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The present study investigates the hidden experiences of students in the doctoral programs. This qualitative study was performed using the phenomenological method. The data were collected through the interview. The population consists of PhD graduates whose study period had passed. Using normal purposeful sampling, 45 graduates were interviewed. Strauss and Corbin method of data analysis was used for the analysis. 252 thematic phrases were divided to the five main themes: "The lack of cross-border communications", "failure in doing the main task", "lack of social justice", "lack of economic justice", "non-equality of universities" and "lack of equal opportunities". Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the experiences that PhD students acquire in universities while passing research courses and conducted by authors.
A novel Channel Estimation (CE) approach in multi-carrier wireless communication systems, such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system and Code Division Multiple access (CDMA) via a combination of Local Search (LS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed in this study. The CE is vital towards overcoming the effect of channel fading, which causes the degradation of the Bit Error Rate (BER) and the jamming of pilot symbols. The CE expressions were derived as an objective function to study the effect of improving BER in MC-CDMA/OFDM for a frequency selective Rayleigh fading environment. The number of particles for each single swarm was used to determine the best fitness solution, and is being computed from an average BER value. The proposed channel estimator was tested under the fast fading channel in a multi carrier communication system with and without interpolation methods. The simulation showed that the proposed CE of the MIMO-OFDM system can significantly result in better BER performance compared with other techniques at different modulation types, mean square error (MSE), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, and channel lengths. Contribution/ Originality
This study originates new formula for modify local search and particle swarm optimization algorithm LS-PSO.
Human diet and nutritional status have undergone a sequence of major shifts, stated as the nutrition transition. The present study was conducted to explore the contribution of meat towards nutritional security among rural, semi-urban and urban households in Karnataka with the sample size of 90 meat eating respondents and 30 non-meat eating respondents. Conventional analyses like mean and percentages were used for the present study. Apart from these analyses, the calorie and protein intake based on the respondent’s intake of food items of plant source, non-meat animal source and meat animal sources was worked out and discussed. As a whole, calorie and protein intake per consumption unit per day was found high in urban area followed by semi-urban area and awareness on calorie and protein intake among rural area in Karnataka was proposed. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributed the per capita consumption level of meat towards nutritional security in terms of calorie and protein intake at rural, semi-urban and urban households. Also conveyed the importance of meat consumption among children and senior citizens about the balanced nutrition including meat consumption to meet the recommended dietary intake of protein and calorie.
This study analyzed the determinants of farmer’s use of land reclamation practices in oil producing areas of Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained with structured questionnaire from 172 food crop farmers selected through multistage sampling procedure. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the level of use of land reclamation practices, while inferential statistical technique (logit model) was used to estimate the determinants of farmers ‘use of land reclamation practice. Results showed low level of use of land reclamation practices (x =1.5) among the farmers, and land filling was better practiced than other land reclamation practices. Determinants of farmers ‘use of land reclamation practices were level of education, farm size, extension contact, annual farm income, social organization membership, availability of land reclamation technology, and access to information. In order for land reclamation practices to mitigate the land degradation and soil fertility loss experienced in the oil producing areas of Imo State, government should adequately motivate the extension personnel to follow-up the use of the introduced land reclamation practices by the farmers. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on determinants of farmers’ use of land reclamation practices using multivariate logistics analysis. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that education, farm size, extension, farm income, social organization membership, availability of technology and access to information significantly determined farmers’ use of land reclamation practices.
The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of kid sex and birth type of goat on milk content (fat, lactose and pH) and ovarian cancer risk in women. With an object of specifying the difference among milk parameters (lactose, fat and pH) with respect to birth type (20 single and 20 twin) and sex of birth (20 male and 20 female) in dams, 80 native (kil) Goats based on birth type and sex were divided in to four groups (single, twin, female, male). Milks obtained from dams giving birth to twins and single kid showed significant differences in terms of lactose rates. Lactose level (5.12%) of the dams giving birth to one offspring was found higher than that of goats (4.70%) have twin kids. Also, birth type in dams had a significant influence on milk fat rates. The fat rate of milk (3.74%) obtained from single group was found higher than milk fat rate (3.45%) of twin group. There was no difference between single and twin group for milk acidity (pH). There are no differences between different sexes (male and female) of birth with respect to all milk parameters. According to findings obtained from this study, preferring the milks of the dams giving birth to twins can be relatively advantageous for the ovarian cancer risk. It is known that the contents of milk are proving to be a major risk factor in the development of ovarian cancer. However, exposure to risk factors such as high milk fat and lactose levels in milk from goats giving birth to single kid doesn’t means that ovarian cancer will necessarily occur. Contribution/ Originality
This is the first study on relationship between milk obtained from goats and ovarian cancer risk in women. The paper's primary contribution is finding that which milk increases ovarian cancer risk. This study contributes in the existing literature by demonstrating the importance of milk obtained from goats on ovarian cancer risk.
Software Defined Radio (SDR) has the flexibility to modify the characteristics of the receiving and transmitting radio device, without physically adjusting the hardware, due to development in the system. Because of the increasing need for wireless communication applications so as to enable consumers to communicate anywhere through information led to the emergence of many communication devices to include the large amount of applications that every one of the devices needs power and thereby increase the total power. This study confirms that the wireless communication system for secured transmit data, fast and inexpensive; can be done by implementing using Partial Reconfiguration (PR) modern technology in FPGA developing based on SDR. The Speed and performance can be improved. The area also can be decreased. The new Xilinx, Vertex Series FPGA, provides the provision of PR. The power consumption can be reduced by applying power reduction techniques in the blocks. The combination of MATLAB (Simulink and M-file) and Simulink HDL Coder offers flexible capabilities for analysis, design; simulation, implementation, and verification. With all these capabilities, in a single system to reduce the time spent tuning for reducing the algorithms and models during rapid prototyping and experimentation and less time on HDL coding. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature review for implementing MC-CDMA wireless communication system using Partial Reconfiguration (PR) that is a new technology in FPGA.
The US public school system is struggling with issues of student achievement. Therefore, the current study will examine education in the context of public goods, identifying three key dimensions of education as public goods and club goods. Then using agency theory, the paper addresses how school districts may be organized into local responsibility centers (RCs), to encourage local participation and better measure performance. The paper also identifies how the collaboration (sharing) economy may offer insight into all of these issues, examining four small case examples of organizations that illustrate the principles of the sharing economy. The paper then develops a proposal for revamping public education, based upon these principles. Contribution/ Originality
The paper critically reviewed the literature on public goods and club goods, specifically focusing on its application to education. As such, this study contributes to the existing literature by presenting a new way of assessing public education, and therefore develops novel and insightful recommendations on educational reform.
In this work, the nonlinear dynamical model of a lactic fermentation process is widely analysed and control experiments are achieved. More precisely, a production of yogurt by Streptococcus termophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in batch operation is taken into consideration. The process model is expressed by a set of nonlinear differential equations that describes the evolution of concentrations in the fermentation process. To validate the model, several simulations are performed in the Matlab programming and development environment. Furthermore, two experimental setups are used for batch fermentation experiments. From control point of view, the temperature and the pH are the basic dynamical factors that need monitoring and control in order to regulate the microbial growth and the lactic acid production. Different control architectures and tuning procedures are implemented. Specialized data acquisition and control software tools are used to perform the experiments. By using the features of these software tools, the time evolution of various process variables can be plotted and analysed. Several comparisons between the results obtained via simulation and with the two bioreactor setups are achieved. Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s main contribution is to validate the dynamical model of a lactic fermentation process by using simulators and laboratory bioreactors. A production of yogurt by Streptococcus termophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in batch operation is considered. Different control architectures and tuning procedures are implemented, and several comparisons are achieved.
3D Objects based on perturbation functions are considered in this paper. For shape creating a set of algorithms and software based on function-defined surfaces that perform an interactive rate and enable intuitive operations was proposed. Interactive modification of the 3D objects allows us to provide high level of detail leading to a photo-realistic appearance of the resulting shapes. Contribution/ Originality
This study uses a new technique for free-form representation created by mean of the analytical functions which have the following advantages: fewer data for mapping curvilinear surfaces (short database description), fewer geometric operations, simple animation and deformation of surfaces.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), Multi-Carrier (MC) system, is a popular standard in wireless communication for its enabling high throughput data transfer. However, the MC signal usually has a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which involves a wide-dynamic-range, power consuming amplifier. Whenever the signal height is greater than the amplified linear region, the signal is distorted. In this paper, propose a novel scheme that rotating phase shift (RPS) technique based signal scrambling is proposed to reduce PAPR in OFDM systems. In addition, the pilot phase signal is picked out by RPS technique applied new algorithm the local research to alleviate scrambling information corruption and show discernible advancements. So, our technique improves over the existing ones in the same category. The transmitted signal of OFDM is tested with Mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.16e standard, that compared the various phase shift with a slight computational complexity is studied. The simulation result shows that original signal at pilot-assisted QAM is capable of bringing down the electrical PAPR by about 3.5 times as a modest complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) point of 10-3 for M=8 low complexity. In addition, the best phase-shift factor was selected to reduce the monetary value of computational complexity. Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis eight factors rotating phase shift (RPS). The proposed method is applied local research algorithms to reduce peak-to-average power ratio based on OFDM.
This study is among major epidemics in the world and Turkey is conducted to evaluate the seasonality of the risk factors of the disease bovine tuberculosis. The seasonal distribution of Turkey’s outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in the 2005-2014 year was investigated in this study. Office International des Epizooties outbreak data was used to determine Turkey’s monthly bovine tuberculosis outbreak data at the provincial level for this evaluation. Turkey's 81 provinces, seven geographic regions, and 12-month outbreak data are evaluated. The distribution of the four seasons of the outbreak to the coast and inland are analyzed for the determined seasonality of the disease. In the study, it was found that Turkey reached the highest number of outbreaks of the disease throughout the summer at a rate of 29.44%. In the study, the risk of bovine tuberculosis disease, diseases of the seasonality of the summer months when the investigation come to the fore, has been carefully assessed in terms of planning for disease control measures. As a result, reveals how it should be used in the identification of disease-specific risk that results obtained in the fight against the disease in this study and the importance of the fight against the disease. Taking control of the disease and timely measures for the disease will contribute to the reduction of costs related to the disease. Contribution/ Originality
This study reveals that the bovine tuberculosis disease fighting plans should be prepared with an understanding of disease-season relationship by a country level.
In this paper, we generate the Adomian polynomial for major nonlinear terms which are mostly common in differential equations. And we applied it to Lane-Emden type of equations whose nonlinear terms are exponential functions. The result we obtained by modified Adomian decomposition method (ADM) gave a series solution which is the same as the Taylors series of the exact solution. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the use of Adomian decomposition method. It explicitly provide the Adomian polynomials of frequently occurring nonlinear terms in a linear functional. And, for the first time, applied to obtain an exact solution to the Lane-Emden type of equation.
We analyze and formulate an Eco-Epidemiological model with disease in the prey and predator, study the existence of the non-negative equilibria, obtain the sufficient conditions of locally asymptotical stability of the equilibria, then analyze the global stability of the positive equilibria. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of Eco-Epidemiological model. We get the conditions of local asymptotic and the existence of the boundary balance, and we proved the positive balance point is global asymptotical stability by constructing Liapunov function.
Background: Primary health care facilities are the closest to the community and are easily accessible to pregnant women and their children. Ensuring quality Antenatal care by skilled attendants at this level is pre-requisite to reducing pregnancy complications and over all maternal mortality Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the adequacy of antenatal care rendered at this level of care. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Babban-dodo primary health center, Zaria. An exit Questionnaires was administered to 400 pregnant women. Information on their demographic status and information about the Antenatal care just received was obtained focusing standard protocol for antenatal care. Result: showed that the women were not rendered all the full component of ANC. History of feeling unwell was not asked in 88%, examination including blood pressure check was done in only 37%, Obstetrics examination was done in more 80% of the women however symphsio-fundal height was not measured with tape. The women were sent to do most of the routine investigations, as they pay for these investigations and the revenue collected is used to partially run the hospital. There was only one nurse midwife at the center; community health workers were the sole providers and no medical doctor visit the hospital. Ninety six percent of the respondents were satisfied with the services while 3.6% were dissatisfied. Conclusion: There is total disregard for standard of care for antenatal services expected at this level. There is the need for re-assessment of all primary health care centers that are the first point of contact with our pregnant women, if reducing maternal mortality rate is great concern to all of us. Contribution/ Originality
This study further demonstrated that the quality of antenatal care in primary care facilities in Nigeria particularly in the Northern part of the country is poor and indirectly explains why maternal mortality and morbidity is very high.
Latex allergy is a common occupational disease among healthcare workers who use latex gloves. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of allergy to latex gloves among dental students and the role of exposure duration in latex allergy. In this prospective study, a total of 240 students completed a self-administered questionnaire aiming at providing information about glove, working habits, signs and symptoms related to glove use, precautions taken to minimize it, etc. The challenge and patch tests were performed through latex gloves, and skin prick test with commercial extracts. The questionnaire items and diagnostic tests revealed that one-fourth of subjects were suspicious for latex gloves hypersensitivity. Their mean value for skin reactions like contact urticaria, irritant or allergic dermatitis was between 10% and 14%, while for non-cutaneous symptoms the mean value was under 5%. The average latex exposure (in hours) is estimated to be about 214±71 (SE), with a maximum of 11500 hours. The correlation between studied variables and the time exposure to latex gloves revealed weak to moderate relations with respect to reported latex allergy, eczematous reactions, hand erythema after glove wearing, irritant reactions during wash/washout procedures, concentration oscillations during usage of latex gloves, or dyspnea attack during latex exposure. Due to the relationship between allergic reactions to latex gloves and some medical histories during school practice, it seems to be necessary to undergo pre-matriculation evaluation and periodic health surveillance of dental students. Contribution/ Originality
AB designed the questionnaire, assisted students to complete them, conducted diagnostic tests and collected the data; DK and SS coordinated and helped with the study design and conduction; DM assisted on students’ enrollment in the study and helped with the study design from the stomatological perspective; EP assisted on statistical analysis of the data; ÇM coordinated the students’ enrollment in the study; AR assisted on manuscript copyediting, EÇM drafted the manuscript.
The use of PowerPoint is widespread in classroom teaching, yet no studies exist that investigate how its use affects teacher sense of efficacy. Teacher sense of efficacy, understood as the teachers’ judgment of their capability to make differences in students’ learning, affects the effort teachers invest in teaching, the goals they set, and their level of aspiration. It has been found that highly efficacious teachers use a variety of teaching strategies and are more willing to integrate new technologies in their teaching practices. As the number of teachers who use presentation tools in their classroom increases, it would be valuable to know whether and how their use affects teacher sense of efficacy. This study expands the current literature on teacher sense of efficacy by investigating how the use of PowerPoint in the classroom relates to the construct. In order to measure whether PowerPoint use affects teacher sense of efficacy, we developed a self-administered questionnaire based on the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (OSTES) and adapted it to measure the effect of PowerPoint use in teacher efficacy. Twenty five in-service teachers who use PowerPoint quite often in their practices participated in this study. The results show that PowerPoint use has a general positive impact on teacher sense of efficacy. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by investigating the relationship between use of PowerPoint in the classroom and teacher sense of efficacy. The results indicate that PowerPoint use has a general positive impact on teacher sense of efficacy.
Textbooks play an important role in teaching and learning and have a great impact on the students in aspects such as cultural values, norms, and attitudes towards social roles and identities. In particular, textbooks are of great importance to the education for gender equity. This study aims to explore the representation of genders to find if there is any bias and stereotype in a set of English textbooks used in primary schools in Guangzhou, a metropolitan city in South China with a population of more than ten million. The investigation looks at the textbooks from aspects of frequency of genders, the social roles females and males play in different settings, and the priority of mention when both genders are referred to on one occasion. The results suggest that stereotypes and imbalanced representation of genders and gender social roles are evident in the textbooks. The paper also gives some suggestions as to materials writing and teaching. Contribution/ Originality
This study examines the representation of gender in an English textbook series used in Chinese primary schools and finds evidence of stereotypes and imbalanced representation of gender. Besides, it gives some suggestions as to materials writing and teaching.
Critical assessment on the correlation between public investment on road infrastructure and poverty was carried out, and therefore this research paper provides an in depth analyses of the linkage between road infrastructure and poverty, as well as, other relevant macro-economic variables used in the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) as target indicators. Using primary and secondary data from 1994-2013, dynamic time series models were applied in elaborating the various factors with thrust on road infrastructure that may influence poverty in Malawi. Noting poverty reduction as priority of Malawi Government’s development agenda since the early 1990s, MGDS provides the country’s socioeconomic growth and development platforms. According to the latest 2010 Integrated Household Survey (IHS3), the majority of Malawians (50.7 percent) are languishing in abysmal poverty; this level is remotely far from the MDGS target of 27 percent by end 2015. The country has a high inequality index (Gini 0.38) reflecting profound inequalities in access to assets, services and opportunities across the population. The distribution of the benefits of economic growth is also important for the alleviation of poverty. However, the distribution of income and wealth are highly skewed, with a majority of the population living in a state of absolute poverty. Based on NSO surveys (1998-2010), the poorest 20 percent of the population control only around 10 percent of national consumption implying inequality is not decreasing at all for long time. Hosts of factors explaining why poverty level continues to be rampant are: share of agricultural as a percent of GDP (proxy to agricultural production) and export as percent of GDP (proxy to exports). However, this paper findings show that there is significant (p=0.000<0.05) relationship between road network and poverty levels. Estimates from Granger Causality analysis indicate that for one percent increase in road network, a reduction of 7.2 percent in poverty level is perhaps achievable. Average inflation rate over the last 20 years stands at 22.41 percent, and this has an immense impact on poverty level since it dramatically reduces the purchasing power of the majority of the population. For a one percent increase in the inflation rate, there is a consequence of about 3.7 percent increase in the average poverty level. Average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate is 4.7 percent annually with a minimum of -4.9 percent and a maximum of 10.2 percent in the last 20 years. Poverty level appears to significantly respond to (GDP). There is a 4.27 percent reduction in poverty level if a one percent GDP increment takes place as shown in the dynamic time series analysis. In fact, the declining of agricultural production for export and the growing gap in balance of payment (average Malawi Kwacha -498.92 billion or approximately US$-1.1 billion) would immensely influence GDP negatively and therefore poverty becomes abysmal as GDP growth plummets. In a nutshell, the findings confirm that in the long run economic growth is the key to alleviation of extreme poverty since it creates the resources to raise incomes. Given the importance of agriculture in contributing towards GDP in Malawi, the positive impact that this sector has on poverty is evident. For agriculture to meaningfully impact economic growth, road infrastructure plays a great role. Other pro-poor variables such as development roads and other investment on infrastructure are vital for economic growth and hence poverty alleviation. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have analyzed the influences of road infrastructure on poverty in Malawi. It also demonstrates how road infrastructure development enhances economic growth, which is the engine of combating poverty in Malawi. It, in fact, investigated the links between various economic growth variables, road infrastructure development and alleviation of poverty in Malawi, as a whole.
Studies by leading educators and researchers indicate that ECCE teachers’ level of education affect their classroom practices and career paths. This paper is based on a descriptive study carried out among 296 preschool teachers in Peninsula Malaysia. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of preschool teachers’ education on their classroom practices and career paths. Questionnaires were used as instrument (instruments) to collect the data. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. The findings indicated that preschool teachers with higher levels of education (diploma and above) significantly have better classroom practices than their counterparts with lower levels of education (below diploma). Similarly preschool teachers with higher levels of education have significantly better career paths than those with lower levels of education. The findings have crucial pedagogical and practical implications towards early childhood education in Malaysia. In terms of pedagogical implications, the findings suggest that a diploma should be the minimum educational qualification for preschool teachers because the results indicated that better educated teachers are more effective in their classroom practices. In terms of practical implications, policy makers should look into this matter seriously and take the necessary steps to enhance preschool teachers’ level of education and skills. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which has investigated the effect of preschool teachers’ education on their classroom practices and career path in Peninsula Malaysia. Hope this study will shed some light to the Ministry of Education to enhance preschool teachers’ knowledge and skills on their best practices.
Objective: This study was aimed at determining the external validity of the psychometric properties of a two-factor Collegiate Learning Assessment Performance Task Diagnostic Instrument (CLAPTDI) for use in assessing learning skills among predominantly black college students. The construct validity of the two factors CLAPTDI had been established in a previous study exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Establishing the external validity involved conducting a multi-group test of the measurement instrument’s factorial scores equivalence across panels of lower class and upper class students from a predominantly black college. Method: The study relied on a strict test of equivalence categorization by focusing on tests for invariance across the two groups with respect to factor loadings, intercepts, and error factor loadings by estimating the difference in chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic and comparative fit index (CFI). Sets of measurement and structural parameters were put to the test in a logically ordered and increasingly restrictive manner. Results: The analyses found that the CLAPTDI scale’s factorial measurement structure was invariant across lower class and upper class PBC students. Conclusion: The collegiate learning assessment performance task diagnostic instrument with two latent factors and five observed variables is a valid measurement scale for assessing the level of analytic reasoning and problem solving learning among predominantly black college students. Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of very few studies which have investigated the external validity of the psychometric properties of a two-factor Collegiate Learning Assessment Performance Task Diagnostic Instrument (CLAPTDI) for use in assessing learning skills among predominantly black college students.