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Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research

December 2016, Volume 2, 2, pp 28-41

Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns

Richard J. Cebula

Richard J. Cebula 1

  1. Davis College of Business, Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, (U.S.A.) 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed

Pages: 28-41

DOI: 10.18488/journal.88/2016.2.2/

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Article History:

Received: 13 October, 2016
Revised: 02 November, 2016
Accepted: 04 November, 2016
Published: 07 November, 2016


This study seeks to identify key factors influencing the geographic settlement pattern of undocumented immigrants in the U.S., with a particular emphasis on the impact of economic freedom, and to extend the OLS findings in previous related studies. Indeed, this study adds to the literature in several ways. First, it provides current insights into the link between the settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. and economic freedom. Second, the study adopts a panel data-set and provides estimates using cross-section fixed-effects. Third, this study also endeavors to provide further insights into the impacts on the settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants of non-economic-freedom economic conditions, as well as the quality of life and spending on primary and secondary public education.  The various state fixed-effects estimates provided in the present study yield several conclusions. In particular, according to these estimations, the settlement pattern of undocumented immigrants in the U.S is inversely a function of colder climates, higher crime rates, higher population density, and a higher cost of living. In addition, the interstate distribution of undocumented immigrants to the U.S. is positively a function of the annual per pupil outlays on public primary and secondary education; it is also positively a function of the degree of economic freedom, the principal focus of this study.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature by providing contemporary insights into the factors influencing settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. using panel data. It is also one of the few studies to examine the influences of economic freedom and primary and secondary public school outlays.


Undocumented immigrant settlement patterns, Economic freedom, Economic factors, Quality of life, Panel data analysis.



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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


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( 236 ) Beyond Marxist Economism and Entrepreneurial Essentialism: Post-Colonial Politics of Empire in Chinua Achebe’s And Linus Asong’s Writings
( 237 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 238 ) Bancassurance - Growth Guaranteed in India
( 239 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 240 ) Micro-Credits and Poverty Reduction in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania: A Case Study of Dar-Es-Salaam Commercial Bank
( 241 ) Income Elasticity of Poverty: Estimates for South Asian Countries
( 243 ) An Empirical Test on Effect of Intra-Product Trade on Regional Income Distribution: The Case of Liaoning, China
( 245 ) Effects of Advertising on Consumer Behavior in Low Density Houses: The Case of Marlborough, Zimbabwe
( 246 ) Exploration of Suitability of Situational Leadership in the Oil and Gas Sector
( 248 ) Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models
( 249 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 251 ) Agent-Based Simulation of Contribution Games
( 253 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 254 ) Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?
( 255 ) An Assessment of the Relationship between Budget Deficit Syndrome and Consumer Welfare in Nigeria (1985 – 2014)
( 256 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 257 ) Measuring the Gap Between the Syrian Accounting Qualifications and the International Accounting Education Based on IES 2 and IES 3
( 259 ) Teaching Hypothesis Test in an Easy Way
( 261 ) Managerial Judgement Versus Financial Techniques in Strategic Investment Decisions: An Empirical Study on the Syrian Coastal Region Firms
( 262 ) Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey
( 263 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy
( 264 ) Confirming the Mediation Effect of A Structural Model By Using Bootstrap Approach: A Case Study of Malaysian 8th Grade Students’ Mathematics Achievement
( 266 ) Acquisition of Personal Assets Through Loan Bank and Commercial Credit: What’s the Best Option?
( 267 ) Does Managerial Emotional Biases Affect Debt Maturity Preference? Bayesian Network Method: Evidence from Tunisia
( 268 ) Studying the Integration of Damascus Securities Exchange with Selected Stock Markets
( 269 ) Forecasting-Based Carry Trade Using Pegged Currency: A Case of Omani Rial
( 270 ) The Effect of Personal Factors on the Customer Rating of the Quality of Services of the Islamic Banks Operating in the Syrian Coast
( 274 ) Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) Evaluation in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 276 ) Effects of Environmental Satisfaction on Family Displacement Case Study: Gohar Dasht Region, Karaj City
( 277 ) Measuring the Quality of Health Services in Lattakia Province Patients' Perspective (Field Study of Health Centers in Jableh City)
( 278 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 279 ) Investment Climate Rating Evaluation: The Case of Ukrainian Economy
( 280 ) Interfaces Between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013
( 281 ) Food Security Amongst Small Grains and Long Grains Smallholder Farmers of Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe
( 284 ) National Security and Democratization in Nigeria: The Case of Insurgence
( 285 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 286 ) Technological Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: What’s the Contribution of Innovation Policy?
( 287 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 288 ) Rural Roads Infrastructure and Agricultural Products Distribution: A Focus on Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria
( 289 ) What Drives Banking Stability? Empirical Evidence from ECOWAS Countries
( 290 ) The Profitability of Momentum Strategies: Empirical Evidence from Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE)
( 291 ) Determinants of Rural Residential Solid Waste Collection Services in Lagos State
( 294 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 295 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 296 ) An Evaluation of Effectiveness of Oversight Committees: A Case of City of Johannesburg, Section 79 Committees
( 297 ) An Investigation into the Causes of Failures in Railway Infrastructure at Transnet Freight Rail - A Case of the Steel and Cement Business Unit
( 298 ) Social Protection and Agricultural Production in ECOWAS: The Youth Unemployment Question
( 304 ) Conceptualisation of Lack of Discipline and Probity as the Main Cause towards Good Governance Practice
( 305 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 307 ) Decision-Making on Working Capital Management, Based on Industry Differences
( 308 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 309 ) An Entrepreneurship Research in Singapore: Basic Psychological Needs and Motivation
( 313 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 316 ) Migration as a Livelihood Strategy: The Case of Internal Migration in Ghana
( 317 ) Profitability Behavior of Plastic Industries in Indonesia
( 318 ) An Empirical Evaluation of Cashless Systems Implementation in Ghana
( 319 ) Correlation between Financial Difficulties and Financing Strategies among Market Stallholders in Batangas City
( 320 ) Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach
( 321 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 322 ) Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs
( 324 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 325 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 326 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 327 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 329 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 330 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 332 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 333 ) Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda
( 335 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 337 ) Externality Effects of Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Consumption on the Environment: Evidence from Benin City and Okada in Nigeria
( 338 ) Re-Engineering Nigerian Economy through Human Capital Development: A Case of Manufacturing Firms In Southern Part of Nigeria
( 340 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 341 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 342 ) Innovation Strategy and Sustainability of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in South East Nigeria
( 343 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 344 ) Inflation, Oil Revenue, and Monetary Policy Mix in an Oil-Dependent Economy: Empirical Insights from the Case of Nigeria
( 345 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 347 ) The Effects of Visual Merchandising and Price Sensitivity on Impulse Purchase Behaviour among Young Apparel Shoppers in Bangladesh
( 348 ) Fraud Auditing Law Implications in the Case of Jiwasraya Insurance in Indonesia
( 349 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 350 ) Towards a Proposal of a Local Authority Model Based on the Systemic Approach
( 351 ) Up or Down! House Management and Public Finance Theory from America’s Era of Hastert
( 353 ) Infrastructure Development, Capacity Utilization and Manufacturing Value Added in Nigeria
( 356 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 362 ) The Problem of Distribution of Food Products and their Influence on the Decision of Purchasing in the Consumer a Case Study of Milk Products in the South, Algeria
( 363 ) The Reasons Behind the Shift of Patients from Public to Private Hospitals: Evidence from Public Hospitals in Cumilla City Corporation
( 364 ) Assessment of Mental Health of Undergraduate Students Based on Age: A Bayesian Ordinal Quantile Regression Approach
( 365 ) Research on the Construction and Application of Chinese Enterprises Overseas Port Investment Confidence Index Based on D-S Evidence Theory
( 366 ) Assessing Access to Comprehensive HIV Treatment Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in the Bamenda Health District
( 367 ) The Promise and Reality of Public Sector Reform – A Case Study of the Implementation of Trinidad and Tobagos Health Sector Reform
( 369 ) Modelling Stock Returns Volatility and Asymmetric News Effect: A Global Perspective
( 370 ) IT Governance as Drivers of Dynamic Capabilities to Gain Corporate Performance Under the Effects of Environmental Dynamism
( 372 ) The Influence of Institutional Voids in the Institutionalization of Bitcoins as a Currency
( 373 ) Factors Influencing Profitability of Commercial Banks in Tanzania: A Case Study of CRDB Bank Plc
( 374 ) Nexus among Foreign Exchange Reserve, Remittance and Trade Openness: An Empirical Investigation in the Case of Bangladeshi Economy
( 376 ) An Analyses of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Case of SANE Countries
( 377 ) The Influence of Organizational Culture, Communication and Work Satisfaction on Organizational Commitments: A Case Study of Lecturers at Yayasan Pendidikan Borobudur
( 379 ) Natural Resource Rents-Capital Flight Nexus in Selected ECOWAS Countries: Evidence from Non-Linear ARDL Approach
( 380 ) Localised Initiatives: Households Contribution to Infrastructure Development in Ondo State, Nigeria