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The Economics and Finance Letters

April 2016, Volume 3, 4, pp 57-63

The Relationship between Currency Conversions and International Business Transactions: Small Businesses and Travelers

Ngozi Oriaku


Ebere Oriaku

Ngozi Oriaku 1 ,

Ebere Oriaku 1 
  1. Elizabeth City State University Elizabeth City, North Carolina 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed

Pages: 57-63

DOI: 10.18488/journal.29/2016.3.4/

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Article History:

Received: 15 October, 2016
Revised: 04 November, 2016
Accepted: 08 November, 2016
Published: 14 November, 2016


This research looks at currency conversions and how it affects international business transactions especially small businesses and travelers. The idea is to show the discrepancy of currency conversion and the factors that do affect currency conversion in any given time for a business person or a traveler.  In order to increase small business and traveler’s awareness when it comes to doing business abroad, it is imperative to understand the currency conversions, its implications, and the commitments needed to protect investments and value of the conversion exchange. Research shows that small businesses have little or no adequate knowledge of currency conversions. The paper research questions are: (1) Do foreign exchange rates uncertainty reduce the incentive of travelers and small business owners from transacting business abroad? (2) Is it necessary for travelers and small business owners to understand the relevance of foreign exchange rates and risks management?
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents a rule of thumb that the main objective of businesses is to maximize profits and minimize costs. It illustrates that the knowledge of currency conversions is very vital to all small business practitioners.


Currency conversions, Transactions, Small business, Travellers.


  1. Brigham, E. and M. Ehrhardt, 2005. Financial management: Theory and practice. 11th Edn., Mason, OH: South-Western.
  2. Clark, P., 1973. Uncertainty, exchange rate risk, and the level of international trade. Western Economic Journal, 11(September): 303-313.
  3. Gordon, J., 2015. How fluctuating currency rates affect travel industry. Chron. Demand Media, n.d. Retrieved from [Accessed Septeber 22, 2015].
  4. Hill, C.W.L., 2011. Global business today. 8th Edn., Irwin: McGraw-Hill. pp: 282.
  5. Irwin, D.A., 2011. Esprit de currency. Finance & Development, 48(2): 30–33.
  6. Keythman, B., 2015. How does currency depreciation affect a company? Retrieved from [Accessed September 22, 2015].
  7. Ryan, V., 2011. China’s currency conversion. Retrieved from [Accessed July 10, 2015].
  8. Siddigi, M., 2007. African currencies stay steady as dollar plunges. Retrieved from [Accessed November 7, 2016].
  9. Wild, J.J. and K.L. Wild, 2013. International business: The challenges of globalization. 7th Edn., Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. pp: 200.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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( 383 ) An Analysis of Chinas Poverty Research Based on CiteSpace
( 384 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 385 ) Intention to Use E-Recruitment System: Empirical Evidence from Jobseekers in the Advertising Industry in Malaysia
( 386 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 387 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 388 ) Urban Population Growth and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria
( 389 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 390 ) Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience
( 391 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 392 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 393 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 394 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 395 ) Determinants of Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria
( 396 ) Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 397 ) Impact of Participatory Decision Making on Organisational Goal Attainment
( 398 ) Conceptualisation of Lack of Discipline and Probity as the Main Cause towards Good Governance Practice
( 399 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 400 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 401 ) Service Quality and Outpatients Satisfaction in Public Hospitals in Malaysia
( 402 ) Satisfaction with Applications Fuels the Growth of Mobile Wallet Use in Thailand
( 403 ) Public Health Expenditure, Economic Growth and Health Outcomes in Nigeria
( 404 ) Health Care Outcomes, Malnutrition and Food Security in Southern Africa Development Community: A Quantile Regression Approach
( 405 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 406 ) Decision-Making on Working Capital Management, Based on Industry Differences
( 407 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 408 ) An Entrepreneurship Research in Singapore: Basic Psychological Needs and Motivation
( 409 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 410 ) Sectoral Credit Allocation of Deposit Money Banks and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria
( 411 ) The Roles of Labour Union in Nigeria Industrial Harmony and Development
( 412 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 413 ) Profitability of Commercial Bank on Interest Rate Deregulation
( 414 ) Gamification on Sales Force Performance in Nigeria Bottling Company
( 415 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 416 ) An Empirical Assessment of the Impact of Access to Credit on Farm Output: A Case Study of Sefwi-Wiawso Municipality Ghana
( 417 ) Factors that Influence Profitability of General Insurance Issuers in Indonesia
( 418 ) An Investigation of the Impact of Organisational Structure on Organisational Performance
( 419 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 420 ) Dutch Disease: Myth or Reality? An Analysis of the ARDL Model
( 421 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 422 ) Impact of Asymmetric Government Spending on Real Balances Demand
( 423 ) Factors Influencing Human Capital in Ready Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh
( 425 ) External Debt and Nigeria's Sovereignty
( 427 ) Migration as a Livelihood Strategy: The Case of Internal Migration in Ghana
( 428 ) Impact of Network Finance Development on Inflation: Evidence from Chinese Market
( 429 ) Profitability Behavior of Plastic Industries in Indonesia
( 430 ) An Empirical Evaluation of Cashless Systems Implementation in Ghana
( 432 ) Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?
( 433 ) Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey
( 434 ) Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria
( 435 ) Regime Changes in the Volatility of Stock Markets
( 437 ) Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach
( 438 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 439 ) The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria
( 440 ) Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?
( 441 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 442 ) Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs
( 445 ) Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia
( 446 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 448 ) Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity
( 450 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 451 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 452 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 453 ) Analysis of Effect of Profitability, Capital, Risk Financing, the Sharia Supervisory Board and Capabilities Zakat in Islamic Perspective with Circular Approach Causastion on Islamic Banks in Indonesia
( 454 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 455 ) Family Leadership and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises Research and Development Investments
( 456 ) Incidence of Short Term Private Capital Outflow: Empirical Analysis in Nigeria
( 457 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 458 ) Determinants of Exchange Rate in Nigeria: A Comparison of the Official and Parallel Market Rates
( 459 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 460 ) Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?
( 461 ) Analyzing the Financial Soundness of Kuwaiti Banks Using CAMELS Framework
( 462 ) Growing and Building: Collaboration of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy
( 463 ) Issues of Unemployment in Nigeria: Effect of Real Exchange Rate and Inflation Interaction
( 464 ) Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
( 465 ) Fiscal Reaction Functions and Public Debt Sustainability in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism Approach
( 466 ) The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis
( 467 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 468 ) Consumers’ Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa Using an Extension of Technology Acceptance Model: Lessons from Zimbabwe
( 469 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 470 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 471 ) Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda
( 472 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 473 ) How can Female Executives Shape the Effectiveness of Executive Compensation?- A Multi-Dimensional Approach
( 474 ) Determinant Analysis of Productivity on Rice Management in Indonesia
( 475 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 476 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 477 ) Determinant of MSMEs Performance and its Impact on Province GRDP in Indonesia
( 478 ) Innovations Dissemination Approaches among Government Co-Operative Supporting Organisations in Tanzania
( 479 ) The Effectiveness of the Production of Healthy Rice in Comparison with other Rice Varieties in the Upper Northern Region of Thailand
( 480 ) An Agnostic Analysis of Exchange Rate Movement in Ghana
( 481 ) Perceived Poverty and Alleviation Efforts of Kogi State Community and Social Development Agencies in Kogi State: An Empirical Investigation
( 482 ) Analysing the Financial Strength of Nigeria: An Approach to Estimate the Index of Financial Safety
( 483 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 484 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 485 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 486 ) Externality Effects of Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Consumption on the Environment: Evidence from Benin City and Okada in Nigeria
( 488 ) Re-Engineering Nigerian Economy through Human Capital Development: A Case of Manufacturing Firms In Southern Part of Nigeria
( 489 ) Analysis of Traffic Accident Occurrence at Hazardous Road Locations: A Case Study in Tunisia
( 490 ) The Impact of Land Price Movements on the Properties in Croatia
( 492 ) Financial Inclusion and Poverty Alleviation: The Contribution of Commercial Banks in West Africa
( 493 ) Factors Affecting the Individual Stock Price Index (IHSI) Industrial Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia, Automotive Sub Sectors, and Components in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX)
( 494 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?
( 495 ) Evaluating the Model of Demand for Money in Nigeria
( 496 ) Intellectual Property Rights, Human Capital and Innovation in Emerging and Developing Countries
( 497 ) Entrepreneurship Training for Mitigating Unemployment in Nigeria: How have the Tertiary Institutions Fared?
( 498 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 499 ) Innovation Strategy and Sustainability of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in South East Nigeria
( 500 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 501 ) State and Evolution of Public and Private Research and Development in Bulgarian Agriculture
( 502 ) Inflation, Oil Revenue, and Monetary Policy Mix in an Oil-Dependent Economy: Empirical Insights from the Case of Nigeria
( 503 ) Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA
( 504 ) Efficiency of Microfinance (MF) Institutions in Bangladesh: A Study on Top 10 MF Institutions
( 505 ) Does Capital Structure Affect the Profitability of Listed Family and Non-Family Firms? Evidence from Bangladesh
( 506 ) Critical Review of Literature on Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty
( 507 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 508 ) Is Loyalty Still the Same? An Investigation of the Antecedents of Loyalty
( 509 ) Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies
( 511 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 512 ) Effect of Savings Deposit Rate on Stock Market Capitalization in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation
( 513 ) Analysis of Credit Ratings Determinants: Evidences in Brazilian and American States
( 514 ) The Effects of Visual Merchandising and Price Sensitivity on Impulse Purchase Behaviour among Young Apparel Shoppers in Bangladesh
( 515 ) Fraud Auditing Law Implications in the Case of Jiwasraya Insurance in Indonesia
( 517 ) Productive Welfare Policy: An Innovative Way in Social Safety Net in Malaysia
( 518 ) Accountability and Transparency in Nation Building: A COVID-19 Experience in Sub-Saharan Africa
( 519 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 520 ) The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Pinterest
( 521 ) Perception of Professional Accountants about the Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Auditing Industry of Bangladesh
( 522 ) Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Mindset: Towards Societal Re-Engineering
( 523 ) The Impact of Economic Growth, Oil Price, and Financial Globalization Uncertainty on Financial Development: Evidence from Selected Leading African Countries
( 524 ) Testing the Validity of Gibrats Law in the Context of Profitability and Leverage
( 525 ) Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices
( 526 ) Towards a Proposal of a Local Authority Model Based on the Systemic Approach
( 527 ) Exchange Rate Volatility and Agricultural Commodity Prices i Nigeria (2000-2018)
( 528 ) Up or Down! House Management and Public Finance Theory from America’s Era of Hastert
( 529 ) Interest Rate Ceilings and Financial Exclusion in Kenya: Evidence from Commercial Banks’ Sectoral Credit Distribution
( 530 ) The Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Bank Default: A Case Study in Brazil
( 531 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 533 ) Factors Affecting the Capital Structure of the Textile Industry in Bangladesh: An Inferential Study
( 534 ) Infrastructure Development, Capacity Utilization and Manufacturing Value Added in Nigeria
( 535 ) Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure in Indonesia: A Bibliographic Study
( 536 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 537 ) The Dimensions of the Quality Perceived by Users in a Clinical Analysis Laboratory of A University Hospital
( 538 ) Ethical Context of Organization and Turnover Intention of Women Employees: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support
( 539 ) A Process Model for Conformance of Health Information Systems: Towards National Interoperability
( 540 ) Likely Effect of Gender and Education on Information Adoption and Utilization among Sugarcane Farmers in the Nyanza Region, Kenya
( 541 ) Non-Linear Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Technological Innovation: Evidence from Emerging and Developing Countries
( 542 ) Impact of Savings on Economic Growth in Africa
( 543 ) Drivers Behind the Financial Insolvency: An Empirical Study on the Textile Industry in Bangladesh
( 544 ) Change Management and Firm Performance of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
( 545 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 546 ) Factors Influencing Audit Expense and Quality in an Emerging Economy: A Study on Bangladesh
( 547 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 548 ) Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Soil Conservation Development
( 550 ) Risk Management and Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization
( 552 ) Effect of Tax Administration on Tax Revenue of States in African Countries: Evidence from Nigeria
( 553 ) An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Decentralization on Poverty in Cameroon
( 554 ) The Effect of Capital Structure Decisions on Profitability of Quoted Consumer Goods in Nigeria
( 555 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Assessing Public Policy in Ukraine
( 556 ) Determinants of Firm Profitability: Evidences from Bangladeshi Manufacturing Industry
( 557 ) Influence of Corporate Characteristics on Firm Leverage: Evidence from Bangladesh
( 558 ) The Impact of Merger and Acquisition on the Financial Performance of the Nasdaq Listed Small Size Technology Companies
( 559 ) Socioeconomic Environment and Obesity on the US West and East Coasts
( 560 ) Human Capital and Economic Growth in Latin America: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
( 561 ) Factors Affecting Profitability of General Insurance Companies in Indonesia
( 562 ) Exploring the Dimensions Using Exploratory Factor Analysis of Disruptive Factors and Inventory Control
( 563 ) Panel Data Estimators in the Presence of Serial and Spatial Correlation with Panel Heteroscedasticity: A Simulation Study
( 564 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 566 ) The Role of Women in Rural Development in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 567 ) The Impact of Data Frequency on the Level of Exchange Rate Pass-through to Consumer Prices in Nigeria