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Listing 49 - 20 of 1962 results.

High Isolation Microstrip Mimo Antennas for Wlan Systems

Research Article
Author(s): L. Chouti, I. Messaoudene, N. Sahnoun, A. Behloul, A. Benghalia
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
This paper introduces a novel design of aperture coupled microstrip antenna for MIMO array applications. The proposed antenna uses 2x4 patches excited from two ports via rectangular slots. HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) and CST (Computer Simulation Technology)softwares are used to simulate the antennas performance. The results are given in term of S-parameters, radiation patterns and gain. In addition a parametric study is done to evaluate the effect of certain antenna parameters on the antenna performances. Form the simulated result, it is concluded that the proposed concept provides a good isolation between the two antenna ports (with low mutual coupling, S12/21 < -28 dB) and high gain. In addition, the obtained results are in good agreement.
Contribution/ Originality
This study presents a new multi-input multi-output antenna array with a reduced coupling between the two antenna ports.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Generalized Quantum Key Distribution for WDM Router Applications

Research Article
Author(s): N. Djeffal, M. Benslama, I. Messaoudene
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
In this paper, we study the ability of quantum networks to support both random and non-random data traffic single-photon quantum communications signals on a shared infrastructure. The effect of wave length on distance coverage with the quantum bit error rate (QBER) of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system is increasing. The results of random phase showed minimal distance coverage over non-random phase. For fluctuating amplitude of random show a change in system performance improved sending capabilities.  Hence, it is found that rare fluctuations should not degrade system performance significantly, but the data sending mode has a significant effect on channel integrity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study presents an original structure of generalized quantum key distribution suitable for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) application.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

High/Low Gain Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna for WLAN Applications

Research Article
Author(s): A. Behloul, I. Messaoudene, L. Chouti, A. Benghalia
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
In this paper, a novel integrated dual-port rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented for 802.11a WLAN system applications. The antenna structure is formed by integrating the concept of antenna array with a single DRA element to produce a radiation characteristic necessity. The array is composed of four identical rectangular DRA elements placed on a horizontal ground plane and separated by a distance of 0.54λ at design frequency of 5.97 GHz, excited through rectangular shaped aperture slots by a microstrip transmission line from port 1. The central element fed from port 2 by 50 Ohm microstrip line via a slot etched on the ground plane. The designed proposed antenna sized of 60×80×0.672 mm3 operates over the frequency band between 5 and 6 GHz for VSWR < 2. The simulated average gain is 10.55 dB for port 1, and 5.92 dB for port 2. Simulations are performed using both CST Microwave studio employing the Finite Integration Technique (FIT) and Ansoft HFSS employing the Finite Element Method (FEM). Good agreement is obtained for main antenna characteristics such as the reflections coefficient and transmission coefficient. The results confirm that the proposed structure suitable for reconfigurable gain applications with good isolation between the two structure ports.
Contribution/ Originality
This study proposed a new structure of integrated single/array Dielectric Resonator Antenna for reconfigurable applications. 

Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Incorporation of Chitosan and Glass Substrate for Improvement on Adsorption, Separation and Stability of Tio2 Photocatalysis

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Nur Iman Amir, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
It has been demonstrated that the single TiO2 has high capabilites for photodegradation process for all types pollutants. However, TiO2 are still far from becoming a potential candidate for photocatalytic system due to weakness for the adsorbtion process, separation as well as dissolution during the treatment. Therefore, this study highlights on the highly adsorption, easy separation and promising stability of TiO2(SY) photocatalyst by fabrication of Chitosan-TiO2(SY) supported glass substrate (Cs-TiO2(SY)/Glass substrate) photocatalysts. Cs with abundant R-NH and NH2 groups promotes adsorption sites of synthetic dyes. Meanwhile, present of glass substrate support increase the stability and easy separation of the potocatalysts. The fabrication process Cs- TiO2(SY)/Glass substrate has been done through dip-coating methods. Further analyzed by the adsorption photodegradation with Methyl Orange (MO) as a model of synthetic dyes compound. Approximately, 70% of total removal of MO by optimize 8 layers of photocatalyst analysis has been achieved within 1 hour of UV irradiation. Besides that, the adsorption photocatalyst has been achieved about 50% when no exposure of light for 15 minutes irradiation. It concluded that, a suitable photocatalytic conditions and sample parameters, possessing the Cs-TiO2(SY) gave the benefits of adsorption-photodegradation practice in the abatement of wastewater contaminants.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Influence of Low Ag Doping on Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of Sol-Gel Dip-Coated Nanostructured ZNO Thin Films

Research Article
Author(s): M. Dehimi, T. Touam, A. Chelouche, F. Boudjouan, A. Bouasla, D. Djouadi, A. Fischer, A. Boudrioua, A. Doghmane
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
In the present study, a sol-gel dip-coating process was used to deposit almost stress free highly c-axis oriented nanostructured ZnO thin films on glass substrates. The effects of low silver doping concentration (Ag ? 1 at.%) on the structural, morphological and  optical properties of such films were investigated using different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that all the ?lms were single phase and had a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 24-29 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images have shown that film morphology and surface roughness were influenced by Ag doping concentration. Optical properties such as transmittance and optical bandgap energy (Eg) were examined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The results have indicated that all the prepared ?lms were highly transparent with average visible transmission values ranging from 80% to 86%. Moreover, it was found that the Ag contents leads to widening of the bandgap.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the preparation of low Ag-doped ZnO thin films by the sol-gel dip-coating technique. It was put into evidence that incorporation of low Ag concentrations (Ag ? 1 at.%) in ZnO can indeed improve its physical properties.

Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

New Method of Inversion Vertical Electrical Logging (IVEL) for Identification of Coal Seam Prospect of Muara Enim Regency, South Sumatera

Research Article
Author(s): Eddy Ibrahim, Endang Wiwik D.H, Sutopo .
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
The Measurement Inversion Vertical Electrical Logging (IVEL) in the Regency of Muara Enim Indonesia aims at measuring and mapping the resistivity associated with the spread of lithologi coal seam as Coal Bed Methane reservoirs (CBM). Resistivity measurements of new method performed with the sounding system as much as 5 points, with spaces between the point of 100-200 m, range of penetration achieved with these measurements to a depth of 500 m from the ground surface. The results of the processing and interpretation of data from the IVEL indicate that on site research was generally dominated by layers of rock and clay shale with a resistivity less than 2 Ohm.m as well as sandstones 2-5 Ohm.m. while the coal layer was  found at the depth of 60 to 80 meters,100 to 180 meters, and 340 to 350 meters above the resistivity value of 5 Ohm.m.
Contribution/ Originality
New method in data acquisition  to extract structural and lithological information. A IVEL survey for coal seam exploration should be designed by using Schlumberger electrode configuration.

Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

Research Article
Author(s): Anwar Ul Haque, Waqar Asrar, Ashraf Ali Omar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffar Syed Mohamed Ali
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
In today’s world, the biological sciences are mostly considered separate from the existing modern knowledge of various other fields of sciences and engineering; however, there are many properties of nature and known facts of biological sciences that can be proved in the other domains of science and technology as well. Correlation of the geometric and buoyant properties of the swimming animals with the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles is an example of this hypothesis. In the present work, some experiments related to the geometric parameters of a California sea lion were carried out. It was found that the fineness ratio of this animal is of the same order as the optimum value of that for the condition of minimum drag and power required for the buoyant aerial vehicle. The role of multiple fins on the elongated bodies of shark is also discussed in its application for yaw stability as well as to shroud the antennas that are used in the aircraft for various communication systems.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is to show that the hydrodynamic and a few geometric parameters of a California Sea Lion resemble to that of the well-known facts of buoyant and hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles.

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Characteristic of Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Pampangan at Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera, Indonesia

Research Article
Author(s): Yuanita Windusari, Laila Hanum, Erwin Nofyan, Mustafa Kamal, Adri Amsar
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
The aim of research to study the character and analyze the phenotypic diversity among variants swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Pampangan at Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera. Quantitative data are determined by the circumference of the chest (Li Da), body length (Pa Ba), tail length (Pa Ek), the length of the head (Pa Ke), head width (Le Ke) and hip height (Ti Pi). Qualitative data is determined based on the character of each variant shown through the hair color, the shape and direction of growth of the horn. Characteristics that indicate of genetic relationship between the variant of swamp buffalo. Methods of observations carried out directly on the morphology and methods NTSYS Ver. 2.1 to the analysis of kinship and then presented in the form of a dendrogram. Results showed that there are four variants of buffalo Pampangan namely red buffalo, black buffalo, buffalo striped and Lampung buffalo. Morphology of buffalo such as body size, hair color, shape and direction of growth of the horns is different. Genetic relationship shown with  value of correlation coefficient 0.57 was found in group A (OTU-1) and group B (OTU-2, OTU-3 and OTU-4), and value of correlation coefficient 0.612 found in group A (OTU-2 and OTU-4) and group B (OTU-3). The correlation coefficient of more than 0.57 indicates a kinship between the variance of the swamp buffalo Pampangan relatively close. It is suspected  inbreeding between variants tends to be high. The analysis also showed that the closest genetic relationships found in OTU-2 (black buffalo) and OTU-4 (buffalo Lampung) with a correlation coefficient 0.85. This condition is believed that the OTU-2 and OTU-4 derived from the same lineage.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studied which have investigated about the characteristics of local endemic animals that have the potential to be developed or preserved. Swamp buffalo in South Sumatra is the local animal with the potential to be cultivated and become a major food source.

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Fuzzy Logic Based Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Research Article
Author(s): Z. Tareq, N. Sulaiman, M.A. Hannan, A. Mohamed, E.H. Majlan, W.R.W. Daud
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
Hybrid electric vehicles have gained attention throughout the globe with its advantage of green technology and reduced greenhouse gases emission. Moreover, hybrid vehicles being powered by battery would be the best option of replacing current petrol or gas dependent vehicles. There are drawbacks though; battery has limited lifetime and is very costly. Hence, it is hybridized with other energy storage systems such as supercapacitor. This paper focuses on the energy management system for the energy storage system consisting battery and supercapacitor of a hybrid electric vehicle using fuzzy logic based controller. The energy management system, which manages energy feed between battery and supercapacitor, is then simulated in Matlab/Simulink to verify its reliability and validity of operation.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding an energy management that could distribute or split energy between two sources of which in this paper is using battery and supercapacitor. The energy management in this paper uses fuzzy logic control to split the energy between the two energy sources.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Mathematical & Spatial Relationship between Dome and Al- Mousala in Congregational Mosques (An Analytical Study of Basic Dimension of Central Dome Pattern)

Research Article
Author(s): Raeed Salim Ahmed Al-Nuamman
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
Islamic architecture has a clear impact for systems and the relationships of Mathematical and  Geometrical proportions , which reflected in their buildings.  The research will deal with an important aspect that linked in two mains elements in the Congregational Mosques. The first is a house of prayer (Al-mousala) as the main and most importantly space in the mosque, and the second is a dome as structural and decorative element, who was significantly associated with Congregational Mosques later. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the kind of the Mathematical& Geometrical proportions relationship, also the  spatial linking of these two elements with each other's.  Through the statistical analysis that links the relationship between their different dimensions and the positioning kind of the main dome on a house of prayer (Al-mousala). For this purpose the resaerch has been selected two sets of samples. The first models include a different regions of Islamic Congregational Mosques represent different patterns of Congregational Mosques as a sample of general Islamic architecture while the second comprises a number of Congregational Mosques in Mosul city, a representative of the local architecture.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Evaluation of Some Chemical and Sensory Properties of Processed Cheese Analogue with Selected Vegetable Oils

Research Article
Author(s): Khalid Al-Ismail, Barah Al-Hiary, Maher Al-Dabbas
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
Cheese analogues are cheese-like products with varied compositions and functional properties which produced by partial or whole replacement of milk components, in particular milk fat, by non milk-based components. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of replacement of milk fat in processed cheese with different formulations from olive, corn and sesame oils on some chemical and sensory properties. The results indicated that the peroxide values were not affected by the replacement of milk fat with vegetable oils significantly (P <0.05), while the free fatty acid content was slightly but significantly affected. These two values were significant (P <0.05) increased during the three months of storage. The cholesterol contents in the cheese samples with olive, sesame and corn oils were 86.9, 84%, and 83.1%, respectively lower than those of the whole milk cheese sample. The replacement of milk fat with vegetable oils did not affect the appearance, color and tenderness of the processed cheese samples. The replacement of milk fat with vegetable oil significantly (P <0.05) affected the flavor of the cheese analogue samples.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the influence of the olive and sesame oil on the chemical and sensorial properties of processed cheese analogue.

Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 6

Influence of Shear Connector Size on Ultimate Strength in Composite Construction with Cold-Formed Steel Channel Lipped Section

Research Article
Author(s): Mahmood Md. Tahir, Mustapha Muhammad Lawan, Anis Saggaff, Jahangir Mirza
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
In conventional composite construction for buildings and bridges, Hot-Rolled Steel (HRS) section is well known to be used. The composite action is usually achieved by using conventional headed stud shear connectors. However, for Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) section, the use of headed stud shear connectors is not feasible as the section is very thin and incapable to be weld. Therefore, a suitable shear connection system of bolt and nut is proposed in this study by varying the size of the bolted shear connectors. This paper presents the prospect of using a bolt and nut as shear connector that could be well-suited with CFS section when integrated in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). The experimental test comprised of push-out and was conducted to determine the strength and ductility of the proposed bolted shear connectors as used in composite construction. Eight push-out test specimens of bolted shear connector size consist of M12, M14 and M16 of grade 8.8 were fabricated and tested to failure. The experimental results show that the bolted shear connectors used to possess good shear resistance capacity. Influence of varying the size of the bolted shear connectors was investigated. The results show that the size of bolted shear connectors influenced the ultimate strength capacity of the shear connectors significantly.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper highlighted on the use of high strength bolted shear connectors in composite construction with CFS, specifically the M14 bolt connector as it was not established based on cited literatures.

Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Q Determination of Transmission GPR Waves in Absorbing Media

Research Article
Author(s): Eddy Ibrahim, Wahyudi W. Parnadi
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
The absorption of electromagnetic waves is the most important parameter for the processing and interpretation of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data. Both the phase velocity   and the absorption coefficient  are frequency-dependent. From the linear basis of the frequency dependence of   of geology media, a constant Q-hypothesis is valid, whereby the Q factor is inversely proportional to  and describes material-specific absorption. For the near-reality description of electromagnetic waves propagation in rocks, modeling with constant Q and velocity dispersion after Futterman is carried out. On the basis of such model, the effect of these parameters on wavelets is investigated. As a result of absorption, the wave amplitudes become smaller with increasing distance at the same Q and become smaller with decreasing Q at the same distance and the waveforms are stretched . The longer the distance at the same Q as well as the smaller Q at the same distance, the smaller is the bandwidth of the transmission wavelets. At the same time, its peak frequency moves toward smaller frequencies. In addition, three methods for the determination of the absorption through Q factor are reviewed, namely the spectral ratio method, amplitude decay method and a method over absorption coefficient determination. The applicability of the methods is then demonstrated by using real data acquired from transmission measurement at test site in Reiche Zeche Shaft in Germany.
Contribution/ Originality
The new analysis for the determination of the absorption media by attenuation through Q factor.

Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Selection of Appropriate Equipment for Designing Effective Vacuum System

Research Article
Author(s): H. M. Akram, M. Zafarullah Khan
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Vacuum systems are designed for a variety of research activities and industrial performs for different vacuum ranges depending upon the process prerequisite. It is very essential that these systems should be designed by selecting the vacuum equipment for proper vacuum generation, precise vacuum measurement and particular vacuum control for immense contribution to the process effectiveness, operational ease, working efficiency and quality product. In this paper effort has been made to clarify the physical concepts to use variety of vacuum pumps, gauges and valves to design different vacuum systems with diverse vacuum ranges for their up to mark effectiveness.
Contribution/ Originality
As far as the contribution of the study of this paper is concerned, it is one of very few studies which have investigated. It surely contributes in the existing literature with trustworthy methodology. It also contributes the first logical analysis. The paper's primary contribution is finding the true solution.

Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Study of Layered Structure on Contact Boundary Area of Formation Panasogan-Waturanda by Applying Ground Penetrating Radar Method

Research Article
Author(s): Eddy Ibrahim, Wahyudi W Parnadi
Journal: Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications

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Abstract
Study on Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data from a common-offset profiling measurement carried out in the contact area between Panosogan and Waturanda Formations in Karangsambung, Kebumen – Central of Java is done. GPR RAMAC system is utilized. The aim of the study is to recognize and eliminate surface-scattering noise and ring-down effects, to image subsurface layered structure and to identify a contact area between Panosogan and Waturanda Formations. The processed data were analyzed with the help of instantaneous attributes and the so-called joint time frequency (JTFA) analysis. Study results show that some diffraction patterns appeared in radargram are resulting from scattering of surface-objects. These can be eliminated with f-k filtering and migration. Ring-down effect resulted from impedance mismatch between subsurface electrical properties and those of antenna is difficult to eliminate. However, it can be well recognized and analyzed in the JTF representation. Instantaneous attributes and JTF analysis are proved to be useful tools in imaging the contact area and subsurface layered structures.
Contribution/ Originality
The new procedure in data processing to eliminate ring down and noise.  A GPR data Processing useful in imaging contact area and subsurface  should be designed  by using JTF analysis

Engineering » Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Web Service Composition for E-Commerce Web Application

Research Article
Author(s): Anis ISMAIL, Abd El Salam AL HAJJAR, Abdel Karim KASSEM
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Web Services are based on distributed technology and provide standard means of interoperating between different software applications across and within organizational boundaries with the use of XML. Web Services technologies allow interaction between applications. Sometimes a single service given alone does not meet user’s needs. In this case, it is necessary to compose several services in order to achieve the user’s goal. Web service composition is one of the most challenging problems of recent years. The number of service providers is increasing, and along with that for a request they offer multiple services with the same functionality, so it makes the problem of composition quite complex.  In this paper, we compose multi web services for E-Commerce. We implement a new web application that use two or many web services to make some transactions and to choose the best deal.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the composition of web services is the process of combining Web services in order to offer value-added services. Web Services composition consists in combining several Web Services into a Composite one, in order to satisfy complex users queries.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Riccatis Equation. Asymptotics of Exact Solution

Research Article
Author(s): Nikolai Evgenievich Tsapenko
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
In this article based on a method of approximating equation an asymptotic solution of the general Riccati ‘s equation is obtained. The principal distinctive feature and advantage of the solution is its continuity at turning points. Estimates of accuracy of the approximate solution are derived. Limit values of the asymptotic solution in case of one-sided convergence of argument to turning point of the first order are calculated.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature. Thus, the results of that study may be applied for solving problems were set up in works [1], [2], [3]. This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the asymptotic behavior of solutions of Riccati’s equation in the neighborhood of turning points.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

MHD Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer through a Stratified Nanofluid Flow Over a Thermal Radiative Stretching Cylinder

Research Article
Author(s): Srinivas Maripala, Kishan Naikoti
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The flow problem presented in this paper is to study the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a mixed convection nanofluid flow along a stretching cylinder embedded in a thermally stratified medium are numerically analyzed, with the thermal radiation effects. The governing boundary layer equations of continuity, momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable local similarity transformations. The coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved by the implicit finite difference method along with the Thomas algorithm. The effect of various material parameters such as buoyancy parameter, solutal buoyancy parameter, Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Schmidt number, curvature parameter, magnetic parameter, stratification parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented in graphs. Physical quantities such as skin friction coefficient, Nusselet number and Sherwood number are also computed. 
Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this paper is finding that the effects of nanofluid on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a mixed convection along a radiative stretching cylinder embedded in a thermal stratified medium. Aim of this paper is to develop a computational procedure.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Analysis of Dioxins Concentration in Domestic Waste and Burnt Tyre Residue at Gosa Dumpsite in Abuja, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Alhassan, M.M., Struve, M., Ujoh, F., Oleka, J.I.
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
This study examined the presence of dioxins – a persistent organic pollutant in domestic and burnt tyre waste residues and it’s comparison with German safety limits at the Gosa dumpsite in Abuja, Nigeria. The period of sampling and analysis was between January and March, 2011. Burnt tyre ashes and burnt solid waste residues from the dump sites were chemically analyzed to determine the concentration of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and furan congeners in absolute quantities using high resolution capillary column gas chromatography and low resolution mass spectrometry. The result of the analysis performed using the International Toxic Equivalent Factor (NATO/CCMS) for the calculation of the individual Toxic Equivalent Quotients (TEQs) of the seventeen 2,3,7,8- substituted dioxins and furan congers and a summation of the individual I-TEQs per sample shows that there is significant quantity of about 44 ng/kg TM of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a contaminant in Agent Orange, in one out of the five (1/5) analyzed samples. The maximum Total Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCCD/F) concentration recorded in this study was 1,350 ng/kg TM from sample Point 3. This was greater than the German Federal Soil Protection and Contamination Sites Ordinance (GFSPCSO) for Total PCDD/F equivalents for target concentration, agricultural, playground and residential landuse (which dominate the area under study) but less than its industrial landuse equivalent. There was also the presence of dioxins in the burnt domestic waste analysed with the Total PCDD/F (TEQ) of 6.6 ng/kg TM. The land usage of the area under investigation is closely interwoven across the land mass. Therefore, the results indicate that the population and activities within the area of study are under threat of health hazards that may arise from the high concentration of dioxins recorded by this study.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by providing a better understanding of the potential pollution from burnt tyres and domestic wastes residue in Nigeria’s Federal Capital City. This study adopts the method of chemically analyzing burnt residue of tyres and domestic waste to determine the concentration of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and furan congeners in absolute quantities using high resolution capillary column gas chromatography and low resolution mass spectrometry estimation.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

The Effects of Repeated Push Sled Sprints on Blood Lactate, Heart Rate Recovery and Sprint Times

Research Article
Author(s): Michael Waller, Tracey Robinson, Dustin Holman, Matthew Gersick
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Resisted sprinting devices have been examined for their effect on sprinting but there is limited research on sled pushing thus leaving a gap in the literature related to this topic. The current study examined the effects of varied push sled loads during repeated sprinting on blood lactate levels, heart rate recovery, and sprint times. Division II female power athletes (softball n = 5, volleyball n = 9), age 19.93 ± .83 years, body mass 70.71 ± 5.39 kg, height 170.29 ± 6.41 cm, and body fat 17.47 ± .04 %, participated in a randomized, repeated measures study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a traditional sprint condition (SPR), sprints pushing an unloaded sled (SLED), along with the following loads of 10 kg, 15 kg, 20 kg, 35 kg, 50 kg and completed each condition over a 7 week period with testing occurring once a week at the same time of day.  For each condition, subjects performed 6 sprints over 20 yds with a 35 second passive recovery between each sprint with split times and total times measured. Blood lactate was obtained by a finger prick and was analyzed by a portable lactate analyzer (Accutrend® Lactate) at rest prior to the repeat sprint trials, 3 minutes and 5 minutes post intervals. The results demonstrated statistically significant differences in all mean sprint times and in peak sprint times except in 10 kg and 15 kg conditions. Statistically significant differences were observed in BLA3MIN and BLA5MIN in sprint conditions ≥ 15 kg. The results suggest that repeated push sled sprints ≥ 15 kg load may be beneficial to adapting the fast glycolytic system.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the acute effects of sprinting with pushing a sled of varying loads in female athletes.

Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1