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Listing 27 - 20 of 1969 results.

The Dynamics of Land Market and Food Security in Malawi

Research Article
Author(s): Boja Tesfaye Garedow, Abdi-Khalil Edriss
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This study analyzes factors associated with land rental market and its implication on food security in rural households of Malawi. Land rental markets transfer land from land rich but resource poor to land poor but wealthy households. It is also a remedy to scarcity of land due to soaring population growth and hence high pressure on farm land. A binary probit model was applied for participation, and censored (Tobit) for degree of participation for both tenants and landlords to pin down socio-economic factors affecting the land rental market using 450 randomly sampled households across six districts. Treatment effect model was used to test whether land market participation improves food security of the participants. After controlling for soil characteristics and agro ecological factors, the study revealed that rental participation has significantly improved the tenant’s food access in terms of staple food (maize) but has no positive significant effect on the landlords’ maize output.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of the very few studies which have investigated the link between land market and food security in Malawi. A rare research showing how land rental markets have been used to transfer land from land rich but resource poor to land poor but wealthy households. 
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 5

Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran

Research Article
Author(s): Norouz Aghajani Tir, Farshad Momeni, Ganiev Tavarali Boboevich
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This paper studies the causality relationship between water sector investment and economic growth and other sector such as agriculture, industry and mine, services, and petroleum sectors in Iran, using panel data approach, from annual data covering the period of 1980 to 2010. The short-run cointegration estimation support the relationship between our variables. In this paper we show the effects of water sector investment on production function of Solow growth model for this purpose we use econometric method based on Panel Data.The results show low efficiency in water industry. Solow Growth Model for different sectors (agriculture, industry and mine, services, and petroleum sectors) in Iranian economy implies that the elasticity of water investment in agricultural sector is significant, and positive, with the amount of 1.3%. Also results show that the investment effect of water sector for groundwater discharge is about 2.4 percent which is significant. Finally the results show that conversely relationship for surface waters with the amount of about -2.7%.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 5

Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus Vulgarison Some Pathogens

Research Article
Author(s): Bachir Raho G, Benattouche Z, Bevilacqua A, Corbo MR, Sinigaglia M, Pignatiello S
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
The inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris essential oils were screened against Coliform spp, Pseudomonas spp, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118), Zygosaccharomyces bailii (DSM 70492) and Lactobacillus plantarum (DSM2601) by agar well diffusion method. Results obtained in thisstudy revealed that the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris posses a weak antibacterial effect against the tested microorganisms with small inhibition zones ranged between 0 and 4 mm. This activity was dose independent. Z. baillii was more susceptible to T. vulgaris essential oils, while Coliform spp was more resistant comparing to other tested microorganisms. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature and the scientific justification to the use of this plant in herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases of microbial origin and also introduces it as a potential candidate for drug development for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these pathogens.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Ethnomedicinal Survey of Plants Used In Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Abia State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s):
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in Nigeria is still high. In this study, an ethno medicinal survey was conducted to record the different plant families, species and plants parts used for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in Abia State of Nigeria. The result revealed that a total of 62 plant species in 48 genera from 44 families mostly the Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Rutaceae, and Malvaceae were used to treat diseases such as gonorrhoea, syphilis, trichonomiasis, chlamydia, urethritis, and to suppress the replication of HIV. The most plant parts used were leaves (32.5%), stem bark (23.75%) and root (20%). Other parts used included the fruits (7.5%), the seeds (3.75%) and the aerial parts (12.5%). More research is needed to extract and isolate the active chemical compounds under sound hygienic condition and study their mode of function.
Contribution/ Originality
This work contributes in the existing literatures on the use of ethnomedicinal plants in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in Abia State and Nigeria. This work is one of the very few studies which investigated the use of plants in treating sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV and Chlamydia. The primary contribution of this paper is in the finding that different plant parts can be used as a remedy for sexually transmitted diseases in Abia State of Nigeria. The study therefore documents an inventory of plants, plant parts, families, botanical, common and local names of plants used in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in Abia State of Nigeria.
Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Review: Plant Resistance to Agriculture Insect Pests

Research Article
Author(s): Sawsan Sabry Moawad
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
 Competition and interaction among organisms in nature results to selection for traits which confer added advantage. As a result of such interactions between plants and their natural enemies, plants have developed defensive mechanisms, both chemical and physical, to minimize pest damage. Intensive researches were carried out to identify and isolation the gene responsible for resistance plant to insects’ infestation which is used in breeding programs for crops improvement. It can be summarized as follows: 1-  Corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) can’t cause damage to certain corn strain due to maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone, and related compounds in the silks that inhibit corn earworm larval growth. Scientist can identify corn chromosome regions associated with silk maysin concentration, and then used it in producing new hybrid.2- Other insect such as the fall army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda can’t cause damage to resistance corn due to some factors as high hemicelluloses content, low protein content and leaf toughness. They can also identify a gene code which is controlled by the resistance traits of corn to the fall army worm. 3- However, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) can’t cause damage to certain corn varieties due to high concentrations of 2,4-dihydroxy-7- methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) in the leaves of mid-whorl stage plants. Scientist indicated that resistance to the European corn borer was identified in Peruvian corn germplasm and the GEM (Germplasm Enhancement of Maize) corn collection, then make backcross to produce new resistance strain. 4- Other crops as tomato infested by Tuta absoluta  (Meyrick ( but some tomato varieties as Lycopersicon esculentum can resist it due to antixenosis factor which interrupted tomato leaf miner from feed, oviposition and shelter . 5- Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), can’t cause damage to some wheat and barley and others crop due to antibiosis and antixenosis factors. Six sources of resistant wheat, each governed by a different, single gene, have been identified.6- Two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are herbivorous pests. Additional whitefly infestation to spider-mite infested plants resulted in a reduced attraction of predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis). This interference was shown to result from the reduction in (E)-β-ocimene emission from plantsinfested by both spider mites and whiteflies.7- Transgenic crops expressing a protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) were carried out into potato, maize, cotton and soybean to be reduced their insect infestation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature which interested to study factors of plant resistance to agriculture insect pests and its’ role to improve new plant strains.
Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Effect of Sowing Date on Maize Seed Yield and Quality: A Review

Research Article
Author(s): V. Sandeep Varma, K. Kanaka Durga, P. Neelima
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
Various maize researchers have been conducting experiments to know the effect of sowing date on maize seed yield and quality, which explored a vast variation in the results. In some countries, early sowing of maize gave good yields besides quality seed and at the same time, in some countries late sowing yielded better and posses’ high quality seed. Despite of all these differences in sowing period, many scientists and farmers opined that early and mid early sowings in India resulted good yields and high quality seed.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on effect of sowing date on various aspects of maize mainly used in the context of climate change, which is a most important factor in global issues.
Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Saving Natural Resources: The Exemple of Balearic Industry/ Ahorro De Recursos Naturales: El Ejemplo De La Industria Balear

Research Article
Author(s): L. Vizcaíno Perez
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Tourism is the most important industry in the Balearic Islands. This article develops a method to set mathematical models that relate water consumption with occupation. The method is tested in a set of hotels from Majorca, although it is perfectly applicable  anywhere in the world. Every model is validated by the square of the Pearson correlation coefficient. The methodology displayed is acceptable in the examples analyzed, as Pearson coefficient values obteined are above 0.69, opening a new field for further research. Finally, it is studied the effect of adding new hotels to the model of the group of hotels, obtained previously.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Effects of Climatic Change On Gsm Signal in Lagos Metropolitan Terrain

Research Article
Author(s): Shoewu, O, Akinyemi, L.A, Edeko, F.O
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
The nexus of this study is to examine thoroughly the dependence of climatological parameters on GSM signal, especially in a metropolitan terrain. To validate this work, field measurements were carried out in the ITU regions of Lagos metropolitan area. The measurement system consisted of live documented radio base stations (BS) data transmitting at 13GHz, 15GHz and 23GHz in seven sites that constituted a metropolitan environment. The seven sites were segmented into non-urban (rural), suburban, urban, Ex-urban, dense-urban, micro-urban and peri-urban propagation environment. The Rain outage of the annual unavailability of the region of metropolitan data was collected using a Lenovo Laptop with installed path loss software alongside a licensed key called DONGLE. Results of this effort reveal that climate change affects signal propagation.  
Contribution/ Originality
This study reveals how climate change affects the signal propagation of radio waves in two different seasons. It also explores some of the areas that were not considered such as suburban, peri-urban areas by other authors. This paper primary contribution is in the determination of unavailability of rain outage from the metropolitan areas. This research study therefore shows that climate affects signal propagation depending on climatic parameters (rain and harmattan), frequency of transmission and ITU regions of propagation (which justifies the size of rain and harmattan intensity) in Nigeria.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

A Study on Commensal Mortality Rate of a Typical Three Species Syn-Eco-System with Unlimited Resources for Commensal

Research Article
Author(s): B. Hari Prasad
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
The present investigation is on an analytical and numerical study of a typical three species syn-eco system with mortality rate for commensal. The system comprises of a commensal (S1), two hosts S2 and S3 where S2 and S3 both benefit S1, without getting themselves affected either positively or adversely. Further the first species has unlimited resources. The model equations constitute a set of three first order non-linear coupled differential equations. Criteria for the asymptotic stability of all the four equilibrium states are established. Trajectories of the perturbations over the equilibrium states are illustrated. Further the global stability of the system is established with the aid of suitably constructed Liapunov’s function and the numerical solutions for the growth rate equations are computed using Runge-Kutta fourth order scheme.
Contribution/ Originality


Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Analytical Review of SQL Server Optimization

Research Article
Author(s): Gaurav Kumar, Arun Sangwan
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
It is a complex task to optimize query as well as to validate the correctness and effectiveness of query optimizer. A query optimizer should estimate and compare the costs of executing a query using different execution strategies and should choose the strategy with the lower cost estimate. To fairly and realistically compare different strategies accurate cost estimation is required. This is a challenging task to measure quality of query optimization as modern query optimizers provide more advanced optimization strategies and adaptive techniques. This paper describes different ways to improve the performance of SQL Server queries, index optimization with occasional references to particular SQL code and how to achieve the best performance for the given tables and queries by giving some tips for query optimization in Microsoft SQL Server. The paper provides a detailed overview of query optimization, Optimization techniques, testing of optimization techniques that are used to validate the query optimizer of Microsoft’s SQL Server and issues in query optimization testing.
Contribution/ Originality


Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Information and Communication Technology in Classroom Situations in Rural and Urban Areas in Zimbabwe: A Comparative Study on the Use of Digital and Projected Media in Teaching and Learning at Six Secondary Schools in Masvingo

Research Article
Author(s): Maxwell Constantine Chando Musingafi, Christopher Chadenanga
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Information and communication technology have taken centre stage of almost every interaction, communication and learning processes among people of this world. This study is a comparative analysis of the usefulness of modern information and communication technology (ICT) in the transmission and movement of information in the teaching and learning processes at high schools in Zimbabwe. In the contemporary times most projected media are computerized and, thus, may require advanced expertise in operating them. It has been also argued that projected media makes learning real, practical, interactive, and above all, more permanent than other teaching and learning aids. The objectives of this study were to establish forms of projected media in use in urban and rural schools in Zimbabwe; to investigate the extent to which these projected media are really of use in these schools; and to establish challenges faced by these schools in their endeavours in the use of projected media. The central argument in the study is that proper use of projected media leads to efficiency and effectiveness in the teaching and learning processes. Research methods involved both a theoretical review and an empirical study based on case studies, making use of comparative and exploratory approaches. The study established that while urban secondary schools have some forms of contemporary projected media, rural secondary schools do not have most of these projected media; the expertise and zeal to use the projected media is very low in both urban and rural schools; and proper use of projected media leads to efficiency and effectiveness in the teaching and learning processes. Among other recommendations, the study recommends continuous professional development of teachers in the use of projected media; and partnerships with stakeholders so that the school has a wider base for resource mobilisation.
Contribution/ Originality
The overall aim of this study is to contribute a theoretical framework that will help towards the generation, development and use of ICTs and projected media in both urban and rural secondary schools in Zimbabwe and the world. Our aim is to widen the knowledge base and understanding of the generation, development and utilisation of ICTs and projected media in Zimbabwe and the global community.
Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Influence of Dehydrated Medicago Sativa on Quality Characteristics of Marchigiana Beef

Research Article
Author(s): Giuseppe Martino, Lisa Grotta, Valentina Ponzielli
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
The composition of cattle diets is one the most important parameters influencing meat quality .Effects of pasture alone and supplementation with dehaydrated Medicago sativa on carcass and meat quality were studied in Marchigiana beef cattle, in particular lipid and stability.Meat quality measurements were made on Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle in 20 animals slaughtered at 660-700 kg.The amount of lipids in the control group was lower with higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acid. There were significant differences (P≤0.01) of TBARS values that were higher in the group fed with supplementation of Medicago sativa than in the other group, the control one.
Contribution/ Originality
Today people try more and more to replace soybean with other GMO-free protein foods. This study documents how the use of dehydrated Alfalfa meal in calf nutrition instead of soybean enriches the meat in polyunsaturated acids but, at the same time, promotes the processes of lipid oxidation.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Seleno-Cystine Affects the Fatty Acid Profile in In Vitro Incubated Ovine Ruminal Fluid Containing α-Linolenic Acid

Research Article
Author(s): Marian Czauderna, Rozbicka Wieczorek A.J, Więsyk E
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
The influence of seleno-cystine (CySe2) added to ovine ruminal fluids containing α-linolenic acid (αLNA) on the profile of fatty acids (FA) was investigated. Fluids were incubated in vitro at 39°C under CO2 either alone (RF) or with αLNA (1.67 mg/ml) or with a combination of αLNA with either a low (1.34 μg/ml) or high (3.33 μg/ml) level of Se as CySe2. Fluids were removed after 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hrs of incubation and then analyzed to determine FA levels. αLNA added to the fluids without/with CySe2 decreased the C18α0 concentration for incubation at all times from 6 hrs compared with the RF or the fluid containing CySe2. αLNA added to the fluids without/with CySe2 decreased the biohydrogenation yield to C18:0. CySe2 added to the fluids decreased the C18:0 concentration and the index of the biohydrogenation to C18:0 compared with the RF. The higher concentration of CySe2 in the fluids with αLNA reduced the accumulation of trans11C18:1 for incubation at all times from 18 hrs compared with the fluids with αLNA, irrespective of the presence of the lower concentration of CySe2. The lowest concentration of trans11C18:1 in the fluids with LNA and the higher concentration of CySe2 correlated with the lowest yield of the isomerization of αLNA into cis9trans11cis15C18:3 and the lowest yield of the initial biohydrogenation of cis9trans11cis15C18:3 to trans11cis15C18:2 in the fluids containing αLNA and the higher concentration of CySe2. CySe2 added to the fluids with αLNA decreased the ratio of polyunsaturated FA to saturated FA for incubation at all times from 12 hrs compared with the fluids containing αLNA. CySe2 in the fluids without/with αLNA reduced the FA sum in the fluids.
Contribution/ Originality
Our original study documents that CySe2 added to the ovine ruminal fluids, irrespective of the presence of αLNA, affects concentrations of fatty acids, the capacity of the bacterial isomerases and the biohydrogenation yield of unsaturated fatty acids in in vitro incubated ruminal fluids compared with the control fluid. 
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Investigations on Three Phase Five Switch Multilevel Inverter With Reduced Number of Switches

Research Article
Author(s): C.R. Balamurugan, S.P. Natarajan, M. Arumugam, R. Bensraj
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
The multi-level inverter system is mostly used in ac drives, when both reduced harmonic contents and high power are required. In this paper a new topology of multilevel inverter is introduced. This type has many steps with less power electronic switches. Due to the less number of switches the cost of the inverter is very less and also less installation area is required. Firstly, we describe briefly the structural parts of the inverter then switching strategy and operational principles of the proposed inverter are explained and operational topologies are given. Simulation is performed using MATLAB SIMULINK. Various conventional PWM techniques are applied to the circuit such as PDPWM, PODPWM, APODPWM, VFPWM and COPWM. By comparing among the conventional PWM techniques, PDPWM provide the less THD value and COPWM provide a higher fundamental RMS output voltage.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes various PWM techniques and hence this work presents a novel approach for controlling the harmonics of output voltage of chosen MLI employing  Sinusoidal references for different PWM switching strategies. 
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Corrosion of Steels in Water and Hydrogen Sulphide

Research Article
Author(s): Adebayo A., Oluwadare B. S.
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
The importance of carbon steel in the petroleum industries cannot be over emphasized. The carbon steel is susceptible to internal corrosion due to H2S/CO2 environment. The two gasses, in combination with water, defines most of the corrosion problems in the oil and gas production. This research paper is aimed at investigating the corrosion rate of steels in water and H2S. Eight steel samples (AISI 301, AISI 302, AISI 304, AISI 304L, AISI 308, AISI 309, St 35 and St 37) were used for the experiment. The results obtained showed that the corrosion rate in water saturated H2S was higher as compared to wet and dry H2S gases. This was attributed to the aqueous state of water saturated H2S, which increases the rate of ion dissociation. The high rate of ion dissociation increases the rate of ion penetration into the steel (diffusion rate) and thus the corrosion rate.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper primary contribution is the findings that corrosion rate is higher in water saturated hydrogen sulphide as a result of its aqueous state which increases the rate of ion dissociation. Also, stainless steels are more resistance to corrosion than carbon steels. 
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Visiting SME Financing Industry of Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Noor Md. Rahmatullah, Abu Zafar Ahmed Mukul, Mohammad Tanjimul Islam
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
This paper emphasizes on the efficiency of small and medium scale assets for the social development agendas like entrepreneurship development, poverty alleviation etc. We will scrutinize the overall effectiveness of the Bangladesh Bank (2014) financing industry of the country. Informative resource has been collected by an original field survey and from secondary resources. The field survey includes 100 stakeholders regarding SME financing 60 of who were direct loan facilitators of the financiers. The results conclude that almost all factors related to SME financing industry of the country are satisfactory except some of them. However, some recent contradictory occurrences are taking breath on the neck of this industry. The industry is running without a concrete framework and without an acceptable asset recovery system. On the other side the industry is facing imperfect competition. This work will be successful only if the financiers will rejuvenate the overall financing system by fortifying our results. This research paper has an emphatic gaze on entrepreneurship development by alleviating poverty by SME financing.
Contribution/ Originality
This research paper is based on empirical data and reveals some results to exhibit that how SME financing effects on some socio-economic phenomena of Bangladesh like entrepreneurship development, poverty alleviation, women entrepreneurship development etc. considering the context of Bangladesh.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

The Qual-Quant Distinction (Debate): Understanding the Phenomena

Research Article
Author(s): Tara N Poudel
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
Because the qualitative and quantitative data can be analyzed by both qualitative and quantitative methods, some scholars argue that the combination of theme can be more effective but others argues that the distinction between qualitative and quantitative data have certain utility, though most people draw to hard a distinction. Although, the quantitative-qualitative distinction can lead to some sorts of confusions due to their distinct ontological and measurement related issues; the qual-quant distinction debate is philosophical, not methodological. Hence this paper discusses about the philosophical and practical issues on qual-quant distinction and the interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data in the form of each other.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes the first logical idea of same data can treat both hermeneutically and statistically. Additionally, this paper would be fruitful to understand the sharpness and usefulness of the distinction of qualitative and quantitative data or its integration.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Use of Value-At-Risk for the Quantification of Risks In Insurance

Research Article
Author(s): EL ARIF Fatima Zahra
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
Value-at-Risk has become a standard for managing risk in the financial world. The purpose of this article is to specify the conditions under which the VaR could be a good measure of risk asset in insurance. After the description of the main approaches to calculating VaR currently employed in the insurance industry, we will indicate the specific financial management in insurance. We then present the necessary changes in VaR and its limitations, and alternatives to VaR for risk calculation (Method of generalized scenarios, CVaR).
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that concerning the application of the VaR to measure risks in the field of finance. This study use also new estimation methodology to measure the risks of assets in the field of insurance. Indeed, this paper’s primary contribution is finding that the value-at-risk (VaR) is not coherent, and provides alternatives coherentes measures, and more adapted to the insurance companies.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?

Research Article
Author(s): Romeo-Victor Ionescu
Journal: Journal of Challenges

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Abstract
The present political and military situation in Ukraine has an important impact on the regional and global economic connections. EU28 and USA imposed sanctions against Russia. The main objective of this paper is to quantify the potential economic changes in the world economic environment by analyzing the most significant global economic actors: EU28, USA, Russia and implicitly BRICS. The analysis in the paper has to components: a post factum analysis, using the latest official data (2013) and an ex antum analysis, which is supported by a forecast until 2020. The analysis conclusions are supported by pertinent statistic tables and diagrams. It is assisted by the IBM-SPSS software. The main conclusion of the analysis is that Russia is not able to cut the economic connections with EU28 and USA on short and average term. Moreover, BRICS is not a viable solution for Russia at the moment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the new economic challenge related to the Ukrainian crisis which started this year. The paper is focused on the latest economic problem with global impact. The impact of this crisis and the solutions to solve it are far away of finding, yet.
Economics » Journal of Challenges » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Modeling and Optimization of Phenylacetyylcarbinol Synthesis via Benzaldehyde: A Case of Artificial Neural Network vs. Response Surface Methodology

Research Article
Author(s): Adepoju Tunde. F, Olawale O
Journal: Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

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Abstract
In this study, a comparative optimization of biotransformation of benzaldehyde to L-Phenylacetylcarbinol via free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisae using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was done. A polynomial regression model was developed and RSM optimum process was determined. In developing ANN model, performance of ANN is heavily influenced by its network structure, five-level-five-factors design was applied, which generated 50 experimental runs from CCD design of RSM. The inputs for the ANN were cell mass (wet. wt), incubation duration (min), concentration of acetaldehyde (mg/100 ml), concentration of benzaldehyde (mg/100 ml), and β-cyclodextrin level (%): X5. The learning algorithms used was QP with MNFF and the transfer function was Tanh. The RMSE, R2, AAD and predicted values were used to compare the performance of the RSM and ANN models. The extrapolative fitness of ANN model was found to be higher than RSM extrapolative fitness model.  Thus, it can be concluded that even though RSM is mostly used method for experimental optimization, the ANN methodology present a better alternative.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to science and engineering. This study uses new estimation methodology for the conversion of benzaldehyde to L-PAC. This study originates new formula to enhance the concentration of L-PAC. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of β-CD to improve the L-PAC formation. The paper contributes the first logical analysis in modeling and optimization of L-PAC formation. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that L-PAC production can be enhanced using statistical software. This study documents the superiority of artificial neural network over response surface methodology.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2