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Listing 22 - 20 of 1962 results.

Nutritive Value of Some Agro–Industrial By–Products as Supplement to Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) By Sokoto Gudali Calf

Research Article
Author(s): Funmilayo O. Bamigboye, A. J. Igbekoyi, O. J. Babayemi
Journal: Journal of Nutrients

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Abstract
Supplementation value of some agro–industrial by–products was assessed by 12 Sokoto Gudali calves in a Completely Randomized Design. Four test diets were formulated: Palm Kernel Cake (PKC), Brewer’s Dried Grain (BDG), Wheat Offal (WO) and combinations of PKC + BDG + WO based diets while Guinea grass was fed as the basal diet. Diet A (33.25 % PKC), diet B (33.25 % BDG), diet C (33.25 % WO) and diet D (11.08 % PKC + 11.08 % BDG + 11.08 % WO) were included in the formulated diets. The proximate composition of the diets and performance characteristics of calves on these diets were assessed using standard procedures. Diet D was observed to have the highest CP, CF and ether extract (28.3, 34.0 and 20.0 % respectively) while diet C followed a direct inverse trend of this in terms of DM, CP and CF (55.8, 22.6 and 23.0 % respectively). Results also showed that there were not significant differences among the treatments in final weight, weight gain, daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio but diet A was significantly different (P < 0.05) from other treatments in feed intake. It is concluded that brewer’s dried grains and wheat offal can be interchangeably used as well as combinations of the two in addition to the palm kernel cake as supplement to grass by Sokoto Gudali cattle for production and management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effects of combining industrial-by products on the performance of cattle. Also, the study was able to identify the by-products that can be interchangeably used in rearing Sokoto gudali calves. 
Medical Sciences » Journal of Nutrients » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Space Technology to Monitor the Tornado That Hit Brahmanbaria Dist. of Bangladesh in 2013 and Damaged A Lot

Research Article
Author(s): Suraiya Begum, Mehrun Nessa, Md. Shah Alam, Md. Saheb Ali
Journal: Journal of Future Internet

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Abstract
Bangladesh faces meteorological events like cyclone, depression , nor’easter’s, tornado  etc. almost every year. Nor’wester’s and Tornadoes are the special type of storm which cause lot of destructions  and hampers the sustainable development of the country. Nor’westers come mainly from the north westerly direction (and hence the name) and are land based. They are  very common phenomenon in Bangladesh during late month of Chaitra and Baishak . They are known as Kalbaishaki in Bengali.  The physical cause of such disasters is embodied in law of science and hence proper scientific research is necessary to deal with them. A massive tornado attacked Brahmanbaria dist. in 2013. In this paper , the role of Remote Sensing and GIS technology for  monitoring the tornado and its impact  have been described. 
Contribution/ Originality
SPARRSO, has been engaged with monitoring of different natural disasters using remote sensing technology since early seventies’. This type dealing is necessary to study the nature of the events useful for awareness and preparedness towards disaster management. 
Computer Sciences » Journal of Future Internet » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Comparison of Surface Energy of Bcc Alkali Metals and Transition Metals Using Maeam

Research Article
Author(s): Akpata Erhieyovwe, Enaibe. A. Edison, S.E. Iyayi
Journal: Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications

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Abstract
The surface energies of the low index (100), (110) and (111) planes of some bcc alkali metals (Li,Na,K,Rb,Cs) and for the bcc transition metals (Fe,W,Mo,Cr,Ta,Nb and V) have been calculated  using the Modified Analytical Embedded Atom Method (MAEAM).The surface energy of each (hkl) plane in alkali metals was found to be much more lower than those of the transition metals. The experimental values of surface energies are not tied to specific surfaces and are obtained for polycrystalline materials. They do not correlate with computed values published for any of these surfaces. This is expected since experiments give direct results. For all bcc metals the order of the surface energy is such that Es(110) < Es(100) < Es(111) which is in agreement with the results obtained except for (111) surface. Our calculated result shows that Es(111) < Es(110) < Es(100).  This is not in agreement with the result of  MAEAM.[1]
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the surface energy of transition metals and alkali metals at low index level.
Engineering » Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Micro Level Geo-Resistivity Survey through V.E.S. Test for Groundwater Feasibility Study and Selection of Bore Well Sites in Pipili Block of Puri

Research Article
Author(s): Tarun Kumar Lohani, Parikshit Barik, Bankim Chand Patnaik, Sanjay Kumar Mansingh
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
The geo-resistivity was conducted in an area near Jamukoli of Pipili block under Puri district of Odisha to study the groundwater feasibility and selection of site for installation of bore wells. The reason for choosing this area is due to the poor and backward inhabitants residing in the locality. Vertical Electrical Sounding Test most commonly known as Schlumberger Test was conducted at five locations to get a confirmation regarding groundwater occurrences and their feasibility to tap water from deep bore wells. It is surprising to note that during course of investigation there is a huge variation in groundwater occurrences within a span of a couple of meters. This is probably a fault zone which might have been extending in the SE to NW direction. Though the subsurface lithology shows a vertical dissemination of laterite and sandstone but aquifer has been recorded in the region where the lithology is either weathered or fractured. Groundwater exists at a depth of 70m – 90m and an expected 3000 l/hr. can be discharged comfortably in few locations.
Contribution/ Originality
The research work undertaken is a state of art and is an innovation to this particular field. As per the actual result bore logs are the best way to find the existence of the aquifer, but it costs too much if a tracer fails to reveal groundwater existence in that area. To avoid the effective cost sounding method has been executed in five locations at least to find the subsurface occurrence of groundwater. In this regard, resistivity meter of make Geoenviron has been used to find the result of subsurface litho units of the area. Though a huge area is not considered for the research work, but confined work done in a patch of 52 acres of land is enough to depict the presence of aquifer and its discharge per hour.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

The Role of Led’s In Meeting China’s Building Code Requirement of 50% Improved Energy Efficiency

Research Article
Author(s): Craig Seidelson
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
China economic development continues to be marred by power shortages, extensive air pollution, and a strained water supply.   These problems trace back to China’s dependence on coal for power.  At present coal consumption levels China stands in the way of maintaining global temperature increase from greenhouse gases below the 2°C target.  Amid reports one-third of global energy end use takes place within buildings, China’s National Energy Commission (NEC) has responded by requiring new buildings are at least 50% more energy efficient than those built in 2005.  This research found LED’s reduced overall building power use by approximately 19%.   Payback was less than 2 years.  In China the legally enforceable, mandatory standard for visual comfort (300 lux) and power density (11 watts/m2) are defined in GB5034-2004.  However, since LED’s experienced 28% more lumen decay over useful life than fluorescents, the lighting change resulted in savings only if local government officials permitted tasks lighting at reduced intensity. 
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Improved Analytical Approach of Vibration Behavior Destined To Ball Bearings in The Case of Angular Contact

Research Article
Author(s): El Had Khalid, Hachim Abdelilah, Chouairi Asmaa, EL Ghorba Mohamed
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
In recent years many developments have been made in the area of the vibration behavior of the supported by bearings or journal bearings rotating shafts. The results, if they are generally acceptable for common-use in terms of operating conditions, are far from meeting the aircraft industry, where the machining at high speeds is an undeniable need.This research therefore is aimed to provide an analytical simulation based on theoretical developments of the vibration response of a ball bearing. The generation of vibration by a point in a rolling element bearing is modeled as a function of the rotation of the bearing, the distribution of the load in the bearing, the transfer function between the bearing, transducer and elasticity of the bearing structure.The essence of this work is to present an analytical model of a specific type single of row effect balls (SKF 6004). This study is a first step dedicated to define the geometric characteristics, and in second time to determine the equations governing the distribution of responsibilities within the ball bearing.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Ranking Iranian Accredited Laboratories with Proficiency Tests Using Promethee Method

Research Article
Author(s): Mousa Amini, Alireza Alinezhad, Hamid Najafabadiha
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
The rapid pace of changing technology is leading to high rate of import and export between different countries. In outsourcing governmental organizations duties to private sectors, it is a need to control sectors and they should be under assessment policy. This research has been developed to show how the accredited laboratories of Iranian standard (ISIRI) can be assessed for their technical servicing using the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) in combination with proficiency testing inter- laboratories comparison, in order to rank them for an urgent or crucial need of testing any kind of goods or products under compulsory regulation or national standard for their quality or safety aspect. The proposed approach, therefore, allows a decision to be made with confidence that the alternative (laboratory) chosen has best performance for conformity assessment.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that implementation of a hybrid integration of PROMETHEE I, II with Proficiency Testing inter-groups comparison, provide a successful tool for ranking of those candidates.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Internship Effectiveness in It Industry: A Structural Equation Modeling

Research Article
Author(s): Chou, Chun-Mei , Shen, Chien-Hua, Hsiao, Hsi-Chi , Chen, Su-Chang
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
This study examines 324 tertiary students’ entrepreneurial internship effectiveness and its influencing factors in IT industry to serve as a school reference for the development of entrepreneurial internship education measures. The results show that students” “entrepreneurial intention (EI)” has a significant direct effect on “entrepreneurial internship effectiveness (EIE)”, and “internship satisfaction (IS) “has a significant effect on “entrepreneurial internship effectiveness” through “internship satisfaction.” The influence pattern and empirical data of “internship satisfaction” and “entrepreneurial intention” on “entrepreneurial internship effectiveness” has a good fit.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that students’ internship experiences of entrepreneurial intention and internship satisfaction have provided them with chances to learn entrepreneurial competence and attitude, which may be helpful for their future entrepreneurs.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Antilisterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves and Seeds of Moringa Oleifera

Research Article
Author(s): Eruteya, O.C., Badon, B.
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
The in vitro antilisterial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera were evaluated using the agar diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Listeria monocytogenes PCM 2191 serovar 01/2 and the four other L. monocytogenes strains were inhibited by the aqueous extracts at the concentrations of 200 and 250mg/ml of the leaves and 150, 200 and 250mg/ml of the seeds whereas, no inhibitory effects were observed with the ethanolic extracts of both the leaves and seeds. The result of this study has demonstrated the potential application of moringa aqueous extract in the control of L. monocytogenes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, a further confirmation of moringa’s bio-activity.The study is one of very few studies which have investigated the antilisterial effect of moringa.The papers primary contribution is finding that moringa has a potential application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes.
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

On Statistical Definition of Free and Fair Election: Bivariate Normal Distribution Model

Research Article
Author(s): Ronald Wesonga, Fabian Nabugoomu, Abraham Owino, Leonard Atuhaire, Agnes Ssekiboobo, Xavier Mugisha, James Ntozi, Tom Makumbi, Peter Jehopio , Bruno Ocaya
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The coining of the expression free and fair was a good way towards evaluating elections, but fell short of qualifying its real quantification to guide an informed judgment; this paper provides guidance for such a definition.Data from the Uganda National Baseline Survey were used to assess the dynamics of the determinants for a free and fair election. All determinants were statistically significant (p<0.01) for the two multinomial models (free and fair election models). The predicted probabilities for free and fair were each used as inputs to form probability distribution function could  jointly define the expression free and fair using a bivariate normal distribution. A strong positive correlation was identified between an election being free and fair (ρ=0.9693,p<0.01) implying the reliability of the statistical models in jointly considering free and fair.  The study recommends development of central statistical computational system to inform electoral bodies and judges in passing scientifically backed ruling on whether an election is free and fair. A threshold percentage for any election to be referred to as free and fair could be developed either deterministically or stochastically and provisions of which passed under electoral law.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of a national governance household baseline survey data and consequently proposes a framework for defining free and fair election. Given that free and fair is considered jointly, the paper recommends a definition based on joint bivariate probability distribution function. 
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 5

Smart Concretes: Review

Research Article
Author(s): A. Khitab, M. Alam, H. Riaz, S. Rauf
Journal: International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology

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Abstract
Concrete is a versatile and the most widely used material in the world. According to a recent survey, its annual production is one cubic meter per person. Historically, it is an old material, which has evolved tremendously during the passage of time. This paper envisages the most recent smart developments in this wonderful material. The smart concretes discussed in this paper include Engineering Cementitious Composites, Self cleaning concrete, self heating concretes and ultra high performance powder reactive concretes. Through modern technology, the strength of concrete has been enhanced from a few hundred pounds per square inch to more than 30000 pounds per square inch. In the same way, the utility of concrete has been tremendously broadened in many fields. Here, primarily, a brief introduction of all important recent developments is discussed.  Next, the composition of these materials is narrated, followed by their applications and utilities. The main theme of this paper is to understand the importance of these concretes and to introduce it to academia and construction industry of Pakistan. It is demonstrated that the introduction of these materials will solve many problems of construction, which are not possible to solve with conventional means. Moreover, these developments could solve many energy problems and some are even quite suitable for earthquake zones of Pakistan. 
Contribution/ Originality


Physical Sciences » International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 2

Meteorological and Hydrological Disasters Bangladesh Experiences Every Year Monitored Through Space Technology

Research Article
Author(s): Suraiya Begum, Md. Shah Alam, Mehrun Nessa, Md. Shajahan Ali, Md. Firoz Molla
Journal: Journal of Future Internet

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Abstract
The physical cause of this disaster is embodied in law of science and hence proper scientific research is necessary to deal with them. Bangladesh is one of the disaster  prone country faces   Cyclones, Floods, draught, Norwesters/Tornadoes, Earthquake etc. almost every year. The Role of Remote Sensing in the monitoring such natural disasters has been described in this paper. 
Contribution/ Originality
 SPARRSO, has been engaged with monitoring of different natural disasters using remote sensing technology since early seventies’. This type dealing is necessary to study the nature of the events useful for awareness and   disaster management towards sustainable development of the country. 
Computer Sciences » Journal of Future Internet » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam

Research Article
Author(s): Yeo Sing Yee , Joyce Leu Fong Yuen
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
In the recent decades, the process of globalization has increased the mobility of labor and spurred rapid international migration across borders. As one of the major labor importers in Asia, the government of Malaysia is committed to reduce the number of migrant labors to 1.5 million by 2015. Though many researches have been conducted to study the employment effects of migrant workers towards the local labor economy, this research aims to examine the factors which lead to the recruitment of migrant workers in the café segment of food service industry in Malaysia, specifically Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam (Café) in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Four main factors are being studied in this research, namely the lower wages; acceptability of workers towards poor employment conditions; flexibility of employees at work and better work ethics of foreign labors. The recruitment of migrant workers is said to be motivated by three main factors: lower wages, acceptability of workers towards employment conditions and better work ethics of the foreign workforce. In addition, the flexibility of workers is proven to have no significant relationship with the recruitment of migrant workers in this sector.
Contribution/ Originality
This study explores the recruitment issues of migrant workers in the cafe industry, which has been neglected in Malaysia. Café industry is one of the industries which has huge number of migrant workers. This study gives an in-depth knowledge of employer-employee relationships in Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam (café).
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Effect of Selected Metal Ions on the Mycelial Growth of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolated From Soybean Field in Rongai, Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): Erastus S.K. Mwangi, Erastus G. Gatebe, Mary W. Ndung’u
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
White mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum attacks a wide host range of broad-leafed plants which includes soybeans. The effect of twelve metal ions (Hg+2, Co+3, Ag+1, La+3, Cd+2, Cr+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Mo+5, Sr+2, Sn+4 and Ba+2) on the growth of pathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum was studied.  The fungus was isolated from infected soybean plant collected at Rongai, Kenya. The isolate was tested for the tolerance to metal ions at concentrations of 50.0, 100.0, 250.0 and 500.0 ppm amended into the C: N (35:1) glucose peptone prepared using 1.5% (3.75g) agar culture medium. All the investigated metal ions exhibited concentration dependent mycelial growth using disc diffusion test. Of 12 metal cations tested, only copper and zinc stimulated mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum mycelial in relatively higher concentrations. Higher concentrations of Hg+2, Ag+1, La+3 and Cd+2 inhibited growth of fungi causing an opaque halo in the medium. FT-IR spectral analysis of culture filtrate reviewed oxalic acid secreted precipitated primarily as oxalate at the periphery of the fungal colony. This work suggests that strong pollution of soil by some heavy metals could be a restrictive factor of development and pathogenicty of S. sclerotiorum fungi in the environment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that secretion of oxalic acid is the primary cause for proliferation of S. sclerotiorum. From this work fabrication of metal based fungicide looks an attractive strategy towards management of the oxalic acid secreted by the fungi during its colonization or growth. Furthermore, the results demonstrates the potential utilization of S. sclerotiorum in bioremediation.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Transition Metal-Oxo Based Sensing Of Chromium (III) Using 1, 2-Hydroxyphenylthiourea in Activator and Surfactant Medium

Research Article
Author(s): A. Sunil , S. Jagadeeswara Rao
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
1,2-hydroxyphenylthiourea(HPTU) undergoes oxidative dimerisation to form an yellow coloured disulphide in the presence of chromium(III)-oxo species which acts as a catalyst. This catalytic process is enhanced to a great extent in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline which played the role of an activator and sodium dodecylsulphate as a surfactant. The reaction was monitored at λEx = 416 nm and λEm = 520 nm.  The studies reveal that the rate of reaction and the amount of chromium(III) are proportional. This sensing mechanism lead to the development of an analytical method for determination of chromium(III) using photometric and fluorometric techniques. The developed methods were applied for the determination of chromium(III) in plant and waste water samples.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature, a novel way to sense chromium(III) using HPTU for the first time. The methodology involved for determination is very simple and uses affordable instrumentation available in normal laboratories. The paper’s primary contribution is the analytical investigation of the catalytic reaction of HPTU catalysed by chromium in the presence of activators and surfactants.  
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Tourism Advertisement Management and Effective Tools in Tourism Industry

Research Article
Author(s): Hassan Salehi, Morteza Farahbakhsh
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The definition of tourism “is the travel for recreational, leisure, family or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another location within the same country”. Tourism as an industry, in today’s modern language is a means of global communication between nations and travelers of all countries, introducing them to the various cultures and societies abroad, as well there history, ancient, historical sites, and languages. Hence, advertising overall has become a tool of necessity in this ever-growing global industry.  Given that, tourism is a part of the infrastructure of any country’s economy the growth and development of tourism is of great importance. Advertising plays a vital and is a crucial tool in developing the countries tourism by attractively presenting the nations points-of-interests, historical and cultural.  Advertising has a central role in expanding this industry, generating economic growth in this area, as well as creating direct and indirect employment, but most importantly a creative innovating competition in the national and international travel industry. Importantly, to achieve a successful tourist industry, the Travel Agencies and governmental offices of the Ministry’s of Tourism and Business must work hand-in-hand to attain these goals. This article shows the impact of the various media and advertising methods used in tourism, which assisted in identifying the correct tool for expanding the country’s industry of tourism. The results of this study illustrated that the appropriate tools for promotional strategies to attract domestic and foreign traveler’s, found to be the most effective were, handbook, internet advertising, TV, brochures, newspapers. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper introduced most popular effective tools in tourism industry such as slogan, logo, etc. In fact, it shown some countries which use these methods in their tourism industry can get more visitors in contrast to others and today most of countries use these effective tools.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage

Research Article
Author(s): Dauda Z, M. M. Degri, U. N. Gadzama, M. Hassan
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Farmers, households as well as grain merchants have to contend with infested stored cowpea grain once attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). They could be compelled to consume, sale at low economic value or find other way of salvaging the grains from total damage and loss. This paper reports the curative effect of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed oil (MSO) in mitigating C. maculatus damage and loss to freshly infested cowpea grains in storage. Ten grams cowpea grains of three varieties (Gwalam, Borno brown, and Banjara) were each weighed into a 200 ml bottle in three replicates for un-treated and four levels of MSO treatments (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml). Three pairs of opposite sex adult C. maculatus 0-48 hrs old were used to infest grains in each replicate. Insects were removed five days after infestation and the number of eggs laid on grains in each replicate counted. MSO treatments were carried out at five and eight days after infestation. The number of adults that emerged was counted daily throughout the first filial generation (F1). All data were subjected to analysis of variance at 5% level of probability. Significantly different means were determined using Least Significant Difference. Results indicated statistical significances (P<0.05) between treated and un-treated infested grains of each variety. This implied that MSO is effective in mitigating C. maculatus damage to cowpea grain in storage. Grains infested with 1-8 days old cowpea bruchid eggs could be salvage from total damage and loss. Control was achieved mainly through ovicidal action and / or adverse effect of the oil on early larval instars thereby reducing and / or eliminating the damaging effect of C. maculatus.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of moringa seed oil to control C. maculatus in freshly infested stored cowpea. The oil was effective in reducing and / or inhibiting damage and loss in cowpea grains infested with freshly laid eggs. 
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Abubakar, G. A., A. Tukur
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
intensification very little attention has been paid to the soil quality. This research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of abattoir effluent on soil chemical properties in Yola, Adamawa State located on latitude 90201N and longitude 120301E. Discharging abattoir effluent to the surrounding soil had significant (P <0.05) effect on some soil chemical properties. The results revealed significant effects of abattoir effluent on soil pH, percentage organic carbon and organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable sodium and calcium, cation exchange capacity and percentage base saturation. The results showed no significant effects on exchangeable potassium and magnesium. Highest mean values of 6.09, 0.64 Cmolkg-1 and 68.43% were observed on control samples for pH, exchangeable calcium and percentage base saturation respectively. Highest mean values of 1.70%, 2.94%, 2.81gkg-1, 5.28mgkg-1 and 3.17Cmolkg-1 were observed on samples taken from new effluent discharging area for percentage organic carbon and organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable sodium respectively. The highest mean value of 8.70Cmolkg-1 was observed on samples taken from the old effluent discharging area for cation exchange capacity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, uses new estimation methodology, originates new formula and one of the very few studies which have investigated the impact of abattoir effluents on soil chemical properties and contributes the first logical analysis which documents that the quality of the soil is negatively affected by the activities of the abattoir.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Refractive Error among Primary School Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Nebiyat kassa, Alemayehu Woldeyes, Chalachew Misganaw
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Introduction: - Refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism) affect the whole spectrum of the population irrespective of age, gender, race and ethnic group. Such refractive errors can be easily diagnosed, measured and corrected with glasses or other refractive corrections to attain normal vision. In the last few years, considerable attention has not been given to the contribution of refractive errors to global cause of visual impairment and blindness.  Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in Africa, with relatively poor health service coverage especially of eye health care and is believed to have one of the world’s highest rates of blindness. Refractive error is the second leading cause of low vision in Ethiopia accounting for 33.4%, and the leading cause of blindness accounting for 7.8%.Objectives:-To assess prevalence and associated factors of refractive error among primary school children.Methods: - An institution based cross sectional study of 1800 students in four elementary schools in Arada and Gullele sub cities was conducted from February 29- April 15, 2014. Subjects were selected by multistage random sampling. Data was collected by pretested questionnaire. Data collected was cleaned, coded and entered to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Bivariate logistic analysis using odds ratio was made to assess predictor variables. Beside, multivariate analysis was applied to control confounding variables. A confidence interval, which does not contain one, is significant. Result: - This cross sectional study was comprised of 695 male and 1105 female, from 4 randomly selected elementary schools with a response rate of 99.4%. Refractive errors in either eye or both were present in 71 students (4%). Of these myopia was diagnosed in 19(26.7%), 12(17%) of them have Astigmatism, 10(14%) of them were with Myopic astigmatism, 6(8.4%) of them had Hyperopia, and 3(4.2%) of them had Hyperopic astigmatism on both eyes, 21(29.6%) participants had Anisometropia. Being male and not having visual impairment decreases the odds of refractory error with odds of [(95%AOR.573 (.331-.994) and 95%AOR.312 (.180-.540)] respectively.Conclusion and recommendation: - Refractive error among children is a common problem in school age and they should be screened at least once in their stay in the elementary school.
Contribution/ Originality
As to the knowledge of the authors, no such study is conducted in the urban central part of Ethiopia. Most studies were done in the northern and rural central part of the country. Therefore, this study investigated prevalence and factors associated with refractory error in the urban central part of the country.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

The Level and Associated Factors Of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Health Science Students of Addis Ababa University

Research Article
Author(s): Chalachew Misganaw, Meaza Tenkir, Andualem Deresea, Megdelawit Tesfaye, Tesfalem Teshome Tessema, Hawult Taye
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Introduction: Blood can save millions of life. Blood is the cure, and- man is only source of that cure. The 2012 world blood donor day campaign is "Every blood donor is a hero" focuses on the idea that every one of us can become a hero by donating blood. The percentage of blood collected from voluntary Blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate in Ethiopia are extremely low.Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of blood donation and associated factors among health science students in Addis Ababa University.Method: A quantitative institution based cross-sectional study design was used to conduct the survey on May 2014 among health science students in Addis Ababa University. There were a total of 384 respondents    selected from six departments of the College of Health Sciences in the university. Stratified sampling technique followed by systematic sampling was applied to select respondents. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.  Data will be cleaned, edited, coded and entered on SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was applied to describe variables. An analysis of logistic regressions for identifying associated factors was done. A significance level of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered significant.Result: More than half of the participants, 206 (53.6%) were males and the age range of most of respondents, (90%) were from 19-24 years.  Fifty six percent of respondents were studying medicine. Three hundred twenty one (83.7 %) and 63(16.4%) of respondents have high and low level of knowledge regarding blood donation. Increased year of study and being students in the department of medicine and nursing increased the odds of level of knowledge of respondents on blood donation. Being age > 25 years increased odds of knowledge [AOR (95% CI) =5.092 (1.1, 24.2)].  One third, 123(32%) of respondents have unfavorable attitude towards blood donation. Being male increased odds of favorable attitude [AOR (95% CI) =2.2 (1.4, 3.6)]. Less than one quarter, 90 (23.4%) have ever donated blood. Among these, 38(42.2%) of them were a regular donors. Being male increased odds of practice [AOR (95% CI) =3.9 (1.4, 10.8)] and being age >25 increased odds of practice [AOR (95% CI) =6.5 (1.6, 26.9)Conclusion and recommendationsThe level of knowledge on blood donation is high, however, significant number of students in this study have unfavorable attitude towards blood donation. Practice of blood donation is good. In this study, being male, age > 25 and increased year of study and department have significant association.  The university in collaboration with Red Cross society should increase and strengthen clubs. Moreover, clubs in the university should organize different events to build students attitude positively and to increase the number of blood donors.
Contribution/ Originality
The percentage of blood collected from voluntary Blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate in Ethiopia are extremely low. Lack of adequate and safe blood supply results in significant number of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. To understand these, this study is the first of its kind to investigate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors of blood donation among health science students.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10