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Listing 95 - 20 of 2269 results.

Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Production as an Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additive

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Waseem Birmani, Aamir Nawab, Muhammad Waseem Ghani, Guanghui Li, Jiang Wu, Wenchao Liu, Lilong An
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Provision of safe and healthy poultry products to the human being is the prime objective of the poultry industry, but one should keep in mind the welfare of animals and reverence for the environment. Meat and eggs demand also increasing with the increase in world human population. To meet this increasing demand for meat and eggs, antibiotics growth promoters were used world widely. After the ban on antibiotics growth promoters due to its residual effects on human health, nutritionists are focusing on novel growth promoters those without causing productivity loss, or product quality has augmented. Therefore, probiotics are a safe alternative to antibiotics and its beneficial effects proven from many decades. Live microorganisms are used to deliver health benefits to chicken, usually by reestablishing or improving the intestinal microbiota. Probiotics have a beneficial effect on weight gain, immunity, meat traits and somewhat impact on gut health of poultry. The subject of review paper will be worthwhile meant for researchers and poultry nutritionists to advance their understanding of alternatives to antibiotics in poultry production without affecting performance and the welfare of chicken.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is important in regards to antibiotic resistance in human being coming from animal products. Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time. Each year so many people get an antibiotic-resistant infection, and many people die. Fighting this threat is a public health priority that requires a collaborative global approach across sectors. So, this study will give direction to researchers and food producers to avoid from antibiotics harmful effects to animals and as well as human being.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Analysis of ESL Students Comprehension of LOTS and HOTS Questions According to Gender

Research Article
Author(s): Subadrah Madhawa Nair, Zhang Yan, Walton Wider
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Several studies have indicated that ESL students in China are weak in answering comprehension questions which are based on Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). The objectives of this study were to investigate students’ overall performance in answering LOTS and HOTS ESL comprehension questions, to compare students LOTS and HOTS comprehension question answering skills according to gender and to gauge teachers’ views on how to improve students LOTS and HOTS ESL comprehension skills. The LOTS and HOTS comprehension questions in this study were based on Bloom’s taxonomy. This descriptive study used the QUAN-qual model, whereby the quantitative data was collected using a comprehension test and the qualitative data was collected through interviews via SKYPE. The sample of this study consisted of 100 ESL third year high school students from Urumqi, China and their three ESL teachers. The data collected from the comprehension test was analyzed using the independent samples t-test and paired samples t-test (SPSS Program for Windows). The qualitative data was analyzed based on emerging themes. The findings revealed that the students performed significantly better at answering LOTS questions compared with HOTS questions. The findings also indicated that female students scored significantly higher in answering LOTS and HOTS comprehension questions compared with their male counterparts. The analysis of teacher interviews indicated that Chinese students were able to answer LOTS questions but they struggled to answer HOTS questions because they had limited vocabulary, lacked critical thinking skills and failed to use the right strategies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of HOTS and LOTS ESL comprehension among students in China. This study has strong pedagogical implications as it serves as a guide to teachers on how to improve students’ HOTS comprehension. In addition, the study also has theoretical and practical implications.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Shifting Primary School Teachers Understanding of Songs Teaching Methods : An Action Research Study in Indonesia

Research Article
Author(s): J. Julia, Arif Hakim, Afi Fadlilah
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
In order to teach songs properly, primary school teachers need to be equipped with various strategies in songs teaching, and develop an understanding about correct methods of songs teaching. These primary school teachers teach songs through traditional oral methods with their own voices as the role model, though they did not have a perfect pitch. This research aims at rectifying primary school teachers’ understanding of their own teaching methods in vocal teaching. This research exemplifies the results of a collaborative teamwork for critical units in order to change primary school teachers’ understanding on teaching songs to their students. The result of these units show that by providing information about the impact of teaching songs to their prospective students who sang with poor singing skills and did not have a good pitch, it is possible to change teachers’ understanding of teaching songs by using modern teaching methods. Moreover, guiding teachers to use various applications and media in teaching songs would provide new insight into them to choose supporting devices, and improve teaching literacy for vocal teaching.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding why primary school teachers possess a wrong understanding of songs teaching methods for their students, which results in poor teaching performance. Through an action research approach, this research is trying to pioneer that a technology and media assisted methodology can change their understanding and result in better teaching performance.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Ignatius Abasimi, Xuan Li, Seidu Mohammed
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The motivation behind this study was to investigate empirically the transitional relationship between economic growth and the exchange rate in Ghana, viz, to what extent and magnitude does the exchange rate affect economic growth? The variables incorporated in the study were interest rate, inflation and direct foreign investment. The statistical results using the Phillips-Perron (PP) test of stationary disclosed that the variables were integrated in order of I(1) and I(0). Johansen cointegration (maximum eigenvalues) established the existence of at least two cointegration vectors and long-run relationships between the variables in the model. The output from the long and short-run estimates revealed the exchange rate to have a robust significant relationship with economic growth. It was recommended that government should embark on rigorous domestic economic transformation (monetary policies, infrastructure repositioning, adequate security etc.) as well as external export promotions to strengthen the economic fundamentals so as to attract foreign investment into the economy. It was also recommended that the Bank of Ghana should pay particular attention to inflation and interest rate volatilities to ensure and embed consumer and producer confidence.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by illuminating the dynamism and robustness of exchange rate volatilities, and their interlinking causality with economic growth in Ghana. The study employed a new estimation methodology to establish both short and long-run connections between these economic fundamentals and internal economic development.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Supplier Selection and Optimization of Supply Chains

Research Article
Author(s): Zlatan Mujkic, Ardian Qorri, Andrzej Kraslawski, Saranda Gashi
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Supplier selection is one of the most important components of supply chain management. The main objective of this exercise is to select best suppliers based on different criteria. Those criteria are often closely related with sustainability and are set by the decision-maker. Hence, the objective of this paper is to integrate sustainability and decision-making. The sustainability aspect of the model includes economic, environmental and social dimensions and strategic level of decision-making criteria. The methodology used in this paper is mathematical modeling and the problem is formulated as mixed integer linear programming. The integration of sustainability and supplier selection is presented on an illustrative example of a bio-fuel supply chain. The best multi-objective solution is obtained using the weighting sum method. The study indicates that the integration of several sustainability aspects and supplier selection can be useful for decision making process. The main contribution of this work is the integration of supplier selection with the sustainability of supply chains.
Contribution/ Originality
The main contribution of this paper is in the field of sustainable supply chain development. The methodology used was mathematical modeling (optimization). The objective was to integrate supplier selection and sustainability of supply chains.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Study on Temporal Alterations in Land Cover Types in Simien Mountain National Park, Northwest Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Getinet Masresha
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This study was carried out in Simien Mountain National Park (SMNP) of Ethiopia to trace the temporal dynamics in land use types from the information generated through the analysis of land sat images. Results revealed that throughout the study period, variable extent of changes was observed in land use classes. In the first reference period (1972 - 1994), agricultural (9945.56 ha) and barren land (3066.6 ha) showed a remarkable increment whereas other land use types were decreased. In the second reference period (1994 - 2017), montane forest, grassland and shadow showed increasing trend with the dramatic change in grassland. In the first reference period (1972 - 1994), maximum negative rate of change was observed for Erica forest with deceleration rate of 83 ha/year which continued in the 2nd reference period (1994 - 2017) with the change decreasing rate of 16.6 ha/year. Maximum positive rate of change (74.6 ha/year) was observed for agricultural land followed by barren land (68.6 ha/year). In the second reference period maximum positive rate of change was observed for grassland with accelerated rate of change 260.5 ha/year whereas maximum deceleration rate (272.8 ha/year) was observed for agricultural land. At present, montane forest cover is increasing whereas agricultural land is decreasing dramatically contributing for the restoration of the ecosystem. However, intensified grazing was identified as a principal driver affecting ecological process in the Park; therefore, a long term strategy should be designed to meet the sustainable utilization of natural resources in the Park.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding land use change in Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. In addition, this study documents the current trends land use dynamics in the Park.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

Geographical Analysis of Household Waste Generation and Disposal in Taraba State, Northeast Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Peter P. Umeh, Kelechi Friday Nkwocha, Samuel Oji Iheukwumere
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Household wastes have become one of the greatest menaces in the world over, and the situation in developing countries such as Nigeria has become pathetic. The goal of this paper is to examine the nature of household solid waste generation, collection and methods of disposal in Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. The data for this study was collected through primary and secondary sources. The Primary data sources include; field work, questionnaire and personal observation. The secondary sources of data were obtained from the ministry of Environment Jalingo, for a period of ten (10) years (2000-2013). A set of 200 carefully coded questionnaires were distributed, this was done to elicit responses from respondents. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was employed in the examination of the statistical significance of the variation among the selected area of study. From our results, 56.5% of respondents are female while 43.5% of respondents are male. The study revealed that a large proportion (47%) of Jalingo residents dump their wastes at refuse disposal points in their neighborhoods, 35% dump their wastes in any available open land while 5 and 8% dump their wastes in streams and drainages respectively. The study concluded by noting that household waste is not properly managed in jalingo and therefore recommends that policy makers are required to identify and distinguish between the day time and official population in Jalingo and use the statistics as a basis for planning.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated household waste generation in Taraba State, Northeast Nigeria. A lot has been written on solid waste management, Liquid wastes and municipal waste management in the study area, but curiously, scholars have either neglected or have chosen to form a blind eye to the rising challenges of household solid waste management in Jalingo. It is this gap that this research intends to fill.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Rizky Haryana, Bambang Mulyana
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Increased construction industry and accelerated infrastructure programs drive economic development globally and open opportunities for investors in the capital market. Rational investors will choose investments that provide maximum returns with certain risks, or otherwise certain returns with minimal risk, depending on individual investors' preferences. To minimize risk, one of the methods used is to form a portfolio. The purpose of this study was to find out how to assess the optimal portfolio of shares for building construction companies using the Markowitz approach. The data in this study are secondary based on daily stock prices obtained from the IDX during the period February 2018 to July 2018. The research method used is descriptive, quantitative research. The number of samples used is four issuers, with saturated sampling techniques. The analytical tool used to assess the optimal portfolio is the Markowitz model, and its data is processed using Microsoft Excel. The results showed that an efficient two-share portfolio was found in the combination of ADHI and WIKA issuers, an efficient three-share portfolio was found in a combination of ADHI, WIKA and WSKT issuers, and four-share portfolio alternatives for optimal portfolios were formed by a combination of ADHI issuers, PTPP, WIKA, and WSKT, which together produce the lowest risk level.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of very few that have investigated optimal portfolio formation from one sector, namely building construction, and registered in the LQ45 Index with the Markowitz approach.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Alebachew Merawie, Melkamu Alemayehu, Biruk Masrie
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Onion is one of the most important cash crops produced by smallholder farmers mainly during the irrigation season. However, the productivity of onion in Amhara Region is very low which is mainly associated with improper agronomic practices. This research was therefore conducted to increase the productivity of onion by identifying the optimum rate of nitrogen and intra-row spacing for economical production of the crop in Alawuha Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme. Four rates of nitrogen (0, 41, 82, 123 kg ha-1) and three intra-row spacing (6, 8, 10 cm) in factorial combination were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Results indicated that nitrogen and intra-row spacing significantly influenced most of the growth and phenological parameters of onion where application of 123 kg ha-1 nitrogen increased leaf number by 67.3% and prolonged days to maturity of onion by about 7 days compared to the respective control plants. Similarly, nitrogen rate and intra-row spacing significantly affected bulb yield of onion where the highest marketable bulb yield (37.48 t ha-1) was recorded by application of 123 kg ha-1 on plants spaced at 6 cm intra-row spacing which was statistically similar with those yield (35.07 t ha-1) recorded with the combination of 82 kg ha -1 nitrogen and 6 cm intra-row spacing. Application of 123 kg ha-1 nitrogen on plants spaced at 6 cm intra-row spacing is recommended for production of onion in Alawuha Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme as it recorded the highest net benefit (Eth-Birr 429,569) with relatively high marginal rate of return.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the influence of nitrogen rate and intra-row spacing on the bulb yield of onion in Amhara Region. Therefore, the findings of the present study will contribute to the improvement of production and productivity of onion in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Financial Literacy of Telebachillerato Students: A Study of Perception, Usefulness and Application of Financial Tools

Research Article
Author(s): Elena Moreno-Garcia, Arturo Garcia-Santillan, Aracely De los Santos Gutierrez
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The aim of this empirical study is to explain how students of a Telebachillerato in Veracruz, Mexico perceive financial variables like income, money management, savings, investment, spending and credit. Telebachilleratos are high schools for rural communities in Mexico assisted by educational audiovisual support and two or three teachers to explain material to students. Hence, the hypothesis raises the existence of a factorial structure that underlies and that allows to explain the perception and knowledge of students towards these financial topics. For this empirical study, the Financial Education Test by Contreras-Rodríguez et al. (2017) was used, which presented an internal consistency of ? = 0.859, and was applied upon 368 students enrolled in different semesters of a school year. The data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis with the criterion of extraction of main components. The findings show a favorable perception towards the variables that were analyzed. There is significant evidence in the “income” variable, for instance, about the clear conviction of students that study and training constitute a bridge that will help them earn a good income when they enter into a job. In addition, it was also perceived that extracurricular courses were another potential source to improve their income.
Contribution/ Originality
This research is one of the few that have explored the Telebachillerato students, who belong to a vulnerable socioeconomic sector of Mexico. This study analyzes the perception of this population segment towards financial tools to ascertain allows to appreciate that educate in financial topics to these young people can not only improve their economic condition but motivate them to keep studying.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Responsible and Sustainable Tourism: A Comparison of Community Perceptions

Research Article
Author(s): Paul V Mathew, Sara Sareena Thankachan
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Responsible tourism (RT) has emerged as a significant means of implementing a pro-community, pro-poor, and sustainable program. As the term is relatively new, it is attracting considerable attention worldwide. However, it is often confused with sustainable tourism (ST) due to sharing similar underlying principles. This article thus endeavors to analyze the theoretical basis of both concepts by examining community perceptions in tourist destinations. A structured survey questionnaire was first administered among 387 residents from four tourist destinations in the Indian state of Kerala. Following the data analysis, it was observed that responsible tourism is significantly linked to sustainable tourism. Furthermore, the former fulfills the objectives of the latter in such a way that rather being different from sustainable tourism, it is a limited version of it. Whereas sustainable tourism is more a theoretical concept, responsible tourism is an action component with more practical implications. Consequently, the findings provide insights for academicians and policymakers into defining and implementing both concepts at various levels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study offers two contributions to existing discussions on responsible and sustainable tourism: (1) it is unique in its attempt to validate both concepts through community perceptions; (2) it is one of only a few studies to investigate the relationship between the two concepts, which share similar attributes.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Self-Esteem, Optimism and Burden of Care among Relatives of Cardiovascular Disease Patients in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Southwest, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Stephen Ishola Babatunde, Taofik Olatunji Bankole, Rasheed Adebayo Yinusa
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
Providing informal care, particularly for a person needing assistance for daily activities as a result of chronic illness such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a demanding task which requires time, dedication and preservation. In spite of burdens that caregivers of CDV patients are faced with, there are dearth of studies that have explored the level of the burden of care among relatives of CVD in Nigeria. This study addresses this gap by raising the question: to what extent does care for CVD patients affect caregiver’s psychological, behavioral and physiological daily lives. The study was a cross-sectional survey and it adopted the purposive sampling technique. Primary data were sourced from 200 caregivers/relatives from three tertiary hospital: Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Federal Medical Centre Owo and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Complex Ile-Ife. The outcome variable is caregiver’s burden, and the key explanatory variables are self-esteem and optimism. The Zarit (ZBIS), Rosenburg Self Esteem and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) standardised psychological scales were employed to measure caregiver’s burden, self-esteem and optimism. Pearson r was applied using Stata version 13. Results showed that a significant proportion of the caregivers experienced moderate to severe levels of burden. Also, results showed that caregivers’ burden was not significantly associated with Self-esteem (r200 = 0.04, p >.025) and optimism (r200 = 0.07, p >.025). It was imperative to provide professional help and supportive counselling to caregivers of CVD patients, in order to reduce their burden, strengthen the coping skill and thus improve their quality of life.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is that it documents empirical findings that are useful for research, clinical practice and counselling; as such document provides insights on the experience of these informal caregivers are strategies for valuable intervention programmes to reduce the burden among relatives of cardiovascular disease patients.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Pricing Strategy of Supply Chains with Uncertain Remanufacturing Rate and WTP Discrepancy

Research Article
Author(s): Tong Shu, Qi Liu, Shou Chen, Shouyang Wang, Kin Keung Lai
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
A well-known conclusion in extant literature on remanufacturing is that the overall supply chain profits tend to be higher when the used products are recycled by the retailer. This article builds a model of a closed-loop supply chain consisting of a single retailer and a single manufacturer and analyzes the impact of recovery rate and remanufacturing rate on pricing strategy of closed-loop supply chains when consumer willingness to pay for new and remanufactured products differs. In the model, the retailer recycles all used products and the manufacturer exploits the used products recycled by the retailer to make remanufactured products. This article investigates the performance of supply chains with centralized and decentralized decisions, and the Stackelberg’s game model is deployed to find whether recovery rate and remanufacturing rate can significantly affect the product prices and output of supply chains when the consumer willingness to pay varies. Meanwhile, the rise in recovery rate and remanufacturing rate leads to increased overall profits in closed-loop supply chains. This further indicates that the optimal profits of closed-loop supply chains in centralized decisions are higher than those in decentralized decisions.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the uncertainty of recovery rate and remanufacturing rate in the closed-loop supply chain of remanufacturing. It also considers that the uncertainty of preferences cannot be ignored in the pricing decision of remanufacturing production.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Post Disaster Recovery Process of Landslides in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Aranayake Landslide - Sri Lanka

Research Article
Author(s): E.N.C. Perera, D.T. Jayawardana, Manjula Ranagalage
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
The basic principle for the recovery of residential area from a landslide disaster is restoring the damaged area to its condition before the disaster. This study focuses on evaluates the recovery process and reinstallation of pre-disaster economic functions after the landslide occurred in the year 2016 at Aranayake, Sri Lanka. Estimated values of the collapsed infrastructure is 7,806 USD, and the affected region generates 200 000 USD for the annual country GDP. In contrast, 887 families directly or indirectly affected by the landslide. The primary data were obtained from comprehensive questioner survey of affected household (n=120), semi-structured focused group discussions, and key informant discussions. Recovery was assumed as a function of emergency recovery (ER), infrastructure resettlement (IR) and long-term recovery (LtR). Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to model the association between dependent variable Recovery and independent variables ER, IR and LtR. The findings revealed that, there is no systematic procedure used to monitor the progress of recovery programme. LtR has a profoundly positive effect on recovery with compared to IR and ER. Results suggest that ER and IR are individually insignificant but they effect on recovery jointly. Multiple regression model can be expressed as Recovery = 0.205+ 0.640ER + 0.124IR + 0.249LtR. The finding of this study is recommended to establish an institutional framework to monitor, evaluate and rectify the disaster recovery process with standardized indicators, procedures, and guidelines. Further, it is recommended to adopt a community based long-term recovery approach for sustainable landslide disaster recovery.
Contribution/ Originality
In many projects landslide disaster recovery limited to damaged infrastructure development in contrast, this study recommended the significant of long term recovery plan in any recovery project. Further this study proposed a recovery model which allowed monitoring recovery in a manner that is rapid, independent and reliable.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Microbiological and Physicochemical Changes in Palm Wine Subjected to Spontaneous Fermentation During Storage

Research Article
Author(s): Folake Titilayo Afolabi, Akeem Temitope Owoola
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This work aimed to isolate and identify yeasts obtained from palm wine subjected to spontaneous fermentation during storage. A total of forty (40) yeast isolates were from spontaneously fermented palm wine. The yeast counts obtained ranged from 5.46 x 104 cfu/ml at day one to 3.00 x 102 cfu/ml at day twenty-two. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated at all stages of fermentation. The pH dropped from 3.70 at 24 hours to 3.37 at 360 hours. Total titratable acidity of the wine increased from 2.28% at 24 hours to 4.50% at 528 hours. Total sugar of the stored palm wine from decreased from 4.0211g/10 ml at 24 hours to 0.6417g/10 ml at 528 hours was observed. The reducing sugar content of the stored palm wine decreased from 13% at 24 hours to 0.960% at 456 hours was also observed. Ethanol content of the stored palm wine increased steadily from 21.06 mg/ml at 24 hours to 88.99mg/ml at 456 hours as the storage time increases. Palm wine whose storage time is not beyond 120 hours is not injurious to the health of consumers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the isolation of yeasts that are accountable for the spontaneous fermentation of palm wine during storage and also to determine its physicochemical characteristics.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

Research Article
Author(s): Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini, Simon Dickmu, Alfons Renz, Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie, Jacques Francois Mavoungou, Rebecca Garabed
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The study aimed at detecting the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA in Stomoxys niger niger and cattle. Flies were collected using a Vavoua trap pitched 50m from the center of the herd and by net-catches on clinically sick (n=5) and symptomless cattle (n=5). Vesicular Epithelia Tissues (VETs) from sick cattle were analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt RT PCR) and serum from randomly selected animals without clinical signs was examined by serological test (NSP-ELISA Kit) for the presence of FMDV antibodies. Of a total of 568 Stomoxys trapped using the Vavoua trap, two species were identified namely 196 S. niger niger (34.51 %, 9. 33 Snn/t/d), 101 S. omega (17.78%, 4.80 so/t/d) and 271 non-biting Musca sp. (47.71%, 12.90 m/vavoua and day). The dissected mouth and legs of each fly caught were screened for FMDV using the rt RT PCR. FMDV RNA was found in the epithelial vesicles of all clinically sick animals (n=5, with mean Ct of 27.98456) and 3 out of 5 were serologically positive in the clinically in-apparent cattle group. The overall S. n. niger (most abundant species) contamination rate with the FMDV irrespective of collection method was 40.3 % with females (49.0 %) being slightly more contaminated than males (21.7%) (OR =0.45, P= 0.1506) and legs being more often positive than mouth-parts (P=0.02002). Flies were contaminated less frequently on animals without clinical signs than those on animals with clinical signs, but this difference was not significant (P=0.69680).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the mechanical transmission potential of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease by an African stable fly (Stomoxys niger niger). The FMD virus carrier status of wild S. n. niger was associated with the fly collection method, sex and anatomical part.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Antimicrobial Activities of Garlic and Ginger Extracts on Some Clinical Isolates

Research Article
Author(s): Iotsor, B. I., Iseghohi, F., Oladoja, O.E., Raji, O.R., Yusuf, Z., Oyewole, O.A.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The antibacterial activity of n-hexane and methanol extracts of ginger and garlic was determined in vitro against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae using agar well diffusion technique. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids and triterpenes in the plant extracts. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of garlic were observed to be more potent against S. dysenteriae with maximum zone of inhibition of 27 mm at 40 mg/ml and 29 mm at 80 mg/ml. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of ginger were observed to be more potent against E. coli with maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm at 40 mg/ml and 19 mm at 80 mg/ml. The MIC of the methanolic extract against the test organisms was determined to show values between 5 and 20 mg/ml. In comparison, the n-hexane extract had MIC values between 2.5 and 10 mg/ml. The methanol extract of ginger had MIC values between 10 and 40 mg/ml while the n-hexane had MIC values between 10 and 20 mg/ml. The MBC of methanol garlic extract was between 10 and 40 mg/ml. The n-hexane garlic extract had MBC values between 2.5 and 20 mg/ml. The methanol extract of ginger had MBC values between 10 and 40 mg/ml while the n-Hexane ginger extract had MBC values between 10 and 20 mg/ml. The result of this study showed that the extracts had activity against the test organisms and as such could be used for drug development.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the use of garlic and ginger for their antimicrobial properties aside from their use as spices. These plant-based extracts provide hope for solving antimicrobial resistance problems since it is difficult for microorganisms to develop resistance to them.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Effects of Medical Security Satisfaction and Trust in Doctors on Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from China

Research Article
Author(s): Xiaomei Gong, Jiaping Zhang
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
How to improve residents' well-being is regarded as an important goal of sustainable economic development. Although health care has an important impact (directly and indirectly) on subjective well-being (SWB), existing literature rarely empirically investigated the impact of individual’s satisfaction with health care on SWB, especially in developing countries like China, where the health care level has obviously lagged behind the public health needs and the speed of economic development. In addition, China is also facing a tense doctor-patient relationship situation in recent years. Based on the data from the Chinese Social Survey (CSS) for 2015, this paper empirically analyzes the impact of medical security satisfaction and trust in doctors (to reflect doctor-patient relationship) on Chinese people’s SWB. We have adopted a variety of methods for robust test, and used the propensity score matching (PSM) method to deal with the endogenous problems that may be caused by “selection bias”. The results show that both the medical security satisfaction and trust in doctors have positive effects on SWB, indicating that the improvement of medical security and doctor-patient relationship can contribute to Chinese people’s SWB in the new era. This study has certain guiding significance for the implementation of “healthy China” strategy, and further enriches the related research of health economics.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which has directly investigated the predictors of individual’s subjective well-being from the perspective of health care satisfaction. This paper further enriches the relevant studies on health economics and has important policy implications for developing countries.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Mohd Alsaleh, A.S. Abdul-Rahim
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This study identified the effects of economic factors on technical efficiency (TE) rate in the bio-energy section for the European Union zone (EU-28). A Tobit framework estimation was used to investigate the economic factors of TE rate in the bio-energy sector for the EU-28 zone during the period among 1990 through 2013. The findings point that economic determinants have a significant impact on TE rate of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 countries. The empirical findings suggest that labor input and gross domestic product (GDP) significantly affected the TE of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 zone through the duration of this paper. The results obviously inviting governors and politicians to investigate the TE rate of the bio-energy sector within the EU-28 zone. This paper gives further facts and details to the senates of the bio-energy sectors, as they require to get a further comprehension of the impact TE has on bio-energy production execution. In addition, the findings of this paper have suggestions for financiers who concentrates significantly on revenues from their direct-investments.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature in investigating the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 region. This study uses new estimation methodologies such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the Tobit Model to investigate the impact of economic determinants on the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU28 region during the period between 1990 and 2013.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Examining the Implications of Differentiated Instruction for High School Students’ Self-Actualization

Research Article
Author(s): Afaf Aljaser
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Adopting differentiated teaching and learning strategies has proved effective in addressing students’ diverse capabilities and potentials as well as developing their skills. This study examines the implications of differentiated instruction for self-actualization among high school students. For achieving this purpose, the quasi-experimental approach was adopted. The sample consisted of (58) high school students from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. They were subdivided into an experimental group comprising (28) students taught in a differentiated classroom environment and a control one comprising (30) students taught in a traditional classroom environment. Two scales, a differentiated classroom environment scale and a self-actualization scale, were prepared and applied upon the participants. The results showed a high level of self-actualization among the experimental group students, indicating that differentiated instruction improved their self-actualization skills. Differentiated instruction provided students with an environment suitable to make them feel self-confident, establish positive relations with their classmates, and positively interact and cooperate with them. In the light of these results, the author recommends holding training courses and workshops to qualify teachers for designing and utilizing differentiated instruction.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the implications of differentiated instruction for self-actualization. It enriches the existing literature of learner-centered education since it aims at considering learners’ individual differences and self-actualization skills. Studying the implication of differentiated instruction for self-actualization has a promising significance.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3