Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis

L.K. Maziya


A.A. Tijani


M.B. Masuku

L.K. Maziya 1 A.A. Tijani 1 M.B. Masuku 1 ,

  1. Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, University of Swaziland, Swaziland 1

Pages: 1-18

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70/2016.3.1/

Share :


Export demand estimates are important for meaningful export forecasts, planning, and policy formulation that can help improve the performance of the sugar subsector in Swaziland. This study estimated the determinants of export demand for Swazi sugar and measured the impact of the EU reform on Swazi sugar export demand. The study used panel data approach by using annual time series data between the periods 1997 and 2012. An LSDV fixed effects model was employed. Export price, Importer GDP and the EU reform were found to be significant in explaining export demand for Swazi sugar. These variables had coefficients -121.069, and -2.682, respectively, whose signs were against the priori expectation except for export price. The EU reform was found to have an overall positive impact to Swazi sugar export demand with coefficient of 120 816. The study also measured elasticities of the explanatory variables to the export demand of Swazi sugar. Export price, foreign income, producer prices and real exchange rate were found to be inelastic with elasticities of 0.35289, 0.00168, 0.04256 and 0.28572, respectively, for all the markets (SACU, EU, USA and COMESA) pooled together. Explanatory variables in the individual markets were found to be highly elastic. The study, therefore, recommended that Swaziland needs to take advantage of the EU reform and invest more on sugar production as it was not negatively affected. Swaziland also needs to negotiate for the quotas abandoned by those countries heavily affected by the EU reform.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by using demand function on the Swaziland Sugar Industry. This is the only study to be undertaken in Swaziland in relation to the Sugar Industry. Hence the study is original.


Export demand, Export destinations, Panel data model, Sugar industry, Swazi sugar, Swaziland, Swaziland sugar association.



  1. Abbas, I.M., 2012. Merchandise export demand function for Egypt: Panel data analysis. Applied Econometrics and International Development, 12(1): 107-116.
  2. Bobic, V., 2009. Income and price elasticities of croatian trade - a panel data approach. Young Economist’s Seminar to, 15th Dubrovnik Economic Conference. Central Bank of Croatia, Croatia. pp: 3-25.
  3. Co?ar, E.E., 2002. Price and income elasticities of Turkish export demand: A panel data application. Central Bank Review No. 2.
  4. Goldstein, M. and M.S. Khan, 1985. The supply and demand for exports: A simultaneous approach. Review of Economics and Statistics, 60(2): 275–286.
  5. Govenment of Swaziland, 2006. National adaptation strategy in response to the EU reform. Mbabane, Swaziland: Ministry of Economic Planning and Development.
  6. Mindaye, F., 2012. The role of COMESA growth and development of Ethopia. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Addis Ababa University, Ethopia.
  7. Olofin, S. and M.A. Babatunde, 2007. Estimating price and income elasticities of Sub-Saharan African exports. A Paper Presented in the 12th Annual Conference on Econometric Modelling for Africa held from the 4th until the 6th of July 2007, in Cape Town, South Africa.
  8. Pesaran, M.H., Y. Shin and R.J. Smith, 2001. Bound testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3): 289-326.
  9. Reyna-Torres, O., 2007. Panel data analysis: Fixed and random effects using stata. UK: Princeton University.
  10. Richardson, B., 2012. Trade, aid and rural development: EU sugar policy and the experience of Swaziland. UK: European Centre for Aid and Policy Management.
  11. Saghaian, S. and M. Soltani, 2012. Export demand function For U.S. Raisins. Selected Paper Prepared for Presentation at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Birmingham, AL, February 4-7, 2012.
  12. Saghaian, Y., M. Reed and S. Saghaian, 2014. Export demand estimation for U.S. corn and soybeans to major destinations. Selected Paper, the Southern Association of Agricultural Economics (SAEA) Annual Meetings, February 1-4, Dallas, Texas.
  13. Southern African Development Community Sugar Digest, 2014. Annual Report 2014, South Africa.
  14. SSA, 2014. Annual Report 2014. Mbabane, Swaziland.
  15. Sultan, Z.A., 2014. Saudi’s export demand function: The ARDL approach. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 5(3): 200-206.
  16. Swaziland Sugar Association, 2013. Annual Report 2013. Mbabane, Swaziland.
  17. Thaver, R.L. and C. Bova, 2014. An estimation of the ecourdo’s export demand function with the US. International Journal of Business and Finance Research, 8(1): 89-98.
  18. Zeng, Z., S. Saghaian and M. Reed, 2012. Factors affecting export demand for US pastachios. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 15(3): 139-152.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis
( 2 ) Contextual Estimation of Marketable and Marketed Surplus of Selected Seasonal Fruits: A Study Based on Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh
( 3 ) Estimation of Suspended Sediment Load in the Ressoul Watershed, Algeria
( 4 ) Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth
( 5 ) Estimation of Natural Variability in Different Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Sudanese Genotypes
( 6 ) Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp
( 8 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 10 ) Households Demand for Branded Tea in Southwest, Nigeria
( 11 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 13 ) In Vitro Differential Effect of Nerve Growth Factor on Functional Parameters of Murrah Buffalo Spermatozoa in Low and High Fertile Groups
( 14 ) Effect of Substrates on Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus
( 15 ) Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours
( 16 ) Processing and Storage Impact on Carotenoid Contents and Functional Properties of Yellow Cassava Traditional Food Products
( 17 ) Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder
( 18 ) Monte Carlo Modeling for Aflatoxin B1 Distribution in Pistachio Samples: A Prerequisite for Sampling Plan Validation
( 19 ) GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia
( 20 ) Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt
( 21 ) Development of a Mathematical Model for Angle of Soil Failure Plane in Case of 3-Dimenssional Cutting
( 22 ) Evaluation of Field Pea (Pisum Sativum L) Genotypes Performance for Yield and Yield Components at Five Growing Environments of Southern Ethiopia
( 23 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 24 ) Diversity, Use Pattern and Management of Forest Resources in the Eastern Himalaya: A Case Study of Mizoram, India
( 25 ) Urban Area - Review of Protective Forest Management
( 26 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 27 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 28 ) The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
( 29 ) Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years
( 30 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 31 ) Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
( 32 ) Performance Evaluation and Adaptation of Lentil Varieties in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale Districts of Southern Ethiopia
( 33 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 34 ) Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks
( 35 ) Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey
( 36 ) Examination of Oribatid Mites for Cysticercoids of Moniezia Sp
( 37 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 38 ) Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 39 ) Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan
( 40 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 41 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 43 ) Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland
( 44 ) Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo
( 45 ) Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft
( 46 ) “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”
( 47 ) Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
( 48 ) Evaluation of the Biomass of the Green Oak (Quercus Rotundifolia) of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the South Jbel Aoua Forest (Morocco)
( 49 ) Study on Agronomic Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum, Mill.) Varieties for Phonological, Growth and Yield Characters
( 50 ) Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties
( 51 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 52 ) Performance of Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland
( 53 ) Multi-Environment Variety Testing (Pre-Met) for Irrigated Ecosystem in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
( 54 ) A Suction Trap for Sampling Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan Trees
( 55 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 56 ) An Example of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: Production of Pine Nuts
( 57 ) A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation
( 58 ) Heterosis for Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield and Yield Components in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
( 59 ) Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province
( 60 ) Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 61 ) Variation of Wood Density in Tropical Rainforest Trees
( 62 ) Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation: A Case of the Kalika Community Forest, Dhading, Central Nepal
( 63 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 64 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 65 ) Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain
( 66 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 67 ) Optimization of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Extract Syrup Formula as a Nutritive Antioxidant Drink
( 68 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 69 ) The Value of Selected Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya
( 70 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 71 ) Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria
( 72 ) Influense of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) for Stenting Propagation of Cut Rose
( 73 ) Tabu-Genetic Algorithm-Based Model for Poultry Feed Formulation
( 74 ) Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro- Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
( 75 ) Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 76 ) Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
( 77 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 78 ) Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis of Forestry Industry Structure and Competitiveness in Heilongjiang Province
( 79 ) Socioeconomic Impact of Bagging Technology for Value Addition in Mango in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh
( 80 ) Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon
( 81 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 82 ) Comparative Evaluation of Six Different Storage Materials for Long-Term Preservation of Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) Seeds
( 83 ) Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals
( 84 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 85 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 86 ) Phenotypic Performance Evaluation of Improved Tef (Eragrostis tef L) Genotypes in North Gondar
( 87 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density
( 88 ) Penman and Thornwait Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment
( 89 ) Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State
( 90 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 91 ) Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon
( 92 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 93 ) Growth Performance of Kit Rabbits Fed Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Varying Foliage Leaf Meals
( 94 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 95 ) Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas
( 96 ) Seedlings Performance of Triplochiton scleroxylon (K. Schum.) under Different Light Intensities and Soil Textural Classes
( 97 ) The Role of Drones as an Enabler for the 4th Agricultural Revolution
( 98 ) Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L)
( 100 ) Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone
( 101 ) Relationship between Human Activities and Deforestation in Karongi District of Rwanda
( 102 ) Temporal Rhythms of Dry Tropical Forest Regeneration under Exploration of Granite-Gnaisse Mining in a Semi-Arid Area
( 103 ) Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria
( 104 ) Impacts of Rural Community on the Forest Estate in Ugbolu, Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 105 ) Construction of Sustainable Frugal Innovations Index for the Agriculture Sector
( 106 ) Bacteriological Quality and Cyanide Contents of Different Cassava Products Processed in Benue State for Use as Food for Man or Feedstock for Animals
( 107 ) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and its Effects on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows during the Postpartum Period in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 108 ) Ecosystem Services Assessment of Mangrove Forest in a Coastal Island of Bangladesh
( 109 ) Constructed Wetland Effluent Irrigation as a Potential Water and Nutrient Source for Vegetables
( 111 ) Floristic Composition and Woody Species Diversity in National Park of Madhupur Tract Under Tangail North Forest Division, Bangladesh
( 112 ) Wood Density of Lower Stratum Trees in a Semi-Deciduous Tropical Forest of Cameroon
( 113 ) Analysis of Arable Farmers Agroforestry Practices in Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria
( 114 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 120 ) Agronomic Practices of Maize and Farm Nutrient Status in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: Lesson from Agronomic Panel Survey
( 122 ) Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters
( 123 ) Classification and Recognition of Urban Tree Defects in a Small Dataset using Convolutional Neural Network, Resnet-50 Architecture, and Data Augmentation
( 126 ) Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
( 128 ) Analysis of Fresh Fish Marketing in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
( 130 ) An Analysis of the Pre and Post Harvest Management Techniques in Rice Production: The Case of Unvda Ndop, North West Region, Cameroon