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Getachew Tilahun , Firew Mekbib , Asnake Fikre , Million Eshete (2015). Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2(3): 100-113. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2015.2.3/184.108.40.206
Chickpea is the major pulses grown in Ethiopia, mainly by subsistence farmers usually under rain-fed conditions. However, its production is constrained due to genotype instability, environmental variability and interaction of genotype with environment. This research was carried out to examine the magnitude of environmental effect on yield of chickpea genotypes and to investigate the stability and adaptability of the genotypes under different agro-ecological conditions. 17 genotypes each of were evaluated in RCBD with four replications in five environments. Various stability indices were used to assess stability and genotype by environment performances. The combined ANOVA for yield and yield related traits revealed highly significant (P≤0.01) differences for genotypes, environments and their interaction. The significant interaction showed that the genotypes respond differently across the various environments. At Akaki, Chefe Donsa, Debre Zeit, Dembia and Haramaya the top performing genotype were DZ-2012-CK-0040 (2229 kg/ha), DZ-2012-CK-0027 (3966 kg/ha), DZ-2012-CK-0040 (4060 kg/ha), DZ-2012-CK-0032 (1394 kg/ha) and Natoli (3247 kg/ha) respectively. The first two PCs explained 84.3% of the variance of original variables for the genotypes. There were remarkable inconsistencies with the univariate stability parameters to select stable genotypes. However, multivariate approach, the AMMI model was better for partitioning the G x E into the causes of variation. Based on ASV value, DZ-2012-CK-0035 was most stable genotype. As per AMMI biplot, Minjar and local variety were the most widely adapted genotypes. Dembia and Haramaya are the most discriminative environments. Environments Debre Zeit and Chefe Donsa were the favorable environment. Genotypes, DZ-2012-CK-0040, DZ-2012-CK-0036 and DZ-2012-CK-0040, DZ-2012-CK-0032 and variety Natoli were recommended as specifically adapted to sites Akaki, Chefe Donsa, Debre Zeit, Dembia and Haramaya respectively.
Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
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Oyediran, W. O. , Omoare, A. M. , Esenwa, A. O. , Omisore, O. A. , Dick T. T. (2015). Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2(3): 90-99. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2015.2.3/220.127.116.11
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was a major threat to public health in Nigeria and it adversely affected the people’s perception on bush meat as it was revealed that wild animals were host of the virus. Thus, the study assessed the effects of EVD outbreak on bush meat marketing and consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 85 respondents. Data collected with interview guide and analysed using with descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. The results showed that 58.80% of the respondents were between 40 – 50 years of age and 73% of the respondents were females. Majority (64.70%) of the respondents had been in bush meat business for more than 10 years. Before the EVD outbreak 37.14% of the respondents had more than 50 customers while patronage reduced to less than 25 customers in a day after EVD outbreak. Similarly, 42% of respondents had more than ₦21,000.00 in a day before EVD outbreak as against less than ₦5,000.00 in a day after the outbreak. Chi-square analysis showed a significant relationship between the sources of information on EVD outbreak and bush meat sales at p < 0.05. It can be concluded that EVD caused reduction in the customers’ patronage and income realized from the sales of bush meat after the outbreak. It is hereby recommended that more awareness should be created by government and other stakeholders that Nigeria is free of EVD, and bush meat is safe for public consumption while Agricultural Extension Agents and Community Health Workers should focus on training and capacity building for quality and healthy bush meat business in the study area
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the setback caused by the spread of the news of Ebola virus disease outbreak on bush meat sales and consumption in rural communities where cases of Ebola disease virus were not actually reported.
Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
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G. Mungai , E. Ateka , A. Nyende , D. Miano (2015). Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2(3): 81-89. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68/2015.2.3/18.104.22.168
The banana industry in Kenya is threatened by the presence of Banana streak virus (BSV). The Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) commercial banana laboratory uses tissue culture (TC) technique for mass propagation of plantlets which are free from most disease causing organisms for commercial purposes. To evaluate in vitro protocols for production of Banana Streak Virus-free TC banana planting materials for farmers, leaf samples were collected from Thika, Kisii, and JKUAT orchards for indexing. The corms were taken through the TC procedure up to the 2nd subculture stage after which they were subjected to three virus elimination techniques; chemotherapy, meristem tip culture and thermotherapy for evaluation. Indexing for BSV using PCR BSV indicated 90, 80 and 40% infection levels for Kisii, JKUAT and Thika orchards, respectively. For chemotherapy evaluation, concentrations of between 10 and 40 mg/l were used resulting in 0 to 90% virus elimination. For thermotherapy, 27°C (control), 32°C, 34°C, 36°C and 38°C for 10 days, resulted in 0 and 90% virus elimination. Meristem tip culture at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5mm (control) gave between 0 and 90% virus elimination, respectively. The study indicates that BSV can be eliminated using chemotherapy, thermotherapy and meristem tip culture. Chemotherapy using salicylic acid at 20mg/l can be used to eliminate BSV up 90%. It is also easy to implement since it is incorporated into the medium.
This study contributes to the existing literature on virus elimination from banana planting materials globally and the first logical analysis in the fight against banana streak virus in Kenya. If adopted, the findings of the study can help banana farmers increase the yield translating to higher income and poverty eradication.