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Listing 28 - 20 of 1962 results.

Structural Breaks and the Long-Run Stability of Demand for Real Broad Money Function in Nigeria: A Gregory-Hansen Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Eleanya Kalu Nduka
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
This study examines the long-run demand for real broad money function and its stability in Nigeria for the period from 1970 to 2012 inclusive. The study employs the Augmented-Dickey Fuller and Phillips-Perron tests for unit root, the Gregory and Hanson (1996a; 1996b) cointegration test to capture endogenous structural breaks in the cointegrating vectors of Nigerian long-run money demand function, cumulative sum of recursive residuals (CUSUM) and cumulative sum of recursive residuals squares (CUSUMSQ) tests for structural stability proposed by Brown et al. (1975). In estimating the canonical specification models, extended specifications are also presented. The results of the cointegration test suggest that demand for real broad money went through a regime shift in 2005. The results further confirm that there exists a long-run relationship amongst real broad money demand, real income, real domestic interest rate, real exchange rate, rate of inflation and foreign interest rate. However, the result of CUSUMSQ shows that the demand for money function is stable, but has undergone some temporary periods of instability.  Hence, the apex bank in Nigeria can target the broad money (M2) aggregate to achieve macroeconomic objectives.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the Nigeria’s demand for money function has undergone some periods of instability. This finding is in contrast with the findings of previous studies. This explains the inability of the apex bank to match money supply with money demand.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 04-2014 Issue: 4

The Extent of Finger Millet Production in South Omo Zone in the Case of South Ari Woreda

Research Article
Author(s): Wedajo Gebre
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
In Ethiopia finger millet occupies 4% of the total area allocated to cereals (nearly half a million hectares) each year and also contributes about 4% to the total annual cereal grain production in the country. The production area increased from 342,120 ha to 368,999 ha with an increase of 7.3%, and the productivity increased from 3,769,290 to 5,241,911 quintals with a proportion of 28%. Six varieties (Tadesse, Padet, Wama, Baruda, Degu and Boneya) have been identified for cultivation to date. Though the varieties were initially released for cultivation in the sub-humid and mid altitude areas, their inadvertent introduction in to low rainfall areas found new adaptation zones. The production of these varieties has expanded to dry low altitude areas including regions where the crop was previously unknown.  As a result of frequent drought, farmers in the dry rift valley region of Ethiopia widely adopted the variety that it is currently grown as one of the most important crops in this region. Therefore this study was initiated to discuss the production of finger millet in South Omo Zone, Ari woreda and generates information on the extent of finger millet production which is useful in designing suitable approaches for identifying gaps and intervening production constrains in the target area.The study areas comprised major finger millet producing kebeles of Ari woreda. Ten kebeles were selected systematically. Six year data on finger millet production and productivity was taken from woreda and each kebele. Data were collected through key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and questionnaires during a three-month period .Research in south omo zone, southern research institute and several national programs have resulted in considerable progress and identification of some improved finger millet varieties. The production of the crop in the study area is increasing.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Production Efficiency of Sesame in Selamago District of South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Ermiyas Mekonnen, Endrias Geta, Belaineh Legesse
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to measure the levels of technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of sesame producer and identify factors affecting them in selamago district of south Omo zone, Southern Ethiopia.  The study was based on the cross – sectional data collected in 2011/12 production season from 120 randomly selected farm households. Stochastic production frontier model was used to estimate technical, allocative and economic efficiency levels, whereas Tobit model was used to identify factors affecting efficiency levels. The results indicated that there was substantial amount of inefficiency in sesame production in the study area.  Accordingly, the mean technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of sample households were 67.1 per cent, 67.25 per cent and 45.14 percent respectively. Labor and seed were the variables that positively affected the production of sesame. Results of the Tobit model revealed that soil fertility, non farm income and credit access positively and significantly affected TE. Soil fertility had positive and significant effect on AE. On the other hand experience in sesame production, distance of sesame farm form residence, non farm income and extension contact affected AE negatively and significantly. Soil fertility, non farm income and credit access had positive and significant impact on EE. However, extension contact affected EE negatively and significantly. These indicate that there is a room to increase the efficiency in sesame production of the study area. Therefore, government authorities and other concerned bodies should take into consideration the above mentioned socio economic and institutional factors to improve productivity of sesame in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
In this paper the production efficiency of farmers in the study area and the factors that affect their efficiency in sesame production are identified. This study can be used as a reference for fellow researchers who are interested in the area of production economics specifically that deals with production efficiency.

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years

Research Article
Author(s): Olayiwola M.O., P.A.S. Soremi, K.A Okeleye
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Genotype × environment interaction (GEI) plays a significant role in determining the desirability or superiority of a genotype, hence the need to evaluate genotypes over wide range of environment. Seven improved cowpea genotypes were evaluated in four environments (years); the late seasons of 2009, 2010. 2011 and 2012 to determine their desirability based on mean grain yield and stability in Abeokuta South-western Nigeria using the Genotype+Genotype×environment (GGE) biplot. IT98K-573-2-1 had the highest mean grain yield while IFE-98-12 had the lowest. There was highly significant Genotype × Environment Interaction on seed yield (p<0.001) indicating the need for GEI analysis. The GGE biplot identified three mega-environments viz AB10 and AB11 as mega-environment 1, AB09 as the mega-environment 2 and AB12 as the third. IT98K-573-2-1, IT04K-333-2 and IT04K-227-4 were the most responsive genotypes in mega-environments 1, 2 and 3 respectively. IT04K-227-4, IT04K-333-2, IT98K-573-1-1and IT98K-573-2-1 were identified to have performed above average while IT99K-1060, LDP10-OBR1 and IFE-98-12 yielded below average. LDP10-OBR1 was the most stable genotype but was low yielding. IT98K-573-2-1 was selected as the best combiner of high yield and stability and the most desirable for Abeokuta South-western Nigeria. AB10 was identified as the best among the test environments.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the responses of improved cowpea genotypes to different environments. Genotype by environment interaction continues to have high implications in plant breeding. IT98K-573-2-1 was identified as a well buffered genotype and therefore desirable for selection for further improvement.

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Economics of Sheep Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Baba M.D., J.S. Dabai, A.M. Sakaba, I.D. Sanchi
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
This study was carried out to investigate the profitability of sheep production in Zuru local government area of Kebbi State. It examined the costs and returns of sheep production as well as problems encountered in sheep production in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 100 respondents using simple random sampling technique in 2014. Descriptive statistics and farm budgeting technique were used in the analysis of data. The costs and returns analysis indicated that, variable cost constituted 69.83% of the total cost of sheep production in the study area, while the fixed cost constituted 30.17%.  However, the average total cost of production was N307, 491.57, the average total revenue was N376, 312.00, gross margin was N161, 572.43 and the net income was N88, 820.43 indicating that sheep production was profitable. Despite the profitability of sheep production, sheep farmers identified feed problem (92%) as their major problem. It is therefore, concluded that sheep production in the study area was profitable. With this level of profitability in sheep enterprise, it is recommended that this finding be disseminated to all practicing and potential sheep farmers in the study area and other communities. It is also recommended that more farmers in the study area and elsewhere should go into sheep production because of its profitability. There should also be practical application of new knowledge to sheep under traditional husbandry system in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on sheep production and livestock economics. Sheep production as an approach to economic growth could be relevant in improving the quality of life of farmers. Information on the economics of sheep production is necessary in view of the emerging food crisis in Nigeria.

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Thermoelectricity Based on Cuo as a Semiconducting Material

Research Article
Author(s): Taher M. El-Agez, Hatem S. El-Ghamri, Monzir S. Abdel-Latif, Sofyan A. Taya, Anas A. Alkanoo
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
In this paper, thermoelectricity based on copper(II) oxide CuO as semiconducting material is explored. The electrical properties of the samples were studied under different temperature gradients and pressures. Moreover, the effect of baking temperature was also investigated. CuO prepared using decomposition of Cu(NO3)2  as well as CuO nanopowder prepared using microwave-assisted synthesis technique were investigated and their results were compared. It was found that the current density can be enhanced with increasing the pressing pressure of the sample and when the sample undergoes a baking process. Moreover, it was found that the current density can be considerably enhanced with increasing the temperature gradient between the two ends of the sample. The CuO prepared using microwave-assisted synthesis technique was found to exhibit much better results over those of the CuO prepared using decomposition of Cu(NO3)2.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of few studies which have investigated thermoelectricity based on copper(II) oxide CuO prepared using decomposition of Cu(NO3)2  as well as CuO nanopowder prepared using microwave-assisted synthesis technique. 
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 12

Optimization and Predictive Capability of Rsm Using Controllable Variables in Azadiracha Indica Oilseeds Extraction Process

Research Article
Author(s): Adepoju T. F, Olawale O
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
In an attempt to optimize the process condition of oil extraction from Neem seeds, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was explored. 17 experimental runs were generated and were carried out based on controllable variables. The RSM predicted an oil yield (OY) of 45.717% (w/w) at the following control variable condition, ET= 30.00 min, NPW = 30 g and SV= 181.896 mL. Using these controllable variable conditions, the experiment was validated in triplicate and the average OY was obtained to be 45.650 % (w/w). Analysis on physicochemical properties of the OY showed that the oil was golden yellow in colour. The specific gravity and viscosity at 25 oC was found to be0.728 and 20.65 mm2/s, respectively. The percentage moisture content on wet basis and the refractive index at 40 oC were found to be 0.001 and 1.472, respectively. The saponification value and the iodine value were obtained to be 198 mg of KOH/g of oil and 112.31 g of I2/100g oil, respectively. The acid value was obtained to be 3.82 mg of KOH/g of oil while the % FFA was computed to be 1.91. The higher heating value and the cetane number of the oil were also obtained to be 39.63 MJ/kg and 48.60 MJ/kg, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis revealed that the oil is highly unsaturated. This work therefore showed the optimization and predictive capability of RSM in extraction of Neem oils.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to knowledge. This study uses new estimation methodology for conversion of Neem seed to Neem oil. This study originates new formula to improve the yield of Neem oil from Neem seed. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of non-edible seeds to produced industrial based oil. The paper contributes the first logical analysis in optimization of oil extraction. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that non-edible oil can be obtained from agricultural plant. This study documents the effects of controllable variables on the units’ operation process.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Kpashimi Forest Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Abdullahi Jibrin, Sule Mohammed Zubairu, Aishatu Abdulkadir, Sakoma J. Kaura, Amos Bitrus Baminda
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
This study provides a preliminary assessment of the biophysical potential for carbon sequestration. Quantification of carbon stock and estimation of carbon sequestration potential was carried out in the Kpashimi Forest Reserve, Niger state, Nigeria. Carbon stock was measured in the six vegetation communities existing in the study area. Forty-eight randomly selected 20 x 20 metre quadrats were established wherein data was collected from the main forest carbon pools; including above ground tree, below ground root, undergrowth (shrub grasses), dead wood, litter and soil organic carbon. Biomass of the respective pools was quantified by destructive sampling and use of allometric equations. Thereafter, biomass values were converted to carbon stock equivalent. Four satellite imageries TM, SPOT, ETM+, and NIGERIASAT-1 of 1987, 1994, 2001 and 2007 respectively were used to estimate vegetation cover and carbon stock change over 20 years. The results showed that average carbon stock density (Mg C/ha) of the vegetation communities was in the decreasing order; Riparian forest (123.58 ± 9.1), Savanna woodland (97.71 ± 8.2), Degraded forest (62.92 ±  6.1), Scrubland (36.28 ±  4.1), Grassland (18.22 ± 5.1), and bare surface (9.31 ± 3.1). Deforestation and forest degradation between 1987 and 2007 have resulted in emission  of 240.2 Mg (ton) C ha-1 at an annual rate of 12.01 Mg C ha-1. This suggests that the study site has carbon sequestration potential of 240.2 Mg C ha-1 based on its capacity to increase carbon stock through restoration; back to speculated 1987 levels and even higher. Thus, the study recommends the need to analyse carbon offset project feasibility in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing a preliminary assessment of the biophysical potential for carbon sequestration. This study demonstrates that forestry based carbon offset projects have the potential to act as a climate change mitigation tool and a means of fostering sustainable forest preservation in the developing countries. This study is the first of its kind in the woodland savanna ecological zone of Niger state, Nigeria.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 12

Just-In-Time: Review of Empirical Studies

Research Article
Author(s): Patrícia Raquel Ribeiro, Maria João Machado
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study is a review of literature and empirical studies on the subject of Just-in-Time (JIT), conducted by a selection of articles published in international journals included in the ISCTE Business School Ranking, released since the 1980s to the present days. The purpose of this research was to compare the key features and benefits of JIT reported by the theory with the practice reported by companies in empirical studies already conducted. In addition, the percentage of use and the importance of JIT in different countries were also analyzed. A small case study of a Japanese enterprise – Mazda Motor Corporation – was also conducted in order to complement the investigation on the subject.  As a result, it became clear that there were companies using JIT philosophy with distinct features and benefits that were not reported in the literature on the subject. The United Kingdom had the highest percentage of JIT use, and in broad terms, JIT was not frequently used in the majority of the countries surveyed. One reason for this can be explained by the fact that companies did not attribute a high degree of importance for JIT practices. This means that the companies analyzed did not implement JIT practices extensively.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature because it allows a better perception of JIT philosophy. Through it is possible: to acquire a clear idea of the main benefits and key features of JIT; to identify in the different countries considered the use of in each stage of implementation.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

An Assessment of the Perception of Christian Women of Family Planning Methods in Benue State

Research Article
Author(s): Ada Anyebe, Adam Adem Anyebe
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The unsustainable population growth in the country has necessitated the adoption of some measures aimed at achieving a lower population growth rate via voluntary fertility regulation methods. This study was therefore, undertaken to examine the perception of family planning methods by Christian women in Benue state. The methods employed in the collection of data were survey and documents. This work covered fifteen churches in Benue State, consisting of five churches each from the three senatorial zones. The fifteen churches comprise three thousand, one hundred and eighty registered women. However, three hundred and eighty women were selected as samples. Copies of questionnaire were administered randomly on the respondents. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using t-test. The study revealed that both the Protestant Christian women and the Catholic women agreed that the natural methods of family planning free them from the use of chemicals and help them space their children but with high failure rates. It was also revealed that the artificial methods of family planning reduce the fear of unplanned pregnancies while it was unanimously agreed that weight gain and high blood pressure are some of the major side-effects of the methods. The study therefore, recommended that women should be professionally counselled on their menstrual cycles before using the natural methods of family planning to reduce failure rates. There should also be regular workshops and seminars on the benefits and the side-effects of the natural and the artificial methods for enlightenment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by adding the study of perception and family planning methods in Benue State, Nigeria. This study uses new estimation methodology of stratified-random sampling in the area of study. This study originates new formula of T-test to test the hypotheses instead of the normal descriptive statistics. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated family planning methods in Benue State. The paper contributes the logical analysis of perception and family planning methods in Benue State. The paper’s primary contribution is the finding that the major side-effect of artificial method is weight gain and high blood pressure. This study documents that experts should educate Christian women on artificial methods.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Malay Cultural Identities: A Review

Research Article
Author(s): Mohd Muzhafar Idrus, Ruzy Suliza Hashim, Raihanah, M. M.
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This paper traverses readings on Malay cultural identities. While previous research on Malay cultural identities has presented a broad overview, this paper attempts to frame this discussion based on elite constructions and socio-cultural worldviews of the Malay world. It proposes to be a start to exploring what is distinctive and worthwhile about Malay cultural identities.
Contribution/ Originality
This article revisits readings that renew and strengthen Malay cultural identities by making connections of the past and present, in the midst of globalization, pressing economical changes, and changing cultural realities. 
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Niamjit Das
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
This research was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Farm, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University to quantify the effects of pruning height in Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) and fertility levels of the recommended dose of NPK in Glycine max L. (Soybean) on crop growth parameters and yield in the agrisilviculture system of Agroforestry. The pruning in Jatropha and fertility level favored growth parameters with varying magnitudes. Six growth indices like CGR, RGR, NAR, LAI, RLGR, and SLW were observed to be higher under various pruning heights and reduced under no pruning. After that, scale of yield varied with pruning heights and fertility levels. Grain, straw and biological yield of 100 cm pruning height in Jatropha increased by 15.38 %, 13.74 % and 14.61 % respectively in comparison to sole crop and other pruning height level. At that time, I showed that these three yields of 100 % of the recommended dose of NPK (100 % RDF) in Soybean are comparatively higher than other fertility level. Hence, proper pruning system and optimum fertility level are important for improving Soybean yield under Jatropha based agrisilviculture system and it ensures higher income to the farmers and efficient land management compared to its sole cropping.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that are important for improving Soybean yield under Jatropha based agrisilviculture system than in sole cropping systems and it has the potential to develop the socioeconomic conditions of farmers.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Analysis of Integrated Science and Computer Science Students’ Academic Performances in Physics in Colleges of Education, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Aina, Jacob Kola
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Seventy four students of Integrated Science/Physics and Computer Science/Physics were sampled in four Colleges of Educations to analyze their performance in Physics. Frequency counts, percentages and T-test were used to analyse their results from year one to final year in Physics. Results shows that there was no significant difference between Integrated Science and Computer Science students’ academic performance in Physics: mean difference in academic performance of Integrated Science/Physics and Computer Science/Physics students was not significantly difference and there was no relationship between students’ academic performance of Integrated Science/Physics and Computer Science/Physics. The paper made some recommendations based on the findings.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Student- Teacher and Student- Student Interaction in Second Language Teaching- Learning Environment: A Micro-Teaching Case Study

Research Article
Author(s): Salwa Al Darwish
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
In this research paper, the author has demonstrated the difference between the traditional ways of teaching English as a foreign language compared to the experimental technique through the use of the action work zones. The experimental stage was carried out during the micro-teaching course and then the student teachers implemented these techniques in their practicum. The participants for this study consisted of 15 student teachers who have recently passed the micro teaching class and 10 traditional teachers. The outcome of this paper shows that the student teachers through the microteaching course developed an ability to transfer not only their knowledge of the subject matter, but also their pedagogical skills in using the whole class presentation followed by group work activities then pair and individual work zones respectively. The finding of this paper testifies that the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education should encourage the proposed model used in the micro teaching and practicum course in which it can take part in student learning process in general and specifically in second language teaching and learning.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is finding that microteaching is not only valuable for both new and experienced teachers to improve their teaching practices, but also to provide them an opportunity for reinforcing the new information that they learned in the application stage.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Episodic Memories among First and Fourth Graders Early Childhood University Student Teachers, Concerning Teachers’ Behaviors: A Mixed Method Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Domna Kakana, Christina Roussi-Vergou, Fotini Garagouni-Areou, Anastasia Mavidou
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The content of school year memories of University student teachers in early childhood education was explored. 183 first and fourth year student teachers were asked to recall and write a small text about one or two positive/negative episodes of their entire school life, which influenced them profoundly. A mixed method approach was used and it was found that student teachers’ memories originate equivalently from their entire school life, with negative incidents dominating their memories. Older students recall more negative school life incidents and seem more sensitized to teachers’ negative behaviors, their descriptions are more sophisticated, and propose more positive alternatives.  Highlights:• Explores the main thematic areas of student teachers’ early episodic memories from their past school years.• Student teachers’ episodic memories are rich and vivid and offer a valuable material for exercising in imagination new practices and methods.• University training has an impact in the organization of student teachers’ episodic memories
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the (scarce) existing research concerning the episodic memories of student-teachers, concerning their past experiences as students. Our research, as bringing autobiographical memories material, contributes to our better understanding of student teachers’ attitudes, fosters ideas in shaping effective teachers’ training curricula and enables intercultural comparisons. 
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Effect of Different Chronotype on Comorbidity and Resistance to Psycho-Emotional Stress in Hypertension Associated With Hepato-Biliary Pathology in the North

Research Article
Author(s): Sevostyanova EV, Hasnulin VI
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
Study of the alien inhabitants of the North - hypertensive patients with concomitant pathology of the hepato-biliary system, depending on morning or evening chronotype showed greater severity of comorbidity of hypertension and pathology of the hepato-biliary system in patients with morning chronotype. Psychophysiological analysis revealed higher level of psycho-emotional stress accompanied by violation of psychophysiological functions, important in disturbances of adaptation to natural factors and the increase in the degree of desynchronosis in patients with morning chronotype. The greater resistance to psycho-emotional stress in patients living in the North of evening chronotype was revealed.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Sarwar
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Vegetable is an edible plant or its part, intended for cooking or eating raw, whose fruits, seeds, roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, leaves, or flower parts are used as food. Vegetables are relatively cheaper and rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. Their consumption gives taste, palatability, fiber for digestion, increases appetite and checks constipation. The objective of this article is to assess the some insect pests of summer vegetables, their identification, occurrence, damage and adoption of management practices. Various insects and mites cause damage to vegetable plants at all stages of growth including aphid, thrip, whitefly, leafhopper, two spotted spider mite, squash bug, pumpkin beetles, flea beetles, hadda or epilachna beetles, eggplant shoot and fruit borer, cutworms, hornworms, tomato fruit borer, tobacco caterpillar and melon fruit fly. Most of the vegetables are susceptible to pest damage, and their seeds, roots, stems, leaves as well as fruits are all subjected to injury. Vegetables damage ranges from reduced plant vigor to plant death and ultimately heavy crop losses occur. A combination of pest control strategies is of paramount importance and usually works well to reduce damage and keep the insect population below economic injury level for minimizing the yield loss. Pest identification of the vegetables is the most important step and the correct identification of pest troubles is the beginning of a successful integrated pest management program. The integrated pest management (IPM) include use of mechanical and cultural strategies, use of tolerant plant varieties, growing healthy seedlings, practicing adequate field sanitary measures particularly removing the fallen leaves, buds or debris, undertaking weekly field checking to spot out the presence of the insects, conservation of natural control agents, application of need based insecticides and ensuring of community approach for all the suggested tactics to maximize benefits.
Contribution/ Originality
This article is one of very few studies which have looked onto some important insect pests of summer vegetables, their identification, occurrence, damage and adoption of management practices for their control. Ultimately, practical vegetable plant protection contains detailed information on pest monitoring; keeping insect infestations below significant levels through preventative measures and specific control of pests which are the core of long-term integrated pest management.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Solomon Tamiru, Kindie Tesfaye, Girma Mamo
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Assessment of climate variability at local level has enormous advantage in Ethiopia, where the driver of the economy is agriculture. This study was conducted to analysis rainfall and temperature variability to guide sorghum production in Miesso. Daily climate data was obtained from the National Meteorological Service Agency of Ethiopia (NMA). Temporal rainfall variability was assessed through the timing of onset date, end date, length of growing season and dry spell length using INSTAT climate guide. Temperature variability was examined in terms of pattern, trend and probability of exceedence. The long-term annual rainfall showed high variability from year to year with 25% coefficient of variation. Seasonally, the MAM total rainfall showed high variability than the JJAS total rainfall at Miesso. Rainfall onset date and length of growing season were highly variable. Higher minimum temperature values (>16 oC) are observed from April to August whereas maximum temperature reaches its lowest level in December, but increase again to maximum in June and start to decline as of July. The minimum and maximum temperatures showed an increasing trend both seasonally and annually. To avert the risks of rainfall and temperature variability the use of seasonal climate outlook is recommended for adjusting farm operations and farming system decisions in Miesso areas.
Contribution/ Originality
This study provides recent information on rainfall and temperature variability of Miesso meteorological station. This will help researchers, development planners and farmers to use climate information to adjust their farm level decisions to alleviate the risks of temporal seasonal climate variability in the area.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

UPFC Integrated With Battery Energy Storage Systems for Stability Improvement

Research Article
Author(s): K. Saravanan, Dawit Leykuen Berhanu, Getnet Zewde Somano
Journal: Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

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Abstract
In Electrical Power network, consumer loads are time to time variation in existing transmission system.  Loads will not constant means,  power quality issues there such as  voltage have been flickering and deviations in power supply which make some of the electronic equipments and domestic devices highly sensitive to it . Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is most promising new technologies among the many FACTS devices which can improve the power system operation and power quality problems. To avoid such problems need to find out devices that can provide a backup during the time of voltage sags and such deviations. UPFC joined with batteries through dc-dc chopper have been introduced to improve their ability to exchange real power. The active power injected into the DC-bus is controlled by varying the duty cycle of the switches in the dc-dc chopper while the battery is discharging.
Contribution/ Originality
Energy storage devices in power systems can be added to existed FACTS devices to increase their stability of the power system. This paper concentrated in integrating UPFC with battery energy storage system which helps to improving the reliable operation of the power systems.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Hulet Wogedamea Kebele, Northern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Temesgen Gashaw, Tigabu Dinkayoh
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The objective of the study was to evaluate the land use/land cover dynamics of Hulet Wogedamea Kebele, Northern Ethiopia. Landsat 5 TM 1985 and Landsat 7 ETM+ 2011 were used for the study. Global positioning system and topographical maps of scale 1:50,000 for ground verification; field observations to take ground control points; 20 farming household’s interview to get additional information; ERDAS Imagine 9.1 and ArcGIS 9.3 software for satellite image processing and data analysis were used. The collected data was analyzed mainly using quantitative method.  However, results of farming household’s interview were discussed in line with the quantitative data. The result reveled that there was an expansion of cultivated land and degraded land by 12.8 and 2.58 ha per year respectively from 1985 to 2011 at the expense of forest, shrub and grazing lands. Thus, proper cultivation of the land with appropriate implementation of soil fertility management measures and afforestation and reforestation activities are recommended.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper is original and contributes for the existing literature in Northern Ethiopia by taking Hulet Wogedamea Kebele.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1