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Listing 35 - 20 of 1962 results.

Contiguous Function Relations and an Integral Representation for Appell k-Series F_(1,k)

Research Article
Author(s): Shahid Mubeen, Sana Iqbal, Gauhar Rahman
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to derive contiguous function relations or recurrence relations and obtain an integral representation Appell k-series F_(1,k), where k>0.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates a new formula for Appell’s series in the form of a new symbol k>0 and contributes for deriving contiguous function relations, obtaining an integral representation of the Appell’s series in terms of said symbol   k>0.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 2

Micro-Credits and Poverty Reduction in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania: A Case Study of Dar-Es-Salaam Commercial Bank

Research Article
Author(s): Amos Japhet Nsanganzelu
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of micro-credits on poverty reduction in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The study used a  sample of 200 respondents taken using simple random sampling, while data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using statistical methods derived from the use of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) research which, when used, provides a variety of statistical measures like percentages, mean, standard deviation, variances etc. The study found out that Micro-credits contribute positively towards reduction of poverty for Dar-es-Salaam residents who are mainly neglected by the formal banking sector on the aspects of loans provision. The field results presented the following means: creation of employment 4.8300, increase level of income 4.3850, asset accumulation 3.6382, improve borrowers living standards 4.4050, create awareness to borrowing and resettlement monthly 3.8100, and promote respect and social dignity 4.6700 of the total sample. Added to the above, the study found that Dar es Salaam Commercial Bank contributed to the reduction of poverty and vulnerability of poor through enabling them to break the vicious cycle of poverty and also enabling them to enhance self-empowerment, respect and social dignity. The study concludes that micro-credits are a useful means for the poor section of the society to reduce or eliminate poverty. It enables the financially less fortunate members of our society to overcome financial inadequacies. The researcher, thus, recommends the following policy issues: development of ideal means for micro-credit institutions to serve more the section of the society that is neglected by the formal banking sector and assist in the enactment of appropriate micro-credit infrastructure and policies to reach the poor.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is finding out that micro-credits contribute positively towards reduction of poverty for Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania) residents and that Micro-credit Institutions provide important services for these clients who are mainly neglected by the formal banking sector on loans provision, playing increasing vital roles in society development.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey

Research Article
Author(s): Senchi, A. A., A. A. Malami
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The study examined production and marketing of honey in Zuru Local Government area of Kebbi state. This research covers five district areas of Dabai, Manga, RafinZuru, Rikoto and Senchi. Five villages each of the districts were purposively selected, four (4) respondents were randomly selected from each village giving a total sample size of 100 respondents. 100 structured and open – ended questionnaires were administered, out of this number, 86 were retrieved. The data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and gross margin. In the marketing channels, individual consumers are the most active patronizers whereabout 36.0 and 37.2% of the honey producers and marketers respectively obtained between N6001 – N8000 and N2801 - N4800 net profit per week. The total profit made by the producers and marketers of honey were ₦610,150.00 and ₦478,560.00, while the average profits were ₦7,094.77 and ₦5,564.65 per week. Thus, honey production and marketing is a profitable business in the area. The rate of return was 375.93. The benefit cost ratio is greater than one (4.76), indicating that revenue from the business is able to cover the total cost. To address the problem of capital, the study recommended that honey producers and marketers should form co-operative societies so as to enable them access loans to boost their business.
Contribution/ Originality
This study, the first of its kind in the study area has contributed immensely in providing insight into the profitability and worth-whileness of the venture by uplifting the living standard and overall socio-economic capabilities of the stakeholders. 
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Fetal Maceration in Crossbred Holstein Frisian Heifer-A Case Report

Research Article
Author(s): H. K. Bhattacharyya, S. A. Dar, M. R. Fazili
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
A maiden crossbred HF heifer was treated by one local veterinarian for induction of parturition due to fetal death with cloprostenol sodium and thereafter by combination of dexamethasone plus estrogen with no success. Looking at the condition of the animal, cesarean was conducted using ventrolateral approach under line infiltration of local analgesia as per standard procedure. A macerated fetus was expelled. Metritis developed 8 days following operation and was treated successfully.  
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Locus Coeruleus Neuronal and Behavioral Activity Following Acute and Chronic Methylphenidate

Research Article
Author(s): Bin Tang, Nachum Dafny
Journal: Journal of Brain Sciences

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Abstract
Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the choices to treat attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and its mechanism of action is not clear. Concomitant behavioral and locus coeruleus (LC) neuronal activity were recorded following acute and chronic (0.6, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg) MPD in freely moving rats. The experiment last for 10 days. (1) The behavioral recording showed that acute MPD increases in locomotor activity in a dose dependent manner.  (2) The same dose of chronic MPD administration elicits in some animals behavioral sensitization and in others behavioral tolerance. (3) The majority of the LC unit responded to acute MPD exposure by increase their firing rate. (4) The baseline activity on experimental day 10 (ED 10) after six daily repetitive MPD exposure was modulated in most of the LC units. (5) More than 90% of the LC unit respond to chronic MPD exposure and the majority of them by decrease their firing rate compared to the initial MPD effect. (6) The neuronal response to acute and chronic MPD recorded from animals expressing behavioral sensitization was significant difference from the LC units recorded from animals that expressed behavioral tolerance. Results indicated that the LC neuronal activities may contribute to the expression of behavioral sensitization and tolerance induced by chronic MPD administration and suggested that it is essential to record the animal’s behavioral responses concomitantly with the LC neuronal activity events.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper is the first study which reported the acute and chronic dose response property of MPD on LC neuronal activity recorded concomitant with animal behavior. The study show neuronal activity recorded from behavioral sensitized animal response to MPD differently compare to those LC units recorded from behavioral tolerance animals. 
Medical Sciences » Journal of Brain Sciences » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Evidence of A Pharmacological Dissociation Between The Robust Effects of Methylphenidate on Adhd Symptoms and Weaker Effects on Working Memory

Research Article
Author(s): Joseph Biederman, James Chan, Thomas J. Spencer, K. Yvonne Woodworth, Tara Kenworthy, Ronna Fried, Pradeep Bhide, Stephen V. Faraone
Journal: Journal of Brain Sciences

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Abstract
Working memory (WM) deficits often co-occur with, but do not define, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Preclinical and neuroimaging studies show that ADHD and WM deficits are dissociated at the level of individual dopamine receptor function. We hypothesized that there would also be a pharmacological dissociation of the effects of stimulants on ADHD and WM. ADHD subjects were derived from three prospective clinical trials involving treatment with OROS methylphenidate for at least 6 weeks. Subjects were adolescents and adults with DSM-IV ADHD with systematic assessments of WM and ADHD symptoms. Cohen’s d was used to evaluate effect size between baseline and week 6 for all assessments, and Pearson correlations were used to evaluate the relationship between assessments at baseline and between change scores for assessments from baseline to week 6. Cohen’s d estimates for the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery spatial working memory measures differed significantly by 1.8 standard deviations (t= -10.8, df= 70, p < 0.001) and 1.9 standard deviations (t= -11.1, df= 70, p < 0.001) for the strategy and total between errors subcategories respectively. Confidence intervals did not overlap with those of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS). A similar effect was observed for changes in AISRS and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function working memory scale where the Cohen’s d estimates differed significantly by 1.1 standard deviations (t= -2.5, df= 137, p = 0.015) and confidence intervals did not overlap. These findings provide further evidence for the dissociation between ADHD and WM deficits.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that responses to methylphenidate in ADHD symptoms and working are dissociated, indicating that a sizeable number of ADHD subjects may continue to struggle with residual working memory impairments despite good clinical response to methylphenidate.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Brain Sciences » Month: 07-2015 Issue: 2

Suicides and Factors Associated With Suicides-A Study in a Rural Setup of Pondicherry in South India

Research Article
Author(s): R.S Bharatwaj
Journal: Journal of Brain Sciences

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Abstract
The aim of this study was to find out the suicide rate and possible factors associated with suicides in a rural area in Pondicherry. Information was collected regarding suicides within the last two years, using a pretested questionnaire by house to house survey in the study area which is a rural set up in the south Indian union territory of Pondicherry. We found that the annual average suicide rate in this village was 110.64/100,000 population which is very high compared to the national average. The majority of suicides were committed by married males (75%). Commonest age of suicide is 15-45 years (46.16%). The reasons found for suicide were family problems leading to stress 9(78.84%) and health problems 4(30.76%). The commonest mode of suicide was by hanging 6(46.15%) and least by burning 3(23.07%). Maximum suicide occurred in the month of November to December 4(36.36%). The findings imply the need for a holistic community based approach to tackle this complex issue of suicide.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the suicide rates in our study area are very high compared to the national average. The key target group for suicide prevention initiatives emerges as married, middle aged males working as a daily wage worker who have the habit of consuming alcohol. 
Medical Sciences » Journal of Brain Sciences » Month: 07-2015 Issue: 2

Predict Survival of Patients with Lung Cancer Using an Ensemble Feature Selection Algorithm and Classification Methods in Data Mining

Research Article
Author(s): Mahdis Dezfuly, Hedieh Sajedi
Journal: Journal of Information

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Abstract
This research proposes an efficient model for predicting the survival rate of patients affected by lung cancer. The researchers collected data from four feature categories (population, recognition, treatment, and result) of cancer patients based on the importance of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Analyses of the predicted survival rates of the patients indicate that, among the classification algorithms, Decision Tree C5.0 results the highest accuracy. The models were created using algorithms based on the  level of death risk in five stages: six months, nine months, one year, two years, and five years. In this paper, we proposed a mechanism for feature selection. Our mechanism combines the results of some feature section algorithm. The results illustrate that out mechanism outperform other feature selection algorithms. After applying the proposed mechanism for feature selection, the accuracy of the C5.0 algorithm was equivalent to 97.93%.
Contribution/ Originality
This study proposes an Ensemble feature selection algorithm for predict survival of patients with lung cancer.
Computer Sciences » Journal of Information » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 1

Gene Expression during the Cell Cycle: Obfuscation of Original Cell-Cycle Gene Expression Data by Normalization

Research Article
Author(s): Stephen Cooper
Journal: Journal of Cells

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Abstract
Normalization of raw data on gene expression during the cell cycle obscures the original experimental data and makes it appear as if all genes have the same numerical level of cyclical expression. Results that would not support gene expression because of minimal variations thus appear, after normalization, to be stronger than they actually are. Consideration of the effect of normalization raises critical questions about many experiments on the cell cycle dependent variation of gene expression—that is, proposed cyclical changes in mRNA content—during the cell cycle. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper demonstrates that normalization makes minimal variations appear much stronger than they are in the raw data, and thus one should be skeptical of some published results proposing cell-cycle specific gene expression.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Cells » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Comparative Study of Print Media Coverage of Indian Athletes in London Olympics

Research Article
Author(s): Asish Paul, Gopa Saha Roy
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Sports became the most interesting area of media coverage among different stream. As it has got its most important status in the world’s media to popularize the newspaper, there is a distinct lack of comparative research on the media coverage of sports. To minimize the gap, this search draws attention on sports coverage during the London Olympics, 2012 from three different newspapers of different languages. The coverages were recorded considering the preview, competition and review phases. The results show that the total coverage of the English newspaper, the Telegraph (36039 sq. cm.) was more than the other two Bengali and Hindi newspapers (9224 sq. cm. and 2599 sq. cm. respectively). The female performers got more attention (34942 sq. cm.) than the male performers (12920 sq. cm.). All the three newspapers provided maximum coverage in the competition phase rather than the other two phases. The English newspaper provided more attention in preview of the main competition also in comparison to the other two newspapers. It has concluded that the coverage of the print media depends mainly on the performance of the athletes, popularity of the performers and intensity of the competition.
Contribution/ Originality
The present study enriched the research in the area of sports journalism.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Theoretical Preparation of Fencers at the Stage of Previous Basic Development

Research Article
Author(s): Briskin Yuriy, Pityn Maryan, Zadorozhna Olha, Vaulin Oleksandr
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
The article presents the results of a survey of fencers at the stage of previous basic development, aimed at determination of preparedness for various information blocks. There was established that general level of theoretical preparedness of fencers for different blocks of knowledge from 3,5 to 5,8 points. Questionnaire consisted of five blocks of questions: "The history of the origin and development of fencing", "Competitive activity", "Technique and Tactics", "Basic theory and methodology of athletes training", "Olympism". Correct answers were evaluated by varying the number of points depending on the level of difficulty.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have justified the program of theoretical training of fencers at stage of previous basic development and its effectivity in the educational and training process.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Effects of the Sport Education Model on University Students Game Performance and Content Knowledge in Basketball

Research Article
Author(s): Todd E Layne, Sami Yli-Piipari
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Many universities offer an abundant amount of physical activity courses designed to improve student knowledge and performance which may lead to increased fitness involvement. This study examined the effect of Sport Education model on university students’ (N = 25, 22 males, 3 females) basketball game performance and content knowledge of a physical activity course. Students were taught using either the Sport Education instructional model or a traditional method of teaching basketball. Data were collected to determine game efficiency through the examination of game statistics, offensive game performance measured by the basketball offensive game performance instrument, and content knowledge through the completion of a pre-and-post examination. Results revealed that students in the Sport Education group improved significantly in their offensive game performance and content knowledge compared to a traditional teaching model. In addition, the game efficiency of the Sport Education group did slightly improve while the students in the traditional group did experience a decrease. These findings suggest that the Sport Education model is an effective pedagogical approach for improving game performance and sport content knowledge of university students. Based on the limited amount of research on the impact of the Sport Education model with university physical activity courses, future studies should continue to examine the effectiveness of the model. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the impact of the Sport Education model on a university physical activity course. Findings suggest that the model can have a positive effect on game performance and sport content knowledge.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion on Sports Performance Recovery: A Review

Research Article
Author(s): Gary Chi Ching Chow, Shirley Siu Ming Fong, Joanne Wai Yee Chung, Duncan James Macfarlane
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) has recently been developed and applied in professional sports. CWI has become widely accepted for use in sports and is endorsed by various organisations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF), and the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA). Specific considerations on the extensive use of CWI in the field of sports, the effects of performance recovery after CWI intervention are noteworthy to be examined. This article aimed to review and summarize reports studying effects of CWI on post-exercise recovery. A comprehensive examination of literature was conducted and the decided databases were reviewed. Positive effects of post-exercise CWI on athletes’ endurance performance and perceived recovery were found. The possible reasons relate to the reduction of core temperature and blood redistribution. However, CWI effects on power related performance did not receive a consensus understanding in this review. Cryotherapy is normally used for limiting muscle damages, but post-exercise CWI on alternating blood markers for the muscle damages did not show a clear finding in this review. Particularly, Jadad score analysis in this review shows low on average (average Jadad score = 1.80±1.17) of the quality of the studies. It is necessary to reconsider the application on the previous examination. Further investigation is recommended, specifically on power related recovery and neural transmission alternations using randomized controlled trial with masking design.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis on assessing the quality of the studies related to post exercise cold water immersion recovery by the Jadad score analysis, which is assessed by three criteria: A) description of randomization, B) blinding, and C) withdrawals with dropout rates. This study also tried to provide the unbiased and exact findings through systematic reviews. 
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

The Ability to Maintain Static Balance in Younger School Children and Its Relation to the Stability of a Posturographic Surface

Research Article
Author(s): Piotr Zurek, Mateusz Rynkiewicz, Piotr Wojciak, Barbara Morawin, Tadeusz Rynkiewicz
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Introduction: The ability to maintain one’s balance plays vital role during the activities of daily living. Efficient maintenance of body balance is determined by the number and type of stimuli providing information on a body position. The aim of this study was to analyze the ability to maintain balance in 7- to 12-year-old children. We analyzed the extent and direction of changes in balancing skills related to subject’s age and stability of a posturographic surface. Material and methods: The study included 266 children aged between 7 and 12 years. The level of static balance was determined with a posturographic method, with a child standing with the eyes open, first on a stable, and then on an unstable position. Results: The children aged between 7 and 8 years presented lower levels of static balance. The level of balancing skills turned out to be higher in the case of 9- to 12-year-old children. Reduced stability of a posturographic surface resulted in greater difficulties in maintaining balance. This change was observed regardless of a subject’s age and manifested as an increase in the area developed by the center of pressure and greater variability of both the velocity and number of sways in the sagittal and frontal plane. The change of the posturographic surface into an unstable one resulted in greater instability in both the frontal and sagittal plane. The increase in the area developed by the center of pressure reflected higher velocity and greater number of sways.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to increased knowledge of the ability to body balance. This study uses new estimation methodology a posturographic method. This study originates new formula periodic testing more children from primary schools. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated children on a stable and on unstable surface. The paper contributes the first logical analysis between age of children and ability of balance. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that posturographic method is objective diagnostic instrument. This study documents relationships between the ability to maintain static balance, age and stability of a posturographic surface.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Measuring The Relative Efficiency of Tournaments

Research Article
Author(s): Graham Pollard, Denny Meyer, Geoff Pollard
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
The efficiency of various tournament structures such as knock-outs and round robins has been considered by several authors, and it has been noted that the round robin structure has a higher probability that the best player wins than do the other structures, but it is at the cost of playing a larger number of matches. On the other hand the knock-out tournament requires relatively few matches, but has a smaller value for the probability that the best player wins. Thus, the compromise between the number of matches played in a tournament and the probability that the best player wins that tournament has remained to some extent an unsolved problem. The Masters Tennis tournament, being a combination of two round robins and a knock-out, is one attempt at such a compromise. In this paper the balance between the number of matches played and the probability that the best player wins is addressed, and the efficiency of several different tournament structures is evaluated. It is noted that although the efficiency has been evaluated for just some of the commonly used tournament structures, the approach outlined in this paper can be used for a wide range of other structures.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper formulates a method for finding the relative efficiency of tournaments. The knock-out structure is shown to be a very efficient one, and the draw and process quite efficient.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam

Research Article
Author(s): Duc Luong Nguyen, Thanh Trung Nguyen, Duy Thai Nguyen, Duy Dong Nguyen
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
In Vietnam, the brick production sector is one of the construction material production sectors that has large emission of CO2 – the major greenhouse gas, since it consumes a large amount of fossil fuels. This research aims at preliminarily estimating the CO2 emission factors for two major kiln technologies used in brick production sector in Vietnam, namely tunnel and vertical shaft brick kiln (VSBK). For this purpose, field measurement of CO2 concentration in stack flue gases of two brick factories in Phu Tho province – one of the largest brick production areas in the North of Vietnam were conducted. The results of data analysis have shown that the tunnel kiln has higher CO2 emission factors compared to those of VSBK. The lower specific energy consumption and lower heat losses are the major causes for lower CO2 emission factors of VSBK.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the CO2 emission factors for kiln technologies used in brick production sector in Vietnam. 
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Postbuckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams Using Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory

Research Article
Author(s): Mokhtar Bouazza, Khaled Amara, Mohamed Zidour, Abedlouahed Tounsi, EL Abbas Adda-Bedia
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
In the present study, post-buckling of a thick FGM rectangular beam is carried out using the hyperbolic shear deformation theory (HYSDT). The theory accounts for parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses across the thickness satisfying the stress free boundary conditions at top and bottom surfaces of the beam. It is assumed that elasticity modulus is changing in the thickness direction and all other material properties are taken to be constant. Variation of elasticity modulus in the thickness direction, are described by a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. Governing equations of FGM beam for post-buckling problem were found by applying Hamilton principle and Navier type solution method was used to solve post-buckling problem. The results obtained for post-buckling analysis of functionally graded beams are compared with those obtained by other theories, to validate the accuracy of the presented theory.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates new formula to investigate the postbuckling behaviors of simply supported FGM beams subjected to mechanical loads.
Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Review of the Role of PPAR Gamma and Agonists in the Development of Heart

Research Article
Author(s): Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor of central importance in metabolic processes. Recent experimental pieces of evidence demonstrate that PPAR? is implicated in cardiac function and development. Here we reviewed the role of PPAR? and ligands  that emerged as a potential new therapeutic target for several cardiac diseases.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections

Research Article
Author(s): Nwele James Obasi, Uduimoh Anthony Akwawa
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This paper examines the nexus between governments, human right organisations and electorates on elections in relation to economic development through human capacity building templates of society. The society problems, the complexities of business cycle and development that we face today, is leadership inability to handle democratic indices and draw a line between marginal utility and social value.  The conflict line services of affluence that is measured on regressional competition is grossly taking over the political field and true democracy becoming unattainable feat in most economies of the world, and particularly in Nigeria.  This finding reveals that most politicians think it is not necessary to learn the specific bases of power as they are meant to provide a sense of the variety and complexity of power, and not as an exhaustive list of its important sources.  In developing countries it is of essence to make all political template in the field of play favourable to even development, so that, positive government actions permeate all channels in the process.  This research examines the broad principles of all about politics especially, about the politics of democracies, like the United States, Britain, the State of Israel, and Italy, et cetera. The relationship between the Nigerian government, human right organisations, the electorate and social security and peace needs to be harmonised for secured tranquillity in our society. The findings of this study reveal that politics and economic development, elections, democracy, electorates and human right organisations has a nexus that cannot be overemphasised.  This is because the growth of economy is dependent on how the indices of these compound templates are harmonised.  According to Shively (2001), “Despite the complexity and elusiveness of power, we can say that all politics is based on some form of power and that its sources may be highly varied.  For most practical applications of politics, however, it is not necessary to specify in detail exactly what sort of power is involved.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on politics and development of nations, good governance and rewards.  This study uses new estimation methodology that is focused on poverty reduction to near zero aggregate of every electoral population. This study documents that leaders has to be more objective towards change management and good governance.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 1

Performance Based Budgeting System Design in Universitas Sebelas Maret

Research Article
Author(s): Santosa Tri Hananto, Lulus Kurniasih, Adi Firman Ramadhan
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Performance based budgeting requires information system in order to attain its goal. Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) has used the combination system of performance based budgeting and traditional budgeting. The objective of this research is to design application software that is useful for UNS in its budgeting process. This research analyzes system application of performance based budgeting. The system design consists of output design, document design, and input design. Output design of performance based budgeting consists of Planning Report, Financial Statement, and Performance Report. These reports supposed to be integrated. In document design, all files should be documented by the Development Plan Team. The final design is input design, which concern about planning and activities process.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis about system of perfomance based budgeting  in Indonesia’s public university. Performance based budgeting has been demanded by the Goverment but there are little reasearch about it.  
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10