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Listing 42 - 20 of 1962 results.

Compliance Behaviour in State-Run Fisheries: Situating Lake Chivero in a Policy Perspective

Research Article
Author(s): Tom Tom, Emmanuel Munemo
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
Parks and wildlife facilities are intended to contribute people’s wellbeing socially and economically. This aim puts parks and wildlife management in policy. Appropriate management of parks and wildlife for wider social wellbeing is essential. This paper brings out the issues in compliance behaviour of fishers in Zimbabwe’s state-run lakes. The underlying aim of the study is to create policy options that sustain both the fish resources and the wellbeing of the fishers. Zimbabwe’s Parks and Wild Life Management Authority (ZPWMA) administers all state-run lakes in Zimbabwe in order to prevent their over-exploitation. Despite its strict management regulations, the following rather disturbing developments continue to be observed:a) An increase in disregard for the regulations among licensed fishers and an influx of unregistered fishers (poachers).b) A growing incapacity on the part of ZPWMA to contain the worsening non-compliance with management regulations among fishers.c) An increase in the number of illegal fishers entering the fishery. d) An increase in the amount of fish being sold illegally on open markets in Harare and neighbouring towns.The growing non-compliance with regulations could be a result of many factors. Firstly, the worsening economic problems, the rising unemployment as well as the ever-spiralling prices of beef mean that some people are finding fish to be the next cheaper substitute. Secondly, the rather narrow and state centrist approach to fisheries management little considers the practical concerns of fishers giving them no incentive to comply with the regulations. Thirdly, because of the above, the regulations are low in legitimacy, making them less self-enforcing and costly to enforce. At a policy level, the study attempts to find ways of making the existing fisheries management structures, policies and practices at the fishery command more respect and acceptance among fisheries, whilst creating a conducive environment for the fishers to enhance their wellbeing through fishing. The following main recommendations were made:a) Greater attention be paid to the legitimacy aspects of the regulatory institutions as well as the regulations;b) The interests of and concerns of the fishers be more fully incorporated into the management regulations to enhance their acceptance by fishers; and c) The job conditions of ZPWMA employees should be improved to curb corruption and to improve how they interact with fishers.
Contribution/ Originality
This article is a result of a unique study on compliance behaviour of fishers at Lake Chivero in Zimbabwe as a policy issue.  The study contributes to the limited empirical knowledge and literature on creating policy options that sustain both the fish resources and the wellbeing of the fishers in state-run fisheries.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Republic of Zimbabwe National Water Policy: A Desk Review of the Gaps between the Policy and Its Implementation

Research Article
Author(s): Tom Tom, Emmanuel Munemo
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
The researchers set out to identify the gaps between the Republic of Zimbabwe National Water Policy and its implementation. A qualitatively-oriented desk review provided the step-by-step process of identifying and analysing the gaps. The desk review was informed by the observation that no scholar has engaged the Water Policy and the performance of the water sector in terms of gaps between policy and implementation. The existing literature focuses on, and is influenced by quantitative and linear analyses. A lacuna therefore exists in Zimbabwean literature on qualitative policy analysis. The desk review was aimed at creating a platform for conducting a qualitative empirical study on the policy and its performance in urban areas. The desk review produced three major findings. Firstly, that the aim, objectives and principles of the policy are stated in qualitative terms. Secondly, that the gaps between the policy and its implementation are largely qualitative. Thirdly, that the available analyses of the water sector have been influenced solely by technical and linear models. Accordingly, two main recommendations are proffered. Solid empirical qualitative analyses of the gaps between the policy and implementation should be done against the provisions of the policy. Interactive models of policy analyses should be used as substitutes to, or in conjunction with linear models. The aim of such studies should be to attain the overall goal of social policy, that is, creating and sustaining wellbeing. 
Contribution/ Originality
This is an original and unique article on the qualitative gaps between Zimbabwe’s National Water Policy and its implementation as social policy issues.  The study contributes to the limited empirical knowledge and literature on effective policy implementation.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

Quality Management of Olympic, Non-Olympic and Paralympic Sport Federations

Research Article
Author(s): Belia Mendez Rial, Jose Maria Cancela Carral
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a strategic process of continuous improvement targeting success in sport with numerous additional benefits. Its application commenced in business, next in public administration and then in the third sector. Some researchers studied clubs but fewer researchers have studied federations. Consequently, the purpose of this article is to measure the TQM of a group of Galician Sport Federations. We used an adaptation of European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM) questionnaire issued to Federations before this study. The sample was 50 of 59 entities (86.21%) divided in: 26 Olympic Federations (52%), 21 non-Olympic Federations (42%) and 3 Paralympic Federations (6%). The results of the questionnaire gave information about the TQM of the entity and which particular dimensions were managed poorly, regularly, well or very well. Whether they are Olympic, Paralympic or Non-Olympic, results show that all these Federations achieved a “good” score in Total Quality Management, with “very good” indications in dimensions such as Policy, Strategy and Process Management. The Olympic Federations returned “regular” results in the “People” category. Paralympic Federations generated “regular” scores in Leadership, Human Resources, Society Results and Process Results. Similar returns have been found in other studies. Knowledge of the overall TQM scores and the dimensions provides information regarding areas that require to be maintained, changed or developed. Based on the results of the questionnaire, practical beneficial recommendations could subsequently be readily and usefully implemented. We suggest that further researches could help to construct a TQM system for these organisations. Availability of such information would support and facilitate good management of these entities, thereby enabling improved management in all respects: effectiveness, efficiency, efficacy and economy.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated applying Quality in Sport Management Federations. It gives a questionnaire to evaluate the TQM of this type of entities, the description of the TQM of them and several useful ideas to further researches.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 12-2015 Issue: 4

Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan

Research Article
Author(s): Mohamed S .A Abdalla, Izeldin A. Babiker, Kamal F. Elkalifa
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
In developing countries farming and livestock keeping are the most dominant activities for the indigenous people, proper farming maintain good and adequate grazing for livestock and hence support livelihood in such countries. Therefore, local inhabitants largely depend on some tree species suitable for grazing purposes.  In the present study, the nutritional value for fruits of Acacia ehrenbergiana (Salam) (seeds and pods) at the lower Atbra river basin in north eastern part of Sudan was investigated. Field samples of fruits were collected, each sample kept separately in a small cloth kit. Chemical analysis of fruit samples was conducted to quantify the content of various nutritional attributes including: the crude protein, crude fibers, fats, starch, ash, and moisture content. In addition to some minerals namely P, Ca, Mg, Na, Cur and Fe. Chemical analysis revealed that CP is found to be as high as 30.99%, CF reached 25.11%, the starch content 12.12%, fat 4.1%, and ash content 11.81% .These values showed the high nutritional values fruits. Similarly mineral contents demonstrate good amounts of Na and Ca that needed by livestock for adequate growth, but lower amounts of P that should be supplemented to the diets. Most tested browse fruits revealed adequate nutritional values of Acacia ehrenbergiana (Salam) fruits as a protein or dry season supplement. Fodder trees still need to be fully evaluated in order to reduce the cost of feed . This can be done by being used as a feed supplement to livestock .Increasing the base for feed options (forages) with high quality feed will support the ever increasing demand for livestock products ,as feed is the most important factor influencing  livestock production in the harsh environment of the dry lands.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Oyediran, W. O., Omoare, A. M., Esenwa, A. O., Omisore, O. A., Dick T. T.
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was a major threat to public health in Nigeria and it adversely affected the people’s perception on bush meat as it was revealed that wild animals were host of the virus.  Thus, the study assessed the effects of EVD outbreak on bush meat marketing and consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 85 respondents. Data collected with interview guide and analysed using with descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. The results showed that 58.80% of the respondents were between 40 – 50 years of age and 73% of the respondents were females. Majority (64.70%) of the respondents had been in bush meat business for more than 10 years. Before the EVD outbreak 37.14% of the respondents had more than 50 customers while patronage reduced to less than 25 customers in a day after EVD outbreak. Similarly, 42% of respondents had more than ₦21,000.00 in a day before EVD outbreak as against less than ₦5,000.00 in a day after the outbreak. Chi-square analysis showed a significant relationship between the sources of information on EVD outbreak and bush meat sales at p < 0.05. It can be concluded that EVD caused reduction in the customers’ patronage and income realized from the sales of bush meat after the outbreak. It is hereby recommended that more awareness should be created by government and other stakeholders that Nigeria is free of EVD, and bush meat is safe for public consumption while Agricultural Extension Agents and Community Health Workers should focus on training and capacity building for quality and healthy bush meat business in the study area
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the setback caused by the spread of the news of Ebola virus disease outbreak on bush meat sales and consumption in rural communities where cases of Ebola disease virus were not actually reported.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

Challenges of Writing Dissertations: Perceptual Differences between Students and Supervisors in a Ghanaian Polytechnic

Research Article
Author(s): Edem Maxwell Azila-Gbettor, Christopher Mensah, Simon Mesa Kwodjo Avorgah
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study explored the perceptions of students and supervisors on the interplay of institutional-student-supervisor related factors that militate against the writing and completion of quality dissertations in Ghanaian Polytechnics. Based on 491 usable self-questionnaires retrieved from final year students and supervisors, descriptive results indicate both students and supervisors unanimously agreed that students experience considerable challenge accessing scholarly journals, textbooks, internet and literature, inadequate funding and irregular and delayed feedback from supervisors when writing their dissertations. Furthermore, the Mann-Whitney U-test results revealed that both students and supervisors exhibited self-serving attribution bias in their perception of the challenges of writing and completing dissertation concerning student and supervisor related factors. Improvement in students’ access to scholarly literature and supervisors being more accessible and providing quick feedback to students are recommended. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper adds to existing literature by examining the differences in opinion between students and supervisors regarding challenges in dissertation writing among undergraduate students by  applying the self-serving bias  and better- than- average models.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Drug Use and Anti-Social Behaviour as Correlates of Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Biology in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State

Research Article
Author(s): Aminu L. Sharehu, Emmanuel E. Achor, Comfort Onah
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study investigated drug use and anti-social behaviour as correlates of secondary school students’ achievement in Biology in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State. The study adopted the ex-post facto method and a sample size of 375 Senior Secondary two (SS II) students was drawn. Students Drug Use Questionnaire (SDUQ), Anti-social Behaviour Influence Questionnaire (ABIQ) and Students Performance Test (SPT) were used for data collection.  The data collected were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment correlation method to answer the research questions. Also, t-test statistical tool was used to test the six null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.  The study found that involvements in anti-social behaviour by secondary school students have significant relationship with their achievement in Biology; there was a significant relationship between academic achievement and anti-social behaviour of male students; male students academic achievement and  drug abuse had no significant relationship; there was significant relationship between academic achievement and anti-social behaviour of female secondary students but there was significant relationship between academic achievement and drug abuse among female secondary Biology students. Based on these findings, the study concluded that indiscriminate drug use and anti-social behaviour indulged in by both male and female students are strong indices of academic achievement by students. Consequently, for a student to be outstanding in his or her achievement there is every need to shun indiscriminate drug use and indulgence in anti-social behaviours. The study recommended among others that both secondary school male and female students should desist from anti-social behaviours or social vices that are detrimental to their academic performance, among others.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated drug use and anti-social behaviour as correlates of students’ achievement in biology. Further, the paper’s primary contribution is in finding that male students’ achievement and drug abuse had no significant relationship but a significant relationship exists among female students.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Microbiostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation in Kuh-E-Surmeh (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)

Research Article
Author(s): Pedram Rafiee, Dariush Baghbani, Ali Aghanabati, Mehran Arian
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The objective of the present study is to perform Microbiostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation in Kuh-e-Surmeh (Zagros Basin). The Upper Permian Dalan Formation contains vast gas reservoirs in the southwest Iran and is composed of three Members: The Lower Dalan Member is Wordian to Capitanian in age; the Nar Member is latest Capitanian and the Upper Dalan Member corresponds to Wuchiapingian to Changhsingian. Lower and Upper Dalan Members include mainly limestone, dolomite and Nar member mostly consist of anhydrite and thin interlayer of dolomite toward the base. The biostratigraphic study allows individualizing Foraminifers from the Roadian to the Changhsingian (Middle to Late Permian). Based on the stratigraphic distributions of the Biostratigraphically significant fauna and flora the following 5 biozones and age determinations are proposed in the Upper Permian Dalan Formation: 1. Paraglobivalvulinoides septulifera zone (Changhsingian)2. Paradagmarita zone (Changhsingian)3. Shanita zone (Middle - Late Capitanian)4. Schwagerina zone (Wordian - Middle Capitanian)5. Neoendothyra zone (Roadian)
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the Permian sequences of different layers in Kuh-e-Surmeh (Zagros Basin). The results of this study will help to make Paleogeographic maps, interpretation of Permian Basin, Recognition of lithology specificities and Separation and definition of the Permian sequence.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models

Research Article
Author(s): Pantea Hafezian, Hussin Salamon, Mahendran Shitan
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
In this paper, we compare the forecasting ability of different GARCH models to estimate value at risk in sukuk market.  A wide extensive list of both symmetric and asymmetric GARCH models (including GARCH, EGARCH, GJR-GARCH, IGARCH and Asymmetric power GARCH) were considered in modeling  the volatility in the sukuk market. All VaR estimations are carried out by “rugarch” package in “R” software. The performance of these models is compared by both in-sample and out-of-sample analysis.  We found that the performance of asymmetric models in estimating value at risk are superior in both in-sample and out-of-sample evaluation. We also found that in most cases the student-t distribution is more preferable than normal or generalized error distribution (GED).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the behavior of sukuk data in secondary market and describes characteristics of its statistical distribution function. Another contribution is comparing the estimation ability of various GARCH models in order to find superior model to estimate VAR in sukuk market.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Received Signal Strength in a Macrocell in Lagos Environs Using Finite Element Method

Research Article
Author(s): Shoewu, O., Makanjuola, N.T., Akinyemi, L.A., Ogunlewe, A.O.
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of received signal strength in a macrocell in Lagos environment using Finite Element Method (FEM). In this paper, six different site locations were covered and subdivided into peri-urban, open suburban, dense urban, open urban, suburban and exurban areas. It was deduced that the experimental values obtained was favourably with the FEM predicted values with the mean prediction error ranging between 6.66dB to 12.89dB while that of standard deviation error is 2.99dB to 8.09dB.
Contribution/ Originality
This study reveals the determination of received signal strength from a source point within a macrocell by the use of finite element method. Simulation for the study was achieved using 2D Maxwell’s wave equation.  Adequate data was collected, analysed and the main idea was to collect data with the TEMS phone by driving in a vehicle and making a lot of calls in the metropolitan area considered. This effort makes it different from other forms of data collection methods used in previous studies.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Empirical Study on the Relationship between Market Share, Advertising Density and Ratio of Sales

Research Article
Author(s): He Yucheng, Ding Wenna, Zhang Qian, Yang Guang, Li Fangqiang
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The causal relationship between market share, advertising density and ratio of sales has been widely discussed in academic circles. This paper examined the extent of reaction and the reverse causal relationship between advertising, concentration, and performance. Secondary data on the enterprises’ operating income, total profits and advertising costs of the mid-range and high-end liquor enterprises, covering the period 2003-2011, were sourced from the financial statements. The simultaneous-equations model was employed to examine the mutual relationship of advertising, concentration and performance. The results of the simultaneous-equations model show that increased advertising density did not contribute to acquiring a higher market share for the mid-range and high-end liquor enterprises. We also found that a higher ratio of sales stimulated the enterprises to invest more in advertising costs; however, it did not promote the increase of market share.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology that is the simultaneous-equations model to examine the degree of interaction and reverse causality relationship between market share, advertising density and ratio of sales in liquor industry. It also explores the three variables’ operation mechanism, which is certainly innovative.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Synthesis, Growth and Characterization of Bis Thiourea Sodium Zinc Sulphate Single Crystals-A Semi Organic Nlo Material

Research Article
Author(s): K. Uma, R. Manimekalai, G. Pasupathi
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The slow evaporation of the solvent technique is used to grow transparent nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystals of bis thiourea sodium zinc sulphate (BTSZS). The grown crystal is characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the crystallization of the synthesized materials and to determine its unit cell parameters. The crystalline nature and   purity of the grown crystals are confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction pattern. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded to identify the functional groups present in  BTSZS crystals. The UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectrum of BTSZS crystals are recorded in the wavelength range 190 - 1100 nm to determine the lower cut-off wavelength, percentage of the transmittance and the optical constants such as bandgap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectance etc., Fluorescence study confirms the green emission of BTSZS which indicates the grown crystal is well suited for NLO applications.  The thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analyses are used to identify the melting point and the thermal stability of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency is measured by Kurtz powder method and it is found to be 1.3 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphates (KDP).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the synthesis, growth and characterization of Bis thiourea Sodium Zinc Sulphate, single crystals using slow evaporation technique. Thus grown crystals are having very good optical transmittance. Fluorescence study confirms the green emission and also that NLO property.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Synthesis Process of Stable Bafeo4 by Dry Method

Research Article
Author(s): Abdellatif EL MAGHRAOUI, Abdelaziz ZEROUALE, Mustapha IJJAALI
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
Ferrate (VI) alkalis are the best known and best studied. The importance of their study is due to their increasingly diverse and innovative applications. The aim of this work is to prepare stable at ambient BaFeO4, to study and optimize the key parameters influencing the performance of the oxidation of iron (III) into iron (VI) and to monitore its degradation over time in order  to minimize the cost and improve the production of ferrate (VI) for their interest in the water treatment.. the synthesis of the phase was carried out by dry processing, using the reaction Ba3 (Fe(OH)6)2, H2O, and Ba(OH)2 at a temperature of 850 ° C under flowing oxygen for a period of 12 hours with a ratio of Ba / Fe = 3. The result was characterized by UV spectrophotometer, measuring the optical density at the wavelength of 507 nm.
Contribution/ Originality


Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Getachew Tilahun, Firew Mekbib, Asnake Fikre, Million Eshete
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Chickpea is the major pulses grown in Ethiopia, mainly by subsistence farmers usually under rain-fed conditions. However, its production is constrained due to genotype instability, environmental variability and interaction of genotype with environment. This research was carried out to examine the magnitude of environmental effect on yield of chickpea genotypes and to investigate the stability and adaptability of the genotypes under different agro-ecological conditions. 17 genotypes each of were evaluated in RCBD with four replications in five environments. Various stability indices were used to assess stability and genotype by environment performances. The combined ANOVA for yield and yield related traits revealed highly significant (P≤0.01) differences for genotypes, environments and their interaction. The significant interaction showed that the genotypes respond differently across the various environments. At Akaki, Chefe Donsa, Debre Zeit, Dembia and Haramaya the top performing genotype were DZ-2012-CK-0040 (2229 kg/ha), DZ-2012-CK-0027 (3966 kg/ha), DZ-2012-CK-0040 (4060 kg/ha), DZ-2012-CK-0032 (1394 kg/ha) and Natoli (3247 kg/ha) respectively. The first two PCs explained 84.3% of the variance of original variables for the genotypes. There were remarkable inconsistencies with the univariate stability parameters to select stable genotypes. However, multivariate approach, the AMMI model was better for partitioning the G x E into the causes of variation. Based on ASV value, DZ-2012-CK-0035 was most stable genotype. As per AMMI biplot, Minjar and local variety were the most widely adapted genotypes. Dembia and Haramaya are the most discriminative environments. Environments Debre Zeit and Chefe Donsa were the favorable environment. Genotypes, DZ-2012-CK-0040, DZ-2012-CK-0036 and DZ-2012-CK-0040, DZ-2012-CK-0032 and variety Natoli were recommended as specifically adapted to sites Akaki, Chefe Donsa, Debre Zeit, Dembia and Haramaya respectively. 
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

Physicochemical Effects and Sensory Characteristics of Pomerac (Malay Apple; Syzygium Malaccense) Wine: Effects of Varying Pectolase Concentrations

Research Article
Author(s): Riad Hosein, Neela Badrie, Rhonda Sanchez
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Malay apple fruits are susceptible to bruising and degradation with short shelf life. The Malay apple fruit can be economically converted into functional food and consumed as wine. Overcoming challenges of competitive market quality standards and consumer approval must be achieved by producing wines with optimal sensory and physicochemical characteristics during fermentation. The objective was to identify optimal pectolase enzyme concentration that produce, the most superior physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptability during fermentation. Malay apple wine was made after secondary fermentations of 21 days of ripe fruits using 4 labeled treatments (T1 –T4) different pectolase concentrations 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% respectively and the physicochemical characteristics of the treatments were measured. Hedonic testing, focus group evaluation, quality appraisal of the wines and microbiological stability tests were performed. All results were computed statistically using the MINITAB Statistical Software Package. Acidity, Flavor, Finish, Hue, Chroma and Turbidity were superior in theT2 treatments while the T4 treatment scored higher in Aroma and Bouquet, Balance, Body, Overall Acceptability and Alcohol Content. All treatments T1 – T4 were microbiologically stable and contained < 10 cfu.mL-1 of total aerobes, yeast, molds and lactic acid bacteria and were microbiologically stable. It was concluded that treatments T2 and T4 (0.3% and 0.9%) produced dry wines, with the best physicochemical and hedonistic characteristics of the Malay apple wine. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature, the optimization of the pectolase enzyme concentration required for efficient fermentation. The efficient conversion of the highly perishable Malay apple fruit into quality wine with excellent physicochemical properties, long shelf life and preserved nutritional benefits is also desirable, as a commercial product. 
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 3

Effects of Degasified Extender on Quality Parameters of Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa

Research Article
Author(s): Megha Pande, N. Srivastava, J.S. Rajoriya, S.K. Ghosh, J.K. Prasad, S.S. Ramteke
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
One of the most important factors contributing to poor quality semen post thaw has been reported to be oxidative stress. Continued interaction of spermatozoa with dissolved oxygen in extender renders detrimental effect by generating reactive oxygen species during processing. This formed the basis to investigate the effects of removal of oxygen from the Tris-Glycerol-Egg Yolk (TG-EY) extender on the post-thaw semen quality. Semen ejaculates (n=26) collected from three cross bred bulls with mass activity of ≥3 and progressive motility of ≥70% were split in two fractions (control and treatment) to obtain 80 x 106 progressively motile sperm/mL of extended semen. The TG-EY extender composed of 3.028 g of Tris, 1.675 g of citric acid, 1.25 g of fructose, 7.0 mL of glycerol, 10 mL of egg yolk, 105 IU Penicillin G Sodium and 105 µg Streptomycin for 100 mL of deionized water for control and degasified (freeze-pump-thaw cycling method using liquid nitrogen) for treatment. Semen was processed and filled in 0.25 mL polyvinyl chloride straws, sealed and cryopreserved for at least 2 week before evaluation. Assessment of post-thaw motility, viability, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa were evaluated after thawing at 37°C for 30s. Study revealed a significant (viability and acrosome integrity, p<0.05) and highly significant (post-thaw motility and plasma membrane integrity, p<0.01) improvement in all the semen quality parameters in degasified as compared to control group. This study showed that degasification of extender prior to their use can serve to improve semen quality to highly acceptable levels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study shows importance of degasification of extender in cryopreservation protocol. The assays used to evaluate effect of degasification were currently in vogue. Fewer studies were available to evaluate the effect of degasification in cattle sperm cryopreservation. The paper contributes by showing the importance of degasification on sperm cryosurvival.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

The Correlation between Educational Level and Incidence of Syphilis among Female Sex Workers within 7 Cities in Indonesia in 2007

Research Article
Author(s): Roselinda Rusli, Nelly Puspandari, Vivi Setiawaty
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Background: Syphilis is a chronic disease that may cause disability among patients and the child that is delivered by the patient. It is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), caused by Treponema pallidum. Syphilis may increase transmission of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this article is to reveal prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in 7 cities in Indonesia in 2007. Methods: The data analyzed in this article is derived from cross sectional study among FSWs in 7 cities in Indonesia in 2007. The respondents were chosen by cluster random sampling from Kupang, Samarinda, Pontianak, Yogyakarta, Timika, Makassar and Tangerang. Blood specimens were collected from respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Diagnosis of Syphilis confirmed in accordance with the results of Rapid Plasma Reagen (RPR) and Treponema Pallidum Haemaglutination Assay (TPHA), and the educational data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Results: There were 1750 respondents who had the complete data, 12,2% respondent were diagnosed as Syphilis. The highest prevalence of Syphilis was in Makassar (64,5%). Indirect FSWs had infections 2,22 times higher compared to direct FSWs (RRa = 2,22 ; 95% CI = 1,67 – 2,96 ; p = 0,000). FSWs that never had formal study had 2.48 times higher incidence of syphilis compared to the high school graduates and university degree holders [Adjusted Relative Risk (RRa) = 2,84 ; 95% CI = 1,46 – 5,52 ; p = 0.002].Conclusion: Lack of knowledge because of low education among FSWs and no clinical symptoms in the early stage of syphilis makes its prevalence remained high. The Risk of syphilis among indirect FSWs was higher than the direct ones because of the difficulty to be reached by STD controlling programed.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated correlation between syphilis incidence and education level within female sex workers in Indonesia. It uses the Cox regression method backward hierarchy elimination (BHE) for the statistical analyses. 
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 08-2015 Issue: 8

The Roles of Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) On the Practices of Soil and Water Conservation in the Case of Sekela District, Amhara State, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Abineh Tilahun, Bogale Teferie
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The introduced Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) techniques, practices in the study area were started through the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) from the year 2008 through cash or money incentives. The majority of the conservations were practiced on communal lands. The reason for investing on communal lands was that there was little or no care for conserving and managing communal lands by the individuals. Therefore, the objective of this research was carried out to analysis the roles of Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on the practices of soil and water conservation in the case of Sekela District, Amhara State, Ethiopia. Household questionnaire, focus group discussion, case study and Key informants interview methods were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households. A total of 90 households were selected in both served and not served by the program. The survey result shows that in the study area in addition to efforts made by the government soil and water conservation techniques were implemented by the PSN program.  But now, the soil conservation techniques practiced by the program was discontinued today. Therefore, before starting to practice of any conservation activity, awareness creation to the people in relation to the use of the technology; and investigate the socio-economic and biophysical variables is very essential.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature for the program involving in soil and water conservation practices. This study is important to investigate the roles of the Productive Safety Net Program on soil conservation.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of SP and SC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations

Research Article
Author(s): Pouya Salari, Gholamreza Lashkaripour, Mohammad Ghafoori
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Presentation of empirical equations for estimating engineering properties of soils is a simple, low cost and widely-used method. One of the major concerns in using these equations is evaluating their accuracy in different conditions and regions which often leads to doubts about obtained results. Most of these equations were derived in special laboratories, different climate conditions and in soils with different geotechnical and geological engineering properties and were generalized to other conditions. The main question is that whether these methods are also applicable to other conditions. Using local equations and narrowing the usage range of various methods based on each region properties are appropriate methods to solve these problems. This leads to simplified and faster analysis and high reliability in the obtained results. In this paper, empirical equations were derived to estimate internal friction angle, based on SPT numbers of Mashhad City’s soils in Iran, using SPT and direct shear tests results from 50 samples (25 SP and 25 SC soils samples). The results showed similar values for predicted φ values by SPT test and φ values determined by direct shear tests. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates new formulas about finding internal friction angle based on SPT number and soil type. Finding local formulas to estimate reliable φ values based on SPT number and soil type is a new method that can widely use in all regions.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 05-2015 Issue: 5

Governments Policy Reforms from 1970s Onward and It’s Implications on Land Use and Land Cover With the Help of GIS And RS Techniques In Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Abineh Tilahun, Bogale Teferie
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The few policies that existed to stop the accelerating rate of land degradation were poorly enacted because institutions involved in land-related policies changed frequently. Three different governments have been in power in Ethiopia since 1972, and the policies implemented by each have directly affected land use. To do this, the studies analyze the LULC changes by considering the major political and policy reforms from 1970s. For this study, four LANDSAT images covering over a period of 1972 (Landsat-1 MSS); 1984 (Landsat-5 TM); 2000 (Landsat-7 ETM+) and 2014 (Landsat-8 OLI_TIRS) was used and analyzed using Arc GIS 10.1 and Erdas Imagine 13. Supervised classification system was used to classify the images of different land use categories. Generally Farm land, Settlement land, Grazing land, Forest land, Bush land, Water bodies and Bare/stony land was identified. The result shows that there is decreasing of Bush land from the year 1972 to 2014 and forest land from the year 1984 to 2014. And there was increasing of Agriculture and settlement from the year 1972 to 2014.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature for the contribution of government policy reforms from 1970s on land use land cover. This study is important to understand government policy reforms on natural resource management in general and land cover change in particular.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 05-2015 Issue: 5