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Listing 66 - 20 of 2206 results.

Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) Evaluation in Gasabo District, Rwanda

Research Article
Author(s): Irankunda Elisephane
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Industries, and Vehicles emit air pollutants; all among these pollutants Particulate Matter (PM) has the greatest effects on human health like respiratory diseases and effects on environment like global warming and climate change. To find the levels of ambient PM air pollutants in commercial and bus-stations areas of Gasabo-district, one of the three districts of Kigali the capital city Rwanda was the main purpose of this research. The Air Visual Nodes instruments were used to measure values of PM concentration in microgram per cubic-meter (µg/m3). Questionnaire method was used where the total of 125 respondents for all sites was randomly selected to respond some questions before starting sampling activity in July, 2018. Sampling showed that; In both Batsinda and Kinamba commercial areas, level of PM is between (20-60)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-130)µg/m3 for PM10. While in both Kagugu and Gakinjiro (Gisozi) commercial areas level of PM is between (15-45)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (50-110)µg/m3 for PM10. In Batsinda bus-station level of PM is between (25-60) µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-130)µg/m3 for PM10. While in Kakiru bus-station, level of PM is between (15-40)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-120)µg/m3 for PM10. Interview showed vehicle and decomposition of waste materials emissions as source of air pollutants. World Health Organization Guideline indicate that 10µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 20µg/m3 for PM10 are adequate, these above findings are high compared to these guidelines that is why education for all toward good air quality would be the best option in reducing air pollutants in Kigali city.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the level of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Kigali. As result, it will help to reduce air pollutants concentration in Kigali for better human health and environmental protection in general.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal, Abdullahi Abubakar Biu, Umar Isa Ibrahim
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
This present study aimed to detect haemosporidians from the blood of Muscovy ducks in Gombe State Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 880 apparently healthy ducks of both sexes from the month of April, 2015 to February, 2016. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood films revealed 16.14% overall prevalent rate of haemoparasites. The prevalence was found to be highest in Yamaltu/Deba LGA (23.08%) and least in Funakaye LGA (7.83%). Among the four genera of haemoparasites detected, Aegyptinella species (7.73%) was most prevalent followed by Leucocytozoon species (5.57%) and Haemoproteus species (2.16%) while Plasmodium specie (0.68%) was the least. Prevalence rate was found to be significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the young (22.68%) compared to the adults (10.43%) ducks. The female (18.54%) were found to be more infected than the male (13.58%) ducks, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.0565). The prevalence of haemoparasites was found to be significantly (p<0.0001) higher during the rainy (24.55%) compared to the dry (7.27%) season. This present study represents the first to provide evidence of haemoparasites in Muscovy ducks in Gombe State, Nigeria. There is need for further researches on the epidemiology of haemoparasites in Muscovy ducks reared under extensive management system in Nigeria. Strategic control of arthropods and maintenance of strict biosecurity in and around poultry houses will curb transmission of arthropod borne haemoparasites among village poultry species.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the occurrence of avian haemoparasites in free range Muscovy ducks in developing countries including Nigeria. The study has also contributed to the existing literatures concerning haemoparasites infections in domesticated ducks in the world.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Determination of Heavy Metals in Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) and Water Samples from Lake Hayq, South Wollo, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Dessie Tibebe, Dereje Lemma, Gizachew Teshome
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in Lake Hayq water and fish muscles samples during dry and wet seasons. Samples of fish organs and water were collected from four sampling sites of Lake Hayq. An optimal procedure required 8 mL of (69%) HNO3 and 6 mL of (30%) H2O2 to mineralize powdered samples in open refluxed digestion vessels: 0.5 g of the fish body for 2:30 hrs at temperature of 130oc.Concentrations of six metals (Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr) in water and their accumulation in the edible tissue of Nile Tilapia were determined by FAAS. The results revealed that the average heavy metal concentrations in water samples were; Pb (0.006), Ni (0.018), Zn (0.083), Cd (0.004), Cu (0.1) and Cr (0.003) mg/L in the lake. The average concentration of heavy metals in fish samples were; Pb (2.02), Ni (2.29), Zn (55.52), Cd (1.57), Cu (11.18) and Cr (0.745) mg/Kg. Among the detected metals, zinc (Zn) showed a maximum accumulation in the edible muscle of Nile Tilapia fish from Lake Hayq. The concentrations of the metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu) were below the recommended limit by WHO, USEPA and FAO. For fish the highest accumulations of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) concentration were observed above the recommended limit by FAO/ WHO. Application of the statistical t-test on heavy metal analysis has shown that there was no significant difference between fish as well as water samples of the lake for all sites.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contributions is finding the pollution of the aquatic environment of heavy metals water and fish muscles samples during dry and wet seasons and produce an information of edible fish quality by standards of WHO/FAO, especially concern in South Wollo, Lake Hayq.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Purchasing Power Parity Hold in Major SAARC Countries? Panel Cointegration Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Rashid Mehmood, Muhammad Zeeshan Younas
Journal: Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research

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Abstract
In an effort to provide a better understanding of the large variation in price levels between countries, this paper examines the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis using monthly data of SAARC countries over the period of 2000-2017. We utilized four econometric tests to examine the existence of this hypothesis in the understudy region. Panel results show that PPP seems to be moderately held in a panel of SAARC, while in the country by country analysis we find partial support of PPP for all economies. We also find that the price and exchange rate have a long-run relationship while ECM analysis shows that the exchange rate and price differential are correlated in the short run, and price and exchange rate have bidirectional causality relationship. In addition, the dummy variable analysis shows that the Global Financial Crisis 2007-08 significantly affect the SAARC countries exchange rate in terms of depreciation. However, these types of external shocks do not have any permanent effect on the real exchange rate and other things remaining the same, no active policy intervention is warranted for the sustainability of external balance.
Contribution/ Originality
This contributes to the existing literature by estimating the long-run parameters and short-run dynamics to check the speed of adjustments towards the long-run equilibrium.
Economics » Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 1

Investigation of Usability of Fatty Acids as Copper Extractant from Leached Copper Ore

Research Article
Author(s): Moses T. Adejumo, Olayinka Sanda
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on leaching and solvent extraction of copper from low-grade copper ore mined from Nasarawa (Nigeria) by fatty acids in petroleum-based diluents - methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), styrene, and kerosene. The leaching investigation showed that the optimum temperature, contact time, and H2SO4 concentration are 91.5oC, 39 minutes, and 2.9 M, respectively. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was adopted for the optimization of the leaching conditions. The aqueous solution obtained from leaching of copper ore in sulfuric acid was used for the solvent extraction. The extraction studies showed that fatty acids in a petroleum-based organic solvent is an effective extractant for solvent extraction of copper. The fatty acids used in the studies were obtained by acidifying the soap that was produced when vegetable oil was treated with sodium hydroxide. It was also observed that diluents affect the percentage extraction of copper. Styrene achieved the highest percentage extraction, followed by kerosene and MIBK at 80 % and 90 % v/v diluents in fatty acids.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated and ascertained the fact that fatty acids obtained from vegetable oil can be effectively used as a copper extractant in place of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid which is commonly used during solvent extraction.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Structural Breaks, Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Iyabo Adeola Olanrele
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Instability and low electricity generation in Nigeria has continued to raise concerns. The power sector reforms aimed at enhancing increased and stable electricity generation over the decades have not been economic growth oriented. Among other factors, obsolete and poor infrastructural equipment as well as inadequate investment has continued to impede the optimal impact of the power sector. This paper used full sample VAR and structural breaks approach-rolling impulse response(RIR) model-to obtain evidence for changes in the impact of electricity generation on Nigerian economic growth based on quarterly data from 1970 to 2016. Findings revealed that electricity generation does not Granger-cause real GDP growth rate and gross fixed capital formation, while a short-run relationship exist for labour force. No strong dynamic relationship exists between electricity generation and real GDP growth over the lag period. Lastly, result from RIR technique also showed that real GDP growth rate does not respond to impulses from electricity generation over the years, but for weak impact in the early 1980s.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by examining the relationship between electricity production and economic growth in Nigeria using a recent innovative structural break approach (Rolling impulse response). The approach was used to capture the variations in economic growth that arises from structural changes relating to electricity generation overtime.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Assets Pricing and Equity Duration Paradox

Research Article
Author(s): Raja Rehan, Imran Umer Chhapra, Ali Zain
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
We used the co-integration approach and panel unit root test to estimate banks’ equity duration in Pakistan, India, China, Australia, the UK and the US from 1992 to 2017. The results showed that the highest duration is in the UK and Chinese banks then the US and Indian banks followed by the banks in Pakistan and Australia. These results have important implications for policymakers particularly because banks act as channels for monetary policy. Since duration is a measure of sensitivity to interest rates, these results imply that the UK and Chinese banks would be the most affected by monetary policy changes while those in Pakistan and Australia would be the least affected. Since duration also measures the speed by which cash flows come back, these results indicate that investors in Pakistan and Australia banks recover their investments faster than investors in the Indian, US, Chinese and UK banks. Therefore, banks in Australia and Pakistan are the most profitable while those in the UK and China are the least profitable.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of few studies to have investigated the asset pricing and equity duration paradox by estimating banks’ equity duration in Pakistan, India, China, Australia, the UK and the US. These results have important implications for policymakers particularly because banks act as channels for monetary policy.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

An Example of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: Production of Pine Nuts

Research Article
Author(s): Mucahit COSKUN, Mesut GOK, Sevda COSKUN
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
Turkey is an important country in terms of forestry and biodiversity. In the world, it is one of the places with the highest plant diversity after the equatorial region. There are nearly 4000 endemic plant species. Local conditions have a significant share in the formation of this property. Turkey holds a good position as a wood producer in the production of forest products, which are among forest assets. However, despite its high potential for production of non-wood forest products, which are also among forest assets, it cannot take due advantage of this potential in resource management. Production and marketing problems are the main factors underlying its failure to use this potential. This study aims to draw attention to the production and marketing of pine nuts, which are non-wood forest products, and to put forward suggestions for the use of the above-mentioned potential. Systematic approach was used as a research method. In some cases, regional approaches were also utilized. The data of the Turkish Statistical Institute was used as research material. ArcGIS 10.3 package was utilized in the preparation of cartographic materials. The seed obtained from the cones of Pinus pinea (Stone pine) is a product which is traded both in Turkey’s domestic market and exported abroad. The seeds, which are commercially important, are important sources of income for rural areas. Turkey is suitable for the ecological conditions of Pinus pinea, which is among the industrial wood and non-wood forest products. For this reason, Pinus pinea fields should be made widespread in order to retain population in rural areas and increase their income.
Contribution/ Originality
This research explores the different characteristics of Stone Pine, one of the non-wood forest products, in Turkey and rest of world. This makes the present study more exclusive among other research works.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2

A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation

Research Article
Author(s): Mucahit COSKUN, Sevda COSKUN, Mesut GOK
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
Forest ecosystems, which are among the important components of the natural environment, stand as one of the significant sources of life. In addition to the natural, cultural, and economic functions of forest products and services, wild foods such as fruits, mushrooms, and leaves that are obtained from forests generate significant amounts of additional food for the poor rural population. Countries have to come up with serious policies to prevent rural populations settling around forest areas from moving to urban areas and to increase their income sources. This study deals with the cultivation of truffle mushroom in Turkey and its potential. In line with the aim of the study, suggestions are made on its cultivation by calling attention to its ecology and potential. In this study,as a method, descriptive survey model has been used. In this method, existing situation on a subject is interpreted by searching. Research material consists of data obtained from the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. ArcGIS 10.3 package was utilized in the preparation of cartographic materials.  Turkey is a country in the middle belt where four seasons are experienced and different climates prevail because geographical features change at short distances. The different ecological environment Turkey incorporates increases biological diversity there. The presence of various plant and fungi species in Turkish forests is about different ecological environments. Among the forested areas spreading in Turkey, Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea forests provide more suitable ecological environments for truffle species. Tuber aestivum, Tuber borchii, Tuber brumale, Tuber candidum, Terfezia arenaria, Terfezia leptoderma, Choiromyces meandriformis, and Terfezia boudieri naturally exist in Turkey. Truffle mushrooms, which naturally maintain their lives in Turkish forests and have high economic value in the world, will bring high income to forest villagers and interested producers by providing agricultural forestry activities in outdoor open areas in addition to natural areas of propagation.
Contribution/ Originality
The research is very first and foremost work on Truffle in the area of Physical Geography in Turkey making it significant one. As for as, other disciplines are concerned the research on Truffle Fungus is too limited to be considered.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Auditing Procedures and Process in the Public Sector

Research Article
Author(s): Musa Success Jibrin, Ofor Theresa Nkechi, Success Blessing Ejura
Journal: Financial Risk and Management Reviews

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Abstract
This paper examines the impact of auditing in the public sector. It delved into the perspectives of functional auditing in the public sector in view of the continue quest for accountability placed on the accounting officer. The accounting officers must, as a matter of facts and professionalism, carry out his role and responsibility in such a way that affairs of resources placed under his control are properly accounted for and stewardship report rendered periodically to the public for performance assessment. Procedure in public sector brings out the essence of accountability in the public sector and the resultant stewardship accounting. The paper commences with the paper keywords, introduction, and the body of the presentation, observations, summary and conclusions in order for the researcher to drive home his point.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper examines the impact of auditing procedures and process in the public sector. It will serve as reference materials for future researchers and update the previous studies as well filling the existing gap in literature.

Economics » Financial Risk and Management Reviews » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2

Remotion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Absorption Column

Research Article
Author(s): F. G. M. Porto, M. L. Begnini, e J. R. D. Finzer
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Some physical, chemical or electrochemical phenomena that cause the decomposition of a material, usually metallic, they can be defined as corrosion. Analyzing the adverse means and determining its characteristics, several efficient methods can be developed to prevent it, consisting in one of them the absorption of the oxidizing agent. This technique is based on significantly reduce the concentration of the compound. As the hydrogen sulfide corrosive substance, its excessive presence in gas streams intensifies the deterioration of equipment during the contact. The objective was to absorb hydrogen sulfide from biogas. The absorption study was conducted by applying a 5% sodium hydroxide solution. The device designed consisted of a cylindrical packing column, bearing a gas inlet and a distributor at the bottom, which further supports the packing, and a liquid inlet and distributor at the top. The treated gas is released from the top of the column, and the liquid is discharged at the bottom, containing hydrogen sulfide absorbed in the form of salts. In the design, the biogas flow was 15m³/h with 3% mole hydrogen sulfide and the tower was package with Rasching rings of 1.5 inches. The calculations performed have enabled the design of an absorption column 0.10 m in diameter and 3.00 m height of the packing, causing a loss in pressure of 0.5 cm water/m column.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to use biogas for energy use and to perform an absorption column design to avoid corrosion by hydrogen sulfide gas. The project was developed for application in a unit installed in a farm in the city of Uberaba in Brazil.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

The Evaluation of the Agriculture of Hazelhazelnut in Duzce According to Climate Parameters

Research Article
Author(s): Mucahit COSKUN, Erol SOZEN
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Agriculture is a highly important economic activity in the world. Among the agricultural products of Turkey, hazelhazelnut is an important product for Turkey’s economy. More than 60 percent of the world hazelhazelnut production is made in Turkey. In this study, hazelhazelnut production in Düzce is examined in terms of possible climate effect in future. Because, Düzce is one of the important provinces in hazelhazelnut production. In th study, as a method, descriptive survey model has been used. In this method, existing situation on a subject is interpreted by searching. For this purpose, interpretation has been made by taking datum as to research from Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and Turkey Statistical Institute. These datum have been compared with weather data. In Düzce and in Turkey, hazelhazelnut production changing by years has been determined. It is seen that the largest factor to this is unexpected freeze and change of rainfall. It is reasoned that possible temperature increase in future and the effect of drought in Turkey and in Düzce that can effect agriculture of hazelhazelnut. Because, hazelhazelnut is selective and sensitive plant in terms of climate.
Contribution/ Originality
In the study, it has been evaluated hazelnut production of World and Turkey by comparing. Besides, in Düzce it has been contacted between hazelnut production and climate parameters. From this aspect, this study is the first in geography area.

Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Effects of Environmental Satisfaction on Family Displacement Case Study: Gohar Dasht Region, Karaj City

Research Article
Author(s): Elnaz Ghasemi
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
Residential Displacements from a place to another symbolize the urban viability. This mobility resulted in family movements can be rooted in various ways. Regarding to complexity of satisfactory rate, understanding of reasons are considered as difficult issues. In long term, The lack of appropriate attention to satisfaction rate of residents has led to negative impacts on Iranian city. Hence, effective indexes of residential mobility in this article are examined in a specific area named Karaj, Gohar Dasht. Analytical descriptive method was selected in conjunction with employing librarian research in assembling data. Moreover, 320 questioners with 30 indexes are used and analyzed. Obtained results denote the kind of possession, sense of belonging and income level as the most effective features on the sense of satisfaction and residential mobility.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the role of environmental satisfaction on households’ residential mobility.

Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Measuring the Quality of Health Services in Lattakia Province Patients' Perspective (Field Study of Health Centers in Jableh City)

Research Article
Author(s): Bassel Asaad, Habeeb Mahmoud
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This study aims to measure the quality of health services provided in Lattakia province (Jableh city) from beneficiaries’ perspective, the study sample group is chosen from the families who visited health centers in Jableh during the current crisis across the country. The researcher used the descriptive and analytical approach, a questionnaire was designed and distributed between families who benefited from provided health services in order to measure the quality of provided health services in the mentioned centers. The sample consists of 1100 questionnaire which is about 10% of the sample study group, using random sampling principle, and in order to measure the quality of health services the researcher used the satisfaction of health services beneficiaries model. The data was studied and analyzed using SPSS program. Data analysis showed that health services centers in Jableh city lack quality, depending on the Dimensions of Quality Health Services (tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, empathy, credibility and safety) from the perspective of the beneficiaries of the provided services.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the measurement of beneficiaries’ satisfaction with health services provided at Jableh health centers.

Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Women's Self-Image and Tendency to Experience Sexual Harassment from the Perspective of Men (A Study from the Perspective of Harassers / Men)

Research Article
Author(s): Denok Wigati
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The study aims to test a hypothesis stating that there is a negative correlation between women’s self-image from the perspective of men with the tendency for women to experience sexual harassment. Variables in this study included the independent variable of self-image of women, and the dependent variables Ttendency to experience sexual harassment, and a co-predictor of age. The subjects of the study were 100 men from various backgrounds, namely: the public service providers (drivers, conductors, ‘and pedicab drivers), entrepreneurs (traders and businessmen), employees, students, and educators (lecturers, teachers). Samples were taken by using incidental sampling technique. Measurement of independent variables was done using a scale of Women’s Self-Image with a validity index of 0.202 to 0.487. Measurement of the dependent variables was done using a scale of Sexual Harassment Tendency with a validity index of 0.282 to 0.759. The results of assumption test show that all assumptions are met. Hypothesis was tested using statistical regression: Partial Correlation Study Level 1. The analysis showed that rx1y-2 equals to -0.330 with p value of 0.001 (p. <0.01) meaning that there is a significant negative correlation between women’s self-image with the tendency to experience sexual harassment by men. Statistically controlled by woman's age, it has been found out that the higher the male judge women’s self-image, the lower the tendency of sexual harassment to happen to these women. Seen from the comparison of empirical mean and hypothetical mean, it has been found out that the tendency to do sexual harassment is the highest among the groups of men who work as educators (teachers and lecturers).
Contribution/ Originality
This study tried to lift the actual conditions facing women in East Java Indonesia related to self-image of women and the tendency of sexual abuse that occurs among providers of public services (driver, helper, conductor, pedicab), entrepreneurs (traders and businessmen), the employee (employees, managers) among students (students, students) educators (lecturers, professors). In this study wanted to know the effect of the self-image of women alone to the tendency of sexual abuse committed by men. The rationale is that today the development of information technology causes tremendous changes attitudes and behavior. By knowing the theoretical implications, it is expected that the research findings would be useful for the development of the field of psychology of women. And practically expected to be useful to governments or organizer of a scientific nature as an input in decision-making, especially for the psychology of women.

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

The Manifestation of Physician's Nonverbal Communication towards Patient's Satisfaction

Research Article
Author(s): Indrianty Sudirman, Nurdjanah Hamid, Indahwaty Sidin
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The use of effective nonverbal communication between physician and patient has proven to be significantly affecting the level of patient’s satisfaction to the optimum process of patient's recovery. Among six nonverbal communications i.e., artifact, haptic, chronemics, proxemics, kinesics, and vocalic; haptic is the most influence dominant variable. This study explored the manifestation of haptic, vocalic, and kinesics in patients with different demographics characteristics. The results indicate that there are significant differences in the manifestation of these three variables on different demographic characteristics of patients that can be further used as a model of nonverbal communication between physicians and patients.
Contribution/ Originality


Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 2

Climate Characteristics of Safranbolu (Karabuk) and Saffron Cultivation

Research Article
Author(s): Mucahit COSKUN, Mesut GOK, Sevda COSKUN
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Saffron (Crocus sativus) has been one of the most important spices in the world since ancient times. Though there is a variety of information about its origin, it is believed to have emerged in Iran, Turkey, or Greece and have spread across the world. Saffron, which is commonly produced in the Mediterranean and Southwest Asian countries, is used in many different fields such as painting, medicine, perfumery, and food. Climate and soil conditions also play an important role in saffron production. Saffron, which shows a flexible characteristic in terms of temperature demand, shows resistance to cold temperatures down to -18 degrees and to summer temperatures up to 45 degrees. The type of soil suggested for the development of the plant is clay loam soil. Although saffron growing in Turkey has lost its former significance today, it is still carried out on a small scale in Safranbolu city. This study intends to show the positive effects of climatic elements prevailing in the region on the production of saffron, the world's most expensive plant, and to reestablish its former importance in the region. The climate data used in the present study were taken from the General Directorate of Meteorology of Turkey. The climatic conditions required by the Thornthwaite climate classification method. Systematic approach was used as a research method. The maps used in the study were prepared on ArcGIS 10.3 GIS (Geography Information System) package. According to the Thornthwaite method, Safranbolu is arid-low humidity in terms of rainfall activity, has a 2nd level mesothermal climate, has no water excess, and is closed to sea effect. Considering the climate demands of saffron, it can be said that the climate of Safranbolu city is suitable for saffron growing. In Safranbolu, saffron plants are currently cultivated only in few villages. However, more effort should be made to enhance the production of saffron, which is as precious as gold.
Contribution/ Originality
This study describes the historical growth, present status and future prospect of Saffron in Turkey that has already been grown for years in different countries of world. This research evaluates production, ecology and farming of Saffron in Turkey and world thus making it different from other related researches.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3

Status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Southwestern Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Ande O.T., Jerome Huising, A. O. Ojo, J. Azeez, K.S. Are, S.A. Olakojo, I.O. Fademi, S.O. Ojeniyi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The soils of South western Nigeria are rapidly degrading due to nutrient mining, soil loss, inappropriate land use, low inherent soil fertility coupled with adverse effects of climate change. These have resulted to persistent low yields and farmers’ poverty. The current farming systems have failed to improve continuous decline in crop production. There is need for integrated approach that involves mineral fertilizer, organic resources, and improved crop varieties with sound agronomic practices if the region will be able to feed its population of over 35 million people. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is an all-encompassing resource management technique that embraces the use of good planting materials, with appropriate organic and/or inorganic fertilizer application or their integrated use. It also entails adapting the various combinations of the ISFM components to local conditions which by implication means site specific management. There is lack of coordinated information about the components of ISFM being used in SWN and most stakeholders have not appreciated the importance of integrated approach. This paper is therefore put forward to review the status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in South western Nigeria in order to identify knowledge gap for sustainable crop production in the region.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in existing literature on integrated soil fertility management for sustainable crop production in southwestern Nigeria. The study also harmonizes research findings about ISFM thereby making information available for researchers, policy makers, extension agents and other stakeholders about ISFM protocols. It aids in identifying knowledge gaps for intervention.

Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 2

Exploring Social Opportunities for and Constraints to Primary Healthcare Seeking behavior in Urban Bangladesh: A Study on Rajshahi City

Research Article
Author(s): Bijoy Krishna Banik
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Most of the slum dwellers in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh, come here from rural areas either forcefully or willingly for various purposes. They naturally lead a miserable life here which causes various health problems. Different organizations therefore come forward to the establishment of primary healthcare centers for meeting their growing demands for healthcare services. The main objective of this paper was thus to explore how social issues created opportunities for and barriers to healthcare seeking behavior among the urban poor women. This study is of importance that findings of the study will help achieve the 3rd Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)—ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages—at the right time (2030). Two hundred females in Rajshahi city were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire interview method. Levels of monthly household income and of education are used as proxy determinants of class.  There has been an increase in the availability of and accessibility to primary healthcare services for the poor urban women due to making healthcare services available at people doorsteps and developing awareness though some social issues like the lack of knowledge about the nearest centers, their beliefs in and perception of illness and treatment, inappropriate time set-up and high costs associated with treatment and medicine sometimes dissuade them from availing the reachable healthcare services. More hygienic behavior among them found albeit they have few sanitary latrines which push their lives at greater risks. As suggested, if all these social issues are seriously taken into consideration in the formation and adaptation of the future policy, the Bangladesh Government can easily meet the 3rd SDG.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated effects of social issues in healthcare seeking behavior. The primary contribution of it is identifying the time-table of the health center unsuitable for the poor.  It documents an increase in the availability of and accessibility to primary healthcare services.

Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State

Research Article
Author(s): Omowumi A. Olowa, Olatomide Waheed Olowa
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This study set out to examine capital formation among rice farmers who belong to rice farmers’ credit cooperative and to isolate factors that determined why some farmer accumulate capital more than others using Itoikin rice farmers’ cooperative society.  The study draws on two sources of data namely household level surveys and secondary data to get insight about the size and composition of capital formation among rice farmers.  The results showed that on average, farmers were 50 years with about 4 years of education, 6 persons in household size and about ₦73,004.37 as mean income. Capital Formation takes the form of agricultural land, rice, agricultural machinery and equipment. The results further showed that about one-quarter of the net addition to fixed capital come from household savings and the rest three-quarter are borrowed from Cooperative and other sources. Regression results indicate that the most important factors determining the level of capital formation are age, the income from rice, Loan from cooperative and other sources and farm holdings. We also found that an increase in the average education of the farmers increases agricultural capital significantly. Education of farmers/rural dwellers should be at the front burner of all rural transformation agenda.
Contribution/ Originality
The study documents that capital formation took the form of agricultural land, rice agricultural machinery and equipment. One-quarter of the net addition to fixed capital comes majorly from farmer’s savings and borrowing from cooperative. Age, Rice income, Cooperative borrowing and education are important determinant of level of capital formation.

Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1