This study seeks to identify key factors influencing the geographic
settlement pattern of undocumented immigrants in the U.S., with a
particular emphasis on the impact of economic freedom, and to extend the
OLS findings in previous related studies. Indeed, this study adds to
the literature in several ways. First, it provides current insights into
the link between the settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants in
the U.S. and economic freedom. Second, the study adopts a panel data-set
and provides estimates using cross-section fixed-effects. Third, this
study also endeavors to provide further insights into the impacts on the
settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants of non-economic-freedom
economic conditions, as well as the quality of life and spending on
primary and secondary public education. The various state fixed-effects
estimates provided in the present study yield several conclusions. In
particular, according to these estimations, the settlement pattern of
undocumented immigrants in the U.S is inversely a function of colder
climates, higher crime rates, higher population density, and a higher
cost of living. In addition, the interstate distribution of undocumented
immigrants to the U.S. is positively a function of the annual per pupil
outlays on public primary and secondary education; it is also
positively a function of the degree of economic freedom, the principal
focus of this study.
This study contributes to the literature by providing contemporary
insights into the factors influencing settlement patterns of
undocumented immigrants in the U.S. using panel data. It is also one of
the few studies to examine the influences of economic freedom and
primary and secondary public school outlays.
Undocumented immigrant settlement patterns, Economic freedom, Economic factors, Quality of life, Panel data analysis.
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This study received no specific financial support.
The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.