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Ferhan Kaygisiz , Gurhan Ciftcioglu , Gulhan H. Turkay , Yavuz Cevger , Ghassan Issa , Hulya Yalcintan , Hasret Yardibi (2015). Correlation between Milk Yield, Somatic Cell Count and Milk Quality in Dairy Farming. Animal Review, 2(2): 58-67. DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar/2015.2.2/18.104.22.168
This study investigated between milk yield and Somatic Cell Count, sampled from 3 different dairy enterprises. Chemical and microbiological parameters analyzed for the relation with milk yield. Milk samples have been collected from 10 dairy cows, two times per month during 1 year period. Bacteriological analyzes have been employed for milks. Milk yield data for each cow have been recorded in every sampling day. Depending on the logistic regretion analyses on the data collected from all enterprises; high total plate count and E.coli counts have negative effects on milk yield, but has been found significally important (p<0.05) only for the data of E.coli. counts. In group 1; somatic cell count and E.coli counts have negative effect on milk yield and only the data of E.coli has been found statistically important (p<0.05). In group 2; only the data related negative effect of E.coli counts on milk yield has been found as statistically important (p<0.05). The third group, total plate count has negative effect on milk yield. Regarding to the chemical analyses of fat in milk, non-fat dry matter, density and protein values have been detected in the enterprises 1, 2 and 3 as 2.88, 3.56, 4.34; 7.91, 7.83, 8.12; 1026.4, 1025.8, 1026; 3.04, 2.96, 3.07, respectively. According to the correlation analyses applied between milk yield and fat in milk, non fat-dry matter, protein and density in milk in all enterprises; there were significant correlation between non-fat dry matter and milk yield in enterprise 2 (p<0.05) and density and milk yield in enterprise 3 (p<0.01).
The study contributes the existing literature, which the correlation between SCC and the microbiological milk quality has been compared, in order to analize the possible effects on the production of dairy products and the reflection for dairy industry.
Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
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Gerhard Flachowsky , Dirk von Soosten , Ulrich Meyer (2015). Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials. Animal Review, 2(2): 19-57. DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar/2015.2.2/22.214.171.124
Animal production contributes substantially to global greenhouse gas emissions (about 14.5%). The so-called Carbon Footprint (CF) considers the greenhouse gas potential of climate relevant gases (e.g., CO2 x 1; CH4 x 23; N2O x 296) and is given in CO2-eq per g or kg product or per unit edible protein. The CF may help to assess the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of foods of animal origin such as milk, meat, eggs or fish. The CF may contribute to sensitizing producers and consumers to a more resource-efficient and environmentally-friendly production, to the consumption of food of animal origin, and to avoiding food wastage. The highest CF per unit edible protein is calculated for products of growing ruminants (beef and lamb), followed by milk and pork and eggs and poultry meat with the lowest values. Discrepancies in the results of various studies are mainly explained by different system boundaries, allocation methods and computation of emissions, especially with regard to land use changes, enteric methane emissions and nitrous oxide emissions. A more standardized approach for data collection and CF-calculations would be a very useful tool to compare CF between production systems, regions and countries, and an indicator for food labelling, and is considered in the first part of this paper. The second part of the paper deals with the potential to reduce climate relevant gases from animal production. Some specific influencing factors, such as plant and animal breeding, feed production, animal feeding as well as animal keeping, animal health and excrement management are analysed more in detail. Most attention has been spent to the methane reduction potentials in the rumen. The reduction of CF in ruminant production per product should focus on a lowering of methane emissions from enteric fermentation and an increase of low production levels as well a reduction of ineffective animal numbers. In the future, results of plant and animal breeding may also substantially contribute to lower GHG emissions. Furthermore, new potentials to improve protein supply for human nutrition should be used. The production of food of animal origin is a very complex process and selective consideration, i.e., focussing on single factors, does not provide an assessment that reflects the complexity of the subject. Recommendations for further research activities are given.