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The objective of this study was to evaluate endogenous curdling knowledge, microbiological hazards and other contaminants of Biisim missiga. Thus, a survey was conducted among local producers to collect information on curdling technologies in five cities to Burkina Faso. The quality of Biisim missiga samples collected was assessed according to standard microbiological criteria. Contaminants and their sources have been identified according to literature review. The results of this survey revealed that fresh and powdered milk are the most used raw materials to production of Biisim missiga. Curdling technologies are similar in cities surveyed. Microbiological quality of Biisim missiga analysed was unsatisfactory according to criteria used. The presence of pathogenic potential was detected during microbiological analyses. Three types of contaminations have been identified according to literature. In sum, this study revealed that the Biisim missiga analysed do not comply with the criteria in force. Corrective measures must be taken to improve the quality of Biisim missiga sold in Burkina Faso. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature knowledge of endogenous milk curdling technologies in Burkina Faso. In our study we are focused as well on the diversity of biological, physical and chemical contaminants of curd milk in generally. This study documents on the sanitary risk of the dairy products chain. Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1
How to Treat Diastasis Recti Abdominis with Physical Therapy: A Case Report
S. Gitta, Z. Magyar, P. Tardi, I. Fuge, M. Jaromi, P. Acs, J. Garai, J. Bodis, M. Hock
An increased inter-recti distance is a common problem in late pregnancy and during postpartum period. According to researches diastasis recti abdominis’ occurs in 35-60% of the cases. There are only assumptions about the risk factors, treatment and consequences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the treatment in the postpartum period using a single case study. A 33-year-old woman, six weeks after her first delivery, was recruited to the research. She complained about abdominal muscle weakness and low back pain. The patient got a three-months-long physical therapy in which the strengthening of the transverse abdominal muscles was primary. After the intervention the pathological inter-recti distance achieved the normal range almost at each reference point. This study found that the inter-recti distance was reduced when isometric contraction of the transverse abdominal muscle was performed. This suggests that this type of exercise could be effective in treating the postpartum diastasis recti and preventing the possible sequelae. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature with the observations of a single case treatment. It is unique because nobody in Hungary has investigated diastasis recti abdominis yet, in consequence a new country appeared which can be active in researches in obstetric and gynecologic physiotherapy.
Tourism in Cambodia has grown remarkably since the early 2000’s; the influx of international travelers meant that tourist industry (TI) frontline employees have needed top-level English communication ability. Since background data in Cambodia has been lacking, the author wanted to verify the role of English communication ability (ECA) in TI employees in Siem Reap city to fill this gap. During four surveys over five years, the author collected background as well as ECA data. To more accurately measure ECA numerically as a means for other researchers to conduct further studies, the author designed an assessment test loosely based on the CEFR. In statistical analysis of income with English variables, high positive correlations were found in English communication ability, years and hours of English education, and monthly expenditure for English learning. Therefore, it can be said that there is a significant relationship between ECA, better employment, and higher incomes in TI employees there. This scale could be profitably used via the Internet to conduct similar research in similar situations. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing a new way of examining the importance of English ability toward tourism employment and income. It is also one of the very few studies which have collected socioeconomic and English background data much of which has never been collected before.
Increased attention has been devoted to the issue of pursuit of personal excellence in the higher education in Taiwan in order to enhance the teaching quality and increase students’ competition. While the government has devoted considerable efforts and funding to education institutions through different academic excellence plans, there has been relatively little discussion of pursuit of excellence among student population, nor have there been any curriculum or training programs designed for students to improve their personal excellence. Thus, the present study aims to fill the research gap by designing a training program for the personal excellence of undergraduate tourism students in Taiwan. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), a multi-criteria decision analysis method, is conducted to prioritize personal excellence training needs for tourism students. The training programs are then developed with a focus on enhancing weak areas of personal excellence competence for tourism students. It is hoped that the results can give students an advantage in entering and staying in their chosen industry, leading to success in both their professional and personal lives. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to examine Taiwanese undergraduate tourism students’ self-reported strengths and weaknesses in personal excellence abilities, with the ultimate goal of developing training programs to strengthen their personal excellence competencies and thereby better equip them for success in the professional realm.
This article aims to analyze the relation between work and health in the professional practice of tour guides working in the tourist city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It is based on literature research covering the professionalization process of this professional category and the relation between work, mental health and illness. Data collection was conducted through free observation of the work environment as well as by means of semi-structured interviews with tour guides. The study concluded that the constant feeling of insecurity to which these professionals are exposed may cause emotional and psychic distress that turns into psychopathology, which in turn is expressed in physical and mental fatigue, depressive states, frustration, dissatisfaction and sickness. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated working and health conditions of tourism workers who acquire work-related sickness. It is based on research “The mental health of tourism and hospitality workers: professionalism x illness”, which was concluded in 2016 and originated other projects.
Nine treatments to study the effect of jameed form (triangle, square and cylinder molds) on the chemical composition, rheological and microbial properties. The treatments were made as follow: (A) sheep buttermilk (control) with ball form, (B) goat skim milk with ball form, (C) goat skim milk with triangle form, (D) goat skim milk with square form, (E) goat skim milk with cylinder form, (F) cow skim milk with ball form, (G) cow skim milk with triangle form, (H) cow skim milk with square and (I) cow skim milk with cylinder form. Yield of cylindrical shape were slightly higher, while levels of ball, triangle and square forms were close to each other. The lowest acidity levels were detected in cylindrical form. Square and cylinder forms were recorded the lowest of TS, fat, total protein and ash values. Square and cylinder forms possessed the lowest TVBC, LAB and proteolytic bacteria. The triangle or square molds caused significant (p<0.05) increase in wettability, where square form scored the highest syneresis levels among different shapes. The spherical and cylindrical shapes had the minimum values of hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness whereas the triangle and square forms possessed the maximum levels. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies in jameed and the first almost in the study of work forms of jameed and study the effect of shape on the rheological properties and chemical and microbial composition and microscopic for this product, Subsequently, add a new to this product, which is largely consumed in jordan and Egypt recently to manufacture meal "Mansaf".
The continuous adoption of trade openness policies and floating exchange rates regime by developing countries exposed them to speculative pressures. It makes exchange rate shocks easily transferred to domestic consumer prices. That makes tremendous impacts on the domestic consumer price inflation. This paper thus examines the response of domestic consumer prices to exchange rate changes otherwise known as ‘Exchange rate pass-through’. The paper uses vector error correction (VECM) model to examine the relationship. A quarterly time series data for a period ranging from 1986Q1 to 2013Q4 for Nigeria was used. The study found a substantial but incomplete and slow pass-through of exchange rate changes to domestic prices. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by estimating the ERPT using Nigerian data as there are very few studies on ERPT for developing countries and particularly Nigeria. This study uses VECM model against the SVAR model used by other studies.
The survey analyzed rural youths participation in family farming in Benue State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire/interview schedule were used in collecting data for the study. Frequency, percentage, mean score, standard deviation, factor analysis and binary logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that about 75.00% of the respondents were males, single (63.70%), had formal education (98.90%), having farming as a major occupation (92.40%). Major roles performed by the respondents in family farming include site selection (M = 2.70), harvesting of crops (M = 2.61), applying fertilizer to crops (M = 2.55), clearing of farm land (M = 2.54), soil tillage (M = 2.51), among others. These were further classified as land preparation, management and technical roles. The study recommends that rural youths should be encouraged to remain in agriculture by ensuring that they are provided with improved technologies for greater productivity. Basic amenities such as electricity, pipe borne water, good roads, etc should be made available in rural areas where they reside to prevent rural-urban youth migration and sustain agriculture. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that rural youths are involved in family farming for household food security. They participate actively in family farming playing key roles in land preparation, management and technical areas of crop and livestock production. Efforts of these youths should be sustained for them to remain in family farming.
Indoor air pollution due to combusting biomass fuels is a serious problem in developing countries and the impact to a greater extent is less known from burning mosquito coils. As malaria is a major killer in developing countries, the use of mosquito repellants would continue to be used in millions of homes across the continent of Africa. Hence this pilot study was conducted to assess emission levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2); sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) during the burning of six different products of mosquito coils that are sold in Sierra Leone. One hour emission value was recorded for each product during the burning period. Result revealed that one hour SO2 concentrations range from not detected to 47 ppb and that for CO range from 16 ppm to 19 ppm for the different products. Evidence of high peak values was observed for both SO2 and CO for the different products which is clearly a public health concern. This pilot study demonstrated that burning mosquito coils in less ventilated rooms where the primary focus is to eliminate mosquitoes is an environmental health risk in Sierra Leone. Contribution/ Originality
This study is the first that has provided informed information to relevant stakeholders in Sierra Leone on the dangers of combusting mosquito repellants in less ventilated areas by measuring the emission levels of gases deemed dangerous to public health.
A fuzzy transportation problem (FTP) includes cost, supply and demand of transportation problems. Its numbers are fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy transportation problem works to reduce transportation cost of some commodities through a capacitate network. Present research paper points out a technique with an alpha cut, optimal solution for solving transportation problem. We suggest a technique to find the fuzzy optimal solution on scales of transportation problem and propose a new hexagonal representation of fuzzy numbers. In general, the comparison of balanced fuzzy transportation problem (BFTP) and unbalanced fuzzy transportation problem (UFTP) shows that the optimal transportation cost of UFTP is less than BFTP. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in networking for transportation. This study uses new estimation methodology. This study originates optimal solution and comparison between BFTP and UFTP. This study investigated comparatively. This paper contributes the first logical analysis that is minimizes or maximizes objective solution is an optimal solution in hexagonal fuzzy numbers.
Potholes, debris, sunken manhole covers and others are common street safety hazards which drivers experience daily as they bump into them unexpectedly while driving. Pavement roughness is usually evaluated based on the International Roughness Index (IRI), which is considered the most prevalent metric. In this work, IRI values are collected by using a smartphone, with built-in vibration sensor, placed on the car’s dashboard while driving around the city. The classification process of IRI values is primarily performed using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the detection of diverse predefined street safety hazards. The designed ANN is a backpropagation pattern classifier, that must be trained to yield either a detected “disorder” area of the road or “normal” area based on the IRI data collected. The process of preparing the training and testing datasets involves a number of pre-processing operations. The IRI values are pre-processed in order to extract the most effective features. Then the network is trained with the normalized feature set by using supervised learning method. The performance of the designed network is compared to a similar works in the literature. Results show that the designed network can successfully classify the street conditions by using IRI values with a success rate that outperforms the classification rates obtained by other works. Contribution/ Originality
This study examined the impact of female employment and fertility decisions on household consumption in a working life cycle of South-West Nigeria. Survey method was used to collect data and multistage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 600 households in South-West Nigeria. 514 questionnaires were analysed after removing the incomplete. Linear Structural Relations Models was use to analyse the data. The result showed that household consumption is caused by fertility decision, female employment, income and female education. Fertility decisions had a positive and statistically significant relationship with household consumption while female employment has a negative but significant relationship with household consumption. The study concluded that the presence of children in households increases consumption in a working life cycle. Contribution/ Originality
The effect of Chrysactinia mexicana Gray extract on poultry challenged with Salmonella typhimurium, was evaluated: 1) The aim of the survey was to understand the status quo of backyard poultry production in a rural area, 2). A field study with forty Plymouth Rock Barred Laying hens were used to test the effects of C. mexicana, and 3) 160 day old Plymouth Rock Barred pullets, were assigned to: T1 control; T2 control + S. typhimurium challenge; T3 control + S. typhimurium + C. mexicana; and T4 control + S. typhimurium + antibiotic. Crop, gizzard, proventriculus and duodenum colony forming units (CFU) were measured, and leukocyte and erythrocyte counts. In addition, weight gain and feed intake was measured. The liver, bursa, thymus and spleen were weighed. Results show that 75% of farmers in the community have hens. The main diseases in their fowl: respiratory 45%; diarrhea 35% and parasites 20%. 90% of farmers have no access to veterinary services. Results from the field study show differences (P<0.05) between the treated group with C. mexicana and the control group with no treatment. Feed intake, total weight gain and final body weight was higher (P<0.05) for control group among the other treatments. Treatment challenged plus antibiotic showed lower CFU counts than treatment with S. typhimurium and C. mexicana. Thymus, bursa and spleen weights were similar (P>0.05) for the C. mexicana and antibiotic treatments. Leukocyte and erythrocyte counts were lower (P<0.05) in control group. C. mexicana extract could be a tool to diminish bacteria in hens. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of Larrea tridentata extract on poultry performance challenged with Salmonella typhimurium
Smoking is one of the causes of heart attack, lung cancer and cancers of mouth and larynx. The latter could be arises from exposure of those sensitive organs to a combination of both chemical carcinogenic and radiological exposure results from naturally occurring radionuclides in tobacco leaves. Coal is also used in smoking some types of tobacco products that could be carcinogenic due to presence of a high percentage of an organic matter with inorganic matter such as minerals and trace elements. Varieties of commonly available tobacco products as well as coal samples were examined for their radioactivity content using gamma ray spectroscopy and calculate associated radiological hazards. Results shows that the average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in tobacco samples vary from 2.6±0.2 to 8.9±0.7 (average 5.4), 1.9±0.1 to 9.5±0.8 (average 4.5), and 517.4±15.5 to 2401.2±72 (average 1360.4) Bqkg-1. Measured activity concentration for coal samples ranged from 10.8±1.1 to 64.4±2.1 (average 40.2), 3.5±0.1 to 28.3±0.3 (average 15.7), and 49.2±0.4 to 301.2±9.5 (average 215) Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K respectively. 137Cs activity concentrations in cigarettes and coal samples were ranged from 0.1±0.01 to 1.3±0.02 (average 0.5) and 2±0.01 to 5.8±0.8 (average 3.1) Bqkg-1 respectively. Radium equivalent, total annual effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were calculated. ELCR was higher than world's average of 1.45x10-3 for tobacco and coal samples. In Egypt no special and clear regulations for monitoring radioactivity content in imported coal and tobacco leafs or its products, which appear to be necessary. Contribution/ Originality
Biogas is a gas that is produced from the biodegradation of organic materials. It consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide. The biogas from anaerobic digestion can be a solution to South Africa’s energy problems. It can be used for electricity generation, cooking and as transport fuel. There are over 200 biogas digesters scattered across South Africa and the use of biogas is not growing fast in the country irrespective of its benefits in reducing energy related problems such as pollution and energy shortage. This paper reviews biogas technology in South Africa and highlights the problems, challenges and solutions to the expansion of the technology. The research was conducted by surveying biogas digesters installed in the country and measuring the biogas potential from selected digesters. The problems and challenges to biogas technology expansion in the country include; lack of research work on biogas technology, low efficiency of biogas as compared to conventional fuels such as diesel and petrol, cheap electricity cost from coal fired thermal power stations, large amounts of hydrogen sulphides in biogas that can cause corrosion to biogas pipes and internal combustion engines. It was highlighted that biogas digesters to be installed in the country should be sized in accordance with the availability of substrate. In addition, the calorific value of the biogas should be improved so that it can be used to fuel internal combustion engines and generator sets. It was also revealed that community based education on biogas production and its usage need to be initiated so as to reduce biogas digester failures. This would improve biogas technology expansion in the country. Contribution/ Originality
The main goal of the proposed project is to demonstrate that considerable energy conservation can be done in residential building area in the KSA, considering the living conditions of house users. For this purpose, several houses will be tested using sizable Building Integrated PV (BIPV) system. In addition, the energy needs per year for each household will be covered in this study. Moreover, the proposed BIPV system will supply sufficient amount of electrical energy to allow free daily commute for homeowner (max. 60 km a day) with use of the electric car. The results indicate that the use of an insulation layer (BioPCM material) in building structure will decrease significantly the cooling capacity by 20%. The addition of solar hybrid air conditioner system improved the EER by 5.41% and the COP by 12.24 %. Finally, the installation plan for the PV panels in each residential household is in agreement with the official KSA government policy. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the net zero energy building at Alkhobar area. The paper primary contribution is finding the proper energy saving system, hybrid plus PCM. Furthermore, this study documents all the work that has been done previously by same researcher (Nader, 2015;2016).
Aim of study finding the best configuration among a set of system components. Power fluctuations and load disturbances in hybrid systems cause power inequality and system stability problems. Using hybrid energy storage systems is an effective solution in order to overcome unbalancing between power generating and load demands. In this paper, a methodology to perform the optimal sizing for Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in three hybrid systems is developed, and reliability index is considered as a constraint. The optimum system configuration can meet the customer’s required Equivalent Loss Factor (ELF=0) with the minimum cost, and comparison cost between them. In these configurations, power generators are photovoltaic (PV)/wind turbine and three combination of battery bank and hydrogen tank is used as an energy storage system. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been used to optimize the cost function, and has been simulated in MATLAB for justification purpose. Contribution/ Originality
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of environmental impact caused by dioxin on milk production and metabolic profile in the buffalo cows. The authors analyzed some representative blood parameters related to their different metabolisms, the amount of zinc in blood samples, and milk production parameters, on 160 buffalo cows raised in four farms located in areas with a different environmental impact. Urea, glucose, creatinine, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and zinc contents were determined on serum samples. Milk samples from each buffalo were collected. Daily milk yield and milk composition were significantly different among farms. No difference in milk protein content was found. Urea content, was higher. Glucose concentrations were significantly lower than in farms located in an area contaminated by dioxin. Creatinine values were normal. AST and ALT values were slightly higher than normal. So far, there are not studies on the effect of dioxin on production and metabolic profile in buffalo cows. This study indicates that buffalo breeding herds exposed to dioxins would induce damage in the hepatic parenchyma cells as a result of animal welfare. Accordingly, the effects of environmental pollutants may expose the animals to several infections and diseases, which could affect not only the production traits, but also the qualitative features of their products devoted to human consumption. Contribution/ Originality
Considering the increasing economic relevance of the Buffalo and considering the insufficiency information in the literature on the influence of micro pollutants on the buffalo, this work has focused the attention on the influence the environmental impact on buffalo health and on their production. It is important to remember that the animal is closely linked to the area, monitoring animal’s means monitoring the breeding environment.
Enteric Redmouth (ERM) disease is a serious systemic infection due to a gram-negative bacterium (Yersinia Ruckeri) which causes significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture all over the world. This disease is called “Red-mouth” for the reddening of the mouth. Other clinical manifestations of this disease are: exophthalmia, ascites and haemorrhage with ulceration of palate, gill and operculum resulting in anorexia. Although this disease has been reported in other fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are particularly susceptible to ERM. Rainbow trout is one of the most popular fish species in nature and in many countries it is also recognized as cultivated/farmed fish species, due to its fast growth and excellent nutritional quality. The target of this research being undertaken is to analyze the chemical-nutritional characteristics and evaluation of the oxidative processes in samples of rainbow trout fish affected by ERM compared to the healthy group. The results of analysis show significant differences concerning the contents of some qualitative and chemical-nutritional parameters in fish-meat samples belonging to animals that have recovered from the “red-mouth” disease and healthy ones. Despite this, the unhealthy rainbow trouts are good source of nutrition, similar than healthy trouts. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies evaluating nutritional characteristics of rainbow trout samples affected by the "Red-Mouth Disease" compared to healthy trout samples
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of reducing GnRH dose on the formation of ovulation and conception, and sizes of the ovarian structures following an Ovsynch program in lactating cows. The cows were allocated randomly to two treatment groups (full dose; FD, n=20 and half dose; HD, n=20). Cows in the FD group were treated with 10.5 µg buserelin acetate on day 0, with 0.150 mg D- cloprostenol 7 d later and with 10.5 µg buserelin acetate 2 d later. Estrous cycles in HD group were synchronized using the same scheme as FD-treated cows, but the dose of buserelin acetate was reduced to 5.25 µg at both GnRH administration times. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasound with a 6-8 MHz linear trans-rectal probe on days 0, 7, 9, 10, and 11. Cows were inseminated at the 16-20 h after second GnRH administration. No significant differences were observed in the dominant or ovulatory follicle diameters in FD and HD groups. Ovulation incidence from second GnRH injection by the 24 hour after fixed-time AI did not differ between FD (85 %) and HD (90 %) groups. Also, the conception percentages did not differ statistically between the HD (50%) and FD (40 %) groups. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of reducing doses of buserelin acetate on the follicular development, ovulation and conception rates in the Ovsynch program of dairy cows.