regasa Dibaba Wake, Afework Hagos Mesfin, Chilot Yirga, Endeshaw Habte
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Adoption and wider diffusion of improved Teff varieties (Quncho) are playing a vital role overriding present situation of food insecurity in many parts of Ethiopia. However, the use of improved teff varieties are constrained by various factors. Hence, in this study, an attempt was made to examine factors affecting the adoption and use of improved teff varieties (Quncho) regarding attributes of varietal preferences of small-holder farmers. A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed to select 249 sample households from Assosa district and Mao-Komo special district. Descriptive statistical tools like mean, percentage, frequency distribution and t-test were used to summarize the characteristics of the sampled households. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data collected during 2015/16 production season. About 58.23% of the sampled household were adopters while 41.77% of them didn’t adopt improved Teff varieties (Quncho) in the study area. The finding of this study suggest that farmers in the area seek specific varietal attributes, such as yield potential, tolerance to disease and lodging, better Teff grain price and color, etc. The farmers’ preferences with improved Teff varieties-specific characteristics significantly determine adoption decisions, which suggests the need to go beyond the commonly considered socio-economic, demographic and institutional factors in the adoption process. There is a need to target small-holder farmers’ characteristics, priorities and production constraints while improved Teff varietal developments considering users preferences. Therefore, the research centers and extension system has to give more attention to participatory research which considers farmers’ priorities and needs.
Contribution/ Originality
The contribution of this paper is to analyze the preferences and perception of small-holder farmers towards attributes of improved teff varieties adoption and infer farmers’ perception of the new agricultural technology packages. Thus, the paper's primary contribution is finding that investigating the farmers’ varietal trait preference and characteristics of varieties required by farmers that would enhance the acceptance of the technologies in the farming community.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?

Research Article
Author(s): Fisayo Fagbemi, Omowumi Grace Adeoye
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
Given the prevailing conjecture that human capital has multiple pathways through which it influences growth and development, understanding its current level and capacity and the public finance management impact in Africa cannot be overemphasized. Hence, the study examines the long-run and short-run relationship between public spending and human capital in twenty-one (21) sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries between 1984 and 2016 using mean – group (MG) and pooled mean – group (PMG). Empirical evidence reveals that when primary school enrollment is employed as the human capital indicator, public spending has a positive and significant effect on human capital in the long-run, whereas it is insignificant in the short-run. The findings support the view that public spending oriented towards education could lead to human capital enhancement in the long-run. Also, with the inclusion of life expectancy as the human capital measure, government expenditure positively and significantly influences human capital in the long- run as well as in the short-run, suggesting that public expenditure on the advancement of literacy rate and provision of better health facilities would stimulate human capital development in SSA. The study highlights that political and institutional failures which undermine good-quality delivery of sustainable social services (including education and healthcare services) could harm the development of human capital in the region. Thus, the paper posits that ensuring effective expenditure control and results-based funding are central to the drive towards raising the quality of human capital in Africa.
Contribution/ Originality
Aside addressing the growing human capital deficiencies in SSA, the study basically unravels public finance-human capital development gap, and offers a sufficient ground for remedying it. With the use of frontier econometric methods, the paper gives accurate accounts on the inadequacies of institutional measures in engendering sustainable social policies.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour

Research Article
Author(s): Iheagwara, M. C., Chibuzo, I. H., Ibeabuchi, J. C.
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The impact of tuber sections and some processing conditions on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) flour was investigated. Flour samples were generated as fresh, boiled and steamed from the head, middle, tail and the whole tuber. All the samples were subjected to some physicochemical analyses such as swelling index (SI), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), total soluble solids (TSS), blue value index (BVI), gelling point temperature (GPT), boiling point temperature (BPT) and pH in order to assess the effect of tuber section, heat treatment and post-milling rehydration properties of flour in different steeping solution of varying concentrations. The result showed that the proximate composition of the flour from the tuber sections and the whole did not differ significantly (p < 0.05). The influence of steeping solution type (SST) was not significant (p > 0.05) on WAC, SI (boiled and steamed) and TSS (raw) while steeping solution concentration (SSC) effected significant variations (p < 0.05) in all the tested parameters of the flour. Also, the parameter analytical temperature (PAT) caused significant differences (p < 0.05) in all the test parameters.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effect of tuber sections and processing conditions on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) flour. The investigation showed that the test variables had significant effects on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey

Research Article
Author(s): Serpil Aytac, Gulsen Cetin Aydin
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
Unemployment remains a major social problem with the impact of economic, social, political, historical and cultural factors. This problem is not only limited to Turkey but also becomes a global threat to other countries. Unemployment cannot be considered separately from employment. Unlike unemployment, employment policies are the process of inclusion of the labor element in the labor market. The most basic problem of unemployment and employment in Turkey; it is artificial employment and poverty rather than open unemployment in the western sense. On the other hand; frequent economic crises have led to the loss of employees' jobs. As a matter of fact, after the last crises, approximately 10 out of every 100 people, who are called as a qualified, highly educated gold collar, lost their jobs and the official unemployment rate increased from 9% to 12%. The most affected sectors are unemployed; while banking and finance and industry and service sectors are stated, there is a marked decrease in the quality of life of individuals. Another important development that attracts attention with the increasingly difficult working conditions and the economic crises is the increase of brain drain. Undoubtedly, it is possible to say that the unemployment phenomenon and the decrease in the quality of life have a significant effect on these negative developments. In this study, the reasons for going abroad and their decision to return to the country of the qualified labor force will be evaluated by logistic regression analysis in terms of pull and push factors.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing brain drain literature on high skilled immigrant going abroad. This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the importance of the high skilled person going abroad from Turkey.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Salisu Yakubu, Momoh I. Yalo, Uba Halilu
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This study analyzed the environmental factors affecting manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State, Nigeria. The target is to investigate the effects of internal factors as they affect the profitability of manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State. The survey research design was adopted for the study; covered 171 SME owners in Kogi State. The clusters of SMEs were located and utilized for this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, principal component factor analysis, and binary logit regression. Findings show that business strategy has a significant negative relationship with the profitability of SMEs in Kogi State. Operational strength and debt leveraging significantly and positively relate to the profitability of SMEs in Kogi State. These factors play critical roles in the sustainability of the profitability of manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State. The study recommended that manufacturing SME owners should seek knowledge and skill to crafting and adopting an effective business strategy, boost their operational strength and manage their debt leveraging distinctively to sustain their profitability in the competitive business environment of Kogi State.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the environmental factors affecting Manufacturing SMEs. The study uses new methods of principal component analysis and binary logit regression to analyze the environmental factors affecting manufacturing SMEs in Kogi State, Nigeria.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Customer Care Service Management is Moving Forward to Achieve Sustainable Customer Retention in Every Industry. Does it play a Role to Increase Brand Retention?

Research Article
Author(s): Amitab Bhattacharjee, Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi, Mohammad Rashed Hasan Polas, Mohammad Imtiaz Hossain, Abdul Saboor Asheq
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
To increase the sustainable brand retention level of consumer, service quality plays a key role as the first consideration in the service or manufacturing industry. Our study reveals that consumer-friendly customer-care service is the only prime factor to grab higher brand retention at a competitive level. The study findings show that individuals having experience of customer-care service has a positive relationship with the study variable (brand retention interest) at a significant level. We also found significant correlation between using a product or service and the brand retention interest of consumer. Companies operating in either service industry or manufacturing industry focus on upper-grade customer-care service but actually deliver semi-grade services to customers especially those living in developing countries. Having such a practicable technique, the service delivery process remained the same, instead of continuous flexi development except for some developed countries like Japan and Malaysia. Therefore, the consumer gets excellent experience in developed countries and poor experience in underdeveloped or developing countries and retention interest of the same brand slides down and is identified as a strategic customer service gap by this study. Although we faced some unavoidable study limitations, the study findings and recommendations would be helpful especially for managers, decisions makers, and market planners to redraw implementable strategic plans for customer-care service management systems to achieve sustainable competitive advantages in the long run.
Contribution/ Originality
This is the first study that covers up the existing researcher gap between the retention-choice of consumers and the actual service facilities available for consumers. By conducting this study, we have concluded that a sustainable competitive advantage could be achieved by enhancing promised and acknowledgeable service to consumers because a balanced service delivery system would increase the retention level of consumers to stick with the same brand in the long-term.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Regime Changes in the Volatility of Stock Markets

Research Article
Author(s): Houda Litimi
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Modeling and forecasting the volatility of financial markets has been the subject of considerable research over the last few decades. It is a key indicator on which financial decisions are based, knowing that the behavior of financial market operators is changing. In this regard, the most popular model in the description of the volatility of financial asset returns is certainly that of the heteroskedastic type. Some authors explain that the behavior of conditional variance can come from structural changes that are not considered by standard GARCH models; hence, the motivation of this paper is to investigate the GARCH model with regime changes. Applications on several world stock indexes, namely, the American S&P 500, the Japanese Nikkei 225, and the French CAC 40 show that the model with regime changes explains the dynamics of risk more efficiently than the classical single-regime models. Furthermore, the conditional distributions of the returns are better modeled with the flexible student’s t test.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses a new estimation methodology by using a GARCH model with regime changes to explain the dynamics of conditional volatility.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Ectoparasitosis in Domesticated Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) in Jere Area, Borno State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal, Muhammad Mustapha, Lawan Adamu, Jamila Dauda, Abdullahi Abubakar Biu
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
The present cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites infesting domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Jere area. The study was conducted from the month of April to October, 2016 of the study period. Out of the total of 300 domesticated turkeys examined for the presence or absence of ectoparasites, 185 (61.67%) were found to be infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalence rate according to the study locations varies as Galtimari Ward (15.0%), Mairi emirate (12.67%), Fori ward (12.33%), University Staff Quarters (11.0%) and Mairi Kuwait (10.67%) of Jere. Among the Four different types of ectoparasites encountered, Lice (31.67%) were found to be the most prevalent followed by the Flea (15.33%) and Mites (12.0%) while the Ticks (2.67%) are the least prevalent. However, among the eight (8) different species of ectoparasites found on the infested turkeys; the most prevalent species of ectoparasites found was Lipeurus tropicalis (17.67%), followed by Echidnophaga gallinacean (15.33%), Menacanthus stramineus (8.33%), Dermanyssus gallinae (7.0%), Chelopistes meleagridis (5.67%), Epidermoptes bilobatus (3.0%), Argas persicus (2.67%) and Cnemidocoptes mutans (2.0%) in a descending order of prevalence rate. There was mixed infestation with two or more species of ectoparasites in some infected turkeys. Ectoparasites infestation was found to be significantly higher in Adult (44.0%) than in the young (17.67%) turkeys (P = 0.0148; RR = 1.202). Ectoparasites infestation was also found to be higher in the female (33.0%) than in the male (28.67%) turkeys, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.3102; RR = 0.9240). Ectoparasites infestation was found to be significantly higher in turkeys reared under the extensive (50.0%) compared to those reared under the intensive (11.67%) management systems (P < 0.0001; RR = 1.622). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among domestic turkeys in Jere area of Borno State, Nigeria. The occurrence of ectoparasites in domestic turkeys indicated the existence of diverse ectoparasites fauna in the present study area which is associated with inadequate management system such as poor hygienic rearing system, poor husbandry and lack of strategic ectoparasites control practices.
Contribution/ Originality
This present study has contributed to the existing literature of the occurrence of ectoparasites in poultry species in Nigeria. This study also represents one of very few studies which have investigated the prevalence of ectoparasites in domesticated turkeys in Nigeria. However, this is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among domestic turkeys in Jere area of Borno State, Nigeria.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Agribussiness Mobile Based Learning: ADIC Model to Support Students HOTS and Life Skill in Vocational School

Research Article
Author(s): Hary Soedarto Harjono, Budi Prasetyanto, Rahmat Murbojono
Journal: World Journal of Vocational Education and Training

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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Attainment, Discussion, Implementation, and Conclusion (ADIC) model for learning Agribusiness in Vocational School by utilizing a delivery system model of Agribusiness to attain HOTS and life skill that suitable with material and student characteristic in the vocational school. This was a research and development (R & D) and continued with an experimental study. This study was conducted in class XI of a vocational school (SMK Negeri 10) in Muaro Jambi by involving one experimental class and one control class groups. In this case, the post-test on the experimental class was compared to post-test on control class. As a result, ADIC model as one of the delivery system models can improve and promote students’ HOTS and life skill in the current school effectively. Through the ADIC model, a teacher can take place students as a learner actively to control their learning activity, to attain their knowledge, to compose discussion material and discuss it, to conduct practice and experiment, and to conclude their experiment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates a new model of teaching that integrated mobile devices for Agribusiness in the vocational school. This model is used to facilitate students to attain HOTS and life skill. The model developed focused on the active learner to access the website, discussing, practicing, experimenting, and making conclusion to solve the learning problem.
Arts and Education » World Journal of Vocational Education and Training » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Production as an Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additive

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Waseem Birmani, Aamir Nawab, Muhammad Waseem Ghani, Guanghui Li, Jiang Wu, Wenchao Liu, Lilong An
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Provision of safe and healthy poultry products to the human being is the prime objective of the poultry industry, but one should keep in mind the welfare of animals and reverence for the environment. Meat and eggs demand also increasing with the increase in world human population. To meet this increasing demand for meat and eggs, antibiotics growth promoters were used world widely. After the ban on antibiotics growth promoters due to its residual effects on human health, nutritionists are focusing on novel growth promoters those without causing productivity loss, or product quality has augmented. Therefore, probiotics are a safe alternative to antibiotics and its beneficial effects proven from many decades. Live microorganisms are used to deliver health benefits to chicken, usually by reestablishing or improving the intestinal microbiota. Probiotics have a beneficial effect on weight gain, immunity, meat traits and somewhat impact on gut health of poultry. The subject of review paper will be worthwhile meant for researchers and poultry nutritionists to advance their understanding of alternatives to antibiotics in poultry production without affecting performance and the welfare of chicken.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is important in regards to antibiotic resistance in human being coming from animal products. Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time. Each year so many people get an antibiotic-resistant infection, and many people die. Fighting this threat is a public health priority that requires a collaborative global approach across sectors. So, this study will give direction to researchers and food producers to avoid from antibiotics harmful effects to animals and as well as human being.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Analysis of ESL Students Comprehension of LOTS and HOTS Questions According to Gender

Research Article
Author(s): Subadrah Madhawa Nair, Zhang Yan, Walton Wider
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Several studies have indicated that ESL students in China are weak in answering comprehension questions which are based on Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). The objectives of this study were to investigate students’ overall performance in answering LOTS and HOTS ESL comprehension questions, to compare students LOTS and HOTS comprehension question answering skills according to gender and to gauge teachers’ views on how to improve students LOTS and HOTS ESL comprehension skills. The LOTS and HOTS comprehension questions in this study were based on Bloom’s taxonomy. This descriptive study used the QUAN-qual model, whereby the quantitative data was collected using a comprehension test and the qualitative data was collected through interviews via SKYPE. The sample of this study consisted of 100 ESL third year high school students from Urumqi, China and their three ESL teachers. The data collected from the comprehension test was analyzed using the independent samples t-test and paired samples t-test (SPSS Program for Windows). The qualitative data was analyzed based on emerging themes. The findings revealed that the students performed significantly better at answering LOTS questions compared with HOTS questions. The findings also indicated that female students scored significantly higher in answering LOTS and HOTS comprehension questions compared with their male counterparts. The analysis of teacher interviews indicated that Chinese students were able to answer LOTS questions but they struggled to answer HOTS questions because they had limited vocabulary, lacked critical thinking skills and failed to use the right strategies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of HOTS and LOTS ESL comprehension among students in China. This study has strong pedagogical implications as it serves as a guide to teachers on how to improve students’ HOTS comprehension. In addition, the study also has theoretical and practical implications.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Shifting Primary School Teachers Understanding of Songs Teaching Methods : An Action Research Study in Indonesia

Research Article
Author(s): J. Julia, Arif Hakim, Afi Fadlilah
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
In order to teach songs properly, primary school teachers need to be equipped with various strategies in songs teaching, and develop an understanding about correct methods of songs teaching. These primary school teachers teach songs through traditional oral methods with their own voices as the role model, though they did not have a perfect pitch. This research aims at rectifying primary school teachers’ understanding of their own teaching methods in vocal teaching. This research exemplifies the results of a collaborative teamwork for critical units in order to change primary school teachers’ understanding on teaching songs to their students. The result of these units show that by providing information about the impact of teaching songs to their prospective students who sang with poor singing skills and did not have a good pitch, it is possible to change teachers’ understanding of teaching songs by using modern teaching methods. Moreover, guiding teachers to use various applications and media in teaching songs would provide new insight into them to choose supporting devices, and improve teaching literacy for vocal teaching.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding why primary school teachers possess a wrong understanding of songs teaching methods for their students, which results in poor teaching performance. Through an action research approach, this research is trying to pioneer that a technology and media assisted methodology can change their understanding and result in better teaching performance.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Ignatius Abasimi, Xuan Li, Seidu Mohammed
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The motivation behind this study was to investigate empirically the transitional relationship between economic growth and the exchange rate in Ghana, viz, to what extent and magnitude does the exchange rate affect economic growth? The variables incorporated in the study were interest rate, inflation and direct foreign investment. The statistical results using the Phillips-Perron (PP) test of stationary disclosed that the variables were integrated in order of I(1) and I(0). Johansen cointegration (maximum eigenvalues) established the existence of at least two cointegration vectors and long-run relationships between the variables in the model. The output from the long and short-run estimates revealed the exchange rate to have a robust significant relationship with economic growth. It was recommended that government should embark on rigorous domestic economic transformation (monetary policies, infrastructure repositioning, adequate security etc.) as well as external export promotions to strengthen the economic fundamentals so as to attract foreign investment into the economy. It was also recommended that the Bank of Ghana should pay particular attention to inflation and interest rate volatilities to ensure and embed consumer and producer confidence.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by illuminating the dynamism and robustness of exchange rate volatilities, and their interlinking causality with economic growth in Ghana. The study employed a new estimation methodology to establish both short and long-run connections between these economic fundamentals and internal economic development.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Supplier Selection and Optimization of Supply Chains

Research Article
Author(s): Zlatan Mujkic, Ardian Qorri, Andrzej Kraslawski, Saranda Gashi
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Supplier selection is one of the most important components of supply chain management. The main objective of this exercise is to select best suppliers based on different criteria. Those criteria are often closely related with sustainability and are set by the decision-maker. Hence, the objective of this paper is to integrate sustainability and decision-making. The sustainability aspect of the model includes economic, environmental and social dimensions and strategic level of decision-making criteria. The methodology used in this paper is mathematical modeling and the problem is formulated as mixed integer linear programming. The integration of sustainability and supplier selection is presented on an illustrative example of a bio-fuel supply chain. The best multi-objective solution is obtained using the weighting sum method. The study indicates that the integration of several sustainability aspects and supplier selection can be useful for decision making process. The main contribution of this work is the integration of supplier selection with the sustainability of supply chains.
Contribution/ Originality
The main contribution of this paper is in the field of sustainable supply chain development. The methodology used was mathematical modeling (optimization). The objective was to integrate supplier selection and sustainability of supply chains.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Study on Temporal Alterations in Land Cover Types in Simien Mountain National Park, Northwest Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Getinet Masresha
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This study was carried out in Simien Mountain National Park (SMNP) of Ethiopia to trace the temporal dynamics in land use types from the information generated through the analysis of land sat images. Results revealed that throughout the study period, variable extent of changes was observed in land use classes. In the first reference period (1972 - 1994), agricultural (9945.56 ha) and barren land (3066.6 ha) showed a remarkable increment whereas other land use types were decreased. In the second reference period (1994 - 2017), montane forest, grassland and shadow showed increasing trend with the dramatic change in grassland. In the first reference period (1972 - 1994), maximum negative rate of change was observed for Erica forest with deceleration rate of 83 ha/year which continued in the 2nd reference period (1994 - 2017) with the change decreasing rate of 16.6 ha/year. Maximum positive rate of change (74.6 ha/year) was observed for agricultural land followed by barren land (68.6 ha/year). In the second reference period maximum positive rate of change was observed for grassland with accelerated rate of change 260.5 ha/year whereas maximum deceleration rate (272.8 ha/year) was observed for agricultural land. At present, montane forest cover is increasing whereas agricultural land is decreasing dramatically contributing for the restoration of the ecosystem. However, intensified grazing was identified as a principal driver affecting ecological process in the Park; therefore, a long term strategy should be designed to meet the sustainable utilization of natural resources in the Park.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding land use change in Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. In addition, this study documents the current trends land use dynamics in the Park.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

Geographical Analysis of Household Waste Generation and Disposal in Taraba State, Northeast Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Peter P. Umeh, Kelechi Friday Nkwocha, Samuel Oji Iheukwumere
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Household wastes have become one of the greatest menaces in the world over, and the situation in developing countries such as Nigeria has become pathetic. The goal of this paper is to examine the nature of household solid waste generation, collection and methods of disposal in Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. The data for this study was collected through primary and secondary sources. The Primary data sources include; field work, questionnaire and personal observation. The secondary sources of data were obtained from the ministry of Environment Jalingo, for a period of ten (10) years (2000-2013). A set of 200 carefully coded questionnaires were distributed, this was done to elicit responses from respondents. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was employed in the examination of the statistical significance of the variation among the selected area of study. From our results, 56.5% of respondents are female while 43.5% of respondents are male. The study revealed that a large proportion (47%) of Jalingo residents dump their wastes at refuse disposal points in their neighborhoods, 35% dump their wastes in any available open land while 5 and 8% dump their wastes in streams and drainages respectively. The study concluded by noting that household waste is not properly managed in jalingo and therefore recommends that policy makers are required to identify and distinguish between the day time and official population in Jalingo and use the statistics as a basis for planning.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated household waste generation in Taraba State, Northeast Nigeria. A lot has been written on solid waste management, Liquid wastes and municipal waste management in the study area, but curiously, scholars have either neglected or have chosen to form a blind eye to the rising challenges of household solid waste management in Jalingo. It is this gap that this research intends to fill.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Rizky Haryana, Bambang Mulyana
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Increased construction industry and accelerated infrastructure programs drive economic development globally and open opportunities for investors in the capital market. Rational investors will choose investments that provide maximum returns with certain risks, or otherwise certain returns with minimal risk, depending on individual investors' preferences. To minimize risk, one of the methods used is to form a portfolio. The purpose of this study was to find out how to assess the optimal portfolio of shares for building construction companies using the Markowitz approach. The data in this study are secondary based on daily stock prices obtained from the IDX during the period February 2018 to July 2018. The research method used is descriptive, quantitative research. The number of samples used is four issuers, with saturated sampling techniques. The analytical tool used to assess the optimal portfolio is the Markowitz model, and its data is processed using Microsoft Excel. The results showed that an efficient two-share portfolio was found in the combination of ADHI and WIKA issuers, an efficient three-share portfolio was found in a combination of ADHI, WIKA and WSKT issuers, and four-share portfolio alternatives for optimal portfolios were formed by a combination of ADHI issuers, PTPP, WIKA, and WSKT, which together produce the lowest risk level.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of very few that have investigated optimal portfolio formation from one sector, namely building construction, and registered in the LQ45 Index with the Markowitz approach.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Alebachew Merawie, Melkamu Alemayehu, Biruk Masrie
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Onion is one of the most important cash crops produced by smallholder farmers mainly during the irrigation season. However, the productivity of onion in Amhara Region is very low which is mainly associated with improper agronomic practices. This research was therefore conducted to increase the productivity of onion by identifying the optimum rate of nitrogen and intra-row spacing for economical production of the crop in Alawuha Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme. Four rates of nitrogen (0, 41, 82, 123 kg ha-1) and three intra-row spacing (6, 8, 10 cm) in factorial combination were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Results indicated that nitrogen and intra-row spacing significantly influenced most of the growth and phenological parameters of onion where application of 123 kg ha-1 nitrogen increased leaf number by 67.3% and prolonged days to maturity of onion by about 7 days compared to the respective control plants. Similarly, nitrogen rate and intra-row spacing significantly affected bulb yield of onion where the highest marketable bulb yield (37.48 t ha-1) was recorded by application of 123 kg ha-1 on plants spaced at 6 cm intra-row spacing which was statistically similar with those yield (35.07 t ha-1) recorded with the combination of 82 kg ha -1 nitrogen and 6 cm intra-row spacing. Application of 123 kg ha-1 nitrogen on plants spaced at 6 cm intra-row spacing is recommended for production of onion in Alawuha Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme as it recorded the highest net benefit (Eth-Birr 429,569) with relatively high marginal rate of return.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the influence of nitrogen rate and intra-row spacing on the bulb yield of onion in Amhara Region. Therefore, the findings of the present study will contribute to the improvement of production and productivity of onion in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2