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Listing 16 - 20 of 1965 results.

Preparation and Characterization of Sawdust (Cellulose) as an Adsorbent for Oil Pollution Remediation

Research Article
Author(s): Bethrand Tabugbo Nwufo, Nabut Duwilson Isaac, Emmanuel Usman Onche
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Oil pollution is peculiar to oil producing nations of the world. Various researches have been carried out to cub its menace. However, most of the materials are non-biodegradable and require expensive treatment to become an adsorbent. In this study, adsorptive capacities of cost effective raw hard and softwood sawdust were investigated and compared. Soft wood sawdust was found to have better adsorptive capacities. The adsorptive capacities are related to the mesh size of the sawdust, the concentration of the oil, the quantity of the sawdust and the time of contact of the oil and the sawdust. Maximum uptake of the oil by both adsorbents occurred at 120 and 150 minutes for all the results. This study recommends that further research be done on the use of modified softwood sawdust so as to increase its potential as a low cost adsorbent in oil remediation. 
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Developmental and Hormonal Regulation of Direct Shoots and Roots Regeneration in Coccinia Indica L

Research Article
Author(s): M.S. Shekhawat, C.P. Ravindran, M. Manokari
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Multiple shoots were induced from the nodal meristms in Coccinia indica L. in present study. Maximum number of shoots (4.7) per explant were observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.5 mgl-1 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). The response of explants towards the use of kinetin (Kn) was not impressive (3.6 shoots per explant) as compared to BAP. Application of auxin (Indole-3 acetic acid, IAA) in the medium caused cullogenesis from the basal part of the explants. Shoots were multiplied (47.3 shoots per culture flask) on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mgl-1 each of BAP and Kn. Long and healthy shoots (4-5 cm long) were rooted (8-9 roots per shoot) on agar-gelled half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgl-1 Indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). None of the shoot produced roots in ex vitro experiments even after five weeks in green house. In vitro generated plantlets were hardened in the green house and transferred to the pots and finally to the field with 100% success. 
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 07-2014 Issue: 7

Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Eyassu Seifu, Asaminew Tassew
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
This study was conducted to assess processing, utilization and marketing of traditional dairy products produced in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha districts in Northwestern Ethiopia. A single-visit-multiple-subject formal survey was conducted to collect data. A total of 150 households (75 households from each district) were individually interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The major dairy products produced in the study area include butter, ghee, Ayib, Arera (defatted sour milk), Ergo (naturally fermented sour milk), Zure and Metata Ayib. Among these, two of the traditional dairy products, Zure and Metata Ayib, are unique to the area and have never been reported before. The respondents interviewed claim that these products are of high nutritional values and have therapeutic properties. Many aspects of Zure and Metata Ayib such as physico-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory qualities are unknown. Thus, detailed scientific investigation needs to be conducted in order to verify the claimed nutritional and medicinal properties of these products. 
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Notes on Q-Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subsemiring of a Semiring

Research Article
Author(s): K. Vanathi, V.S.A. Subramanian , K. Arjunan
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
In this paper, we make an attempt to study the algebraic nature of Q-intuitionistic fuzzy subsemiring of a semiring and some properties of Q-intuitionistic fuzzy subsemiring of a semiring are investigated.  AMS Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 06D72, 08A72, 03F55.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 04-2014 Issue: 2

Lime and NPK Effect on Soil Acidity and Yield of Barley in Different Acid Soils of Southern Region, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Shiferaw Boke, Anteneh Fekadu
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
In southern region acid soils cover appreciable areas of arable land and reduce or cause total failure of some sensitive crop yield. Barley is the most sensitive crop to soil acidity. A field experiment was carried out for three years (2007 to 2009) on loam Haplic Alisols of Chencha and clay loam Dystric luvisols of Hagerselam, Southern Region of Ethiopia, to evaluate the response of food barley and change in soil acidity to applied lime and NPK fertilizers. The study comprises three levels of calcitic lime (no lime, half and full doses of the recommend lime rate) and five different combinations of N-P-K fertilizers at the rate of 46-40-50 kg ha-1 (no fertilizer, NP, NK, PK, and NPK). The experimental design was factorial randomized complete block with three replications. Results obtained showed that application of lime and all combinations of fertilizers, either alone or combined, significantly (p < 0.05) increased barley yield over untreated control. The highest barley grain yield (2792 and 3279.3 kg ha-1) was recorded from combined application of NPK and half the recommended lime rate (3.84 and 0.85 t/ha at Chencha and Hagerselam, respectively) in 2007 when lime is freshly applied.  In 2008 and 2009, when lime is used as residual effect, highest barley grain and biomass yields were obtained from applications of full lime rate + NPK. NPK application either alone or with lime gave better barley yield, which might suggest the importance of balanced (NPK) fertilizer application. The efficiency of fertilizers increased in the order of NP
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 07-2014 Issue: 7

Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Application and Seedbed Preparation on Potato Yield and Soil Properties on Alisols of Chencha

Research Article
Author(s): Shiferaw Boke
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
A field experiment was conducted for two years (2006 and 2007) during the belg seasons on strongly acid clay loam (Haplic Alisols) soils at Chencha research substation, Southern Ethiopia. The objective was to examine the effect of seedbed preparation methods and organic-inorganic fertilizers on potato tuber yield and soil properties. The experiment was arranged in split-plot design with seed bed preparation methods: hoe plough once (M1), hoe plough twice (M2) and hoe plough thrice (M3) as main plots, and fertilization levels, namely, a control without fertilizer, NP, NPK, NP+FYM, NPK+FYM and FYM as sub plots with three replicates. Results indicated that there were significant (P< 0.05) potato tuber yield differences among sub-treatments.  The impact of main treatments showed no yield difference. Application of FYM and NPK significantly increased the yield of potato both years. NP application alone did not influence potato yield but significantly increased when combined with FYM.  Exclusion of K from either inorganic or combined inorganic-organic fertilizer treatments significantly decreased tuber yield, suggesting K as a major limiting factor on potato production. Combined application of FYM and NPK gave the highest potato yield (41.28 t/ha). The highest net benefit (birr 23982) and maximum marginal rate of return (1060.8) were also achieved with the combined application of FYM and NPK. This result suggests that combined application of FYM and NPK is suitable for better potato production in the Alisols of Chencha. 
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn Flowers (White and Pink)

Research Article
Author(s): Brindha Durairaj, Arthi Dorai
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Considering the growing interest in assessing the antioxidant capacity of herbal medicine, the present research was aimed to explore antioxidant potentials of NelumbonuciferaGaertn (Nelumbonaceae )flower in-vitro. Hydroethanolic extract of white Nelumbo nucifera (HEWNN) flower and pink Nelumbonucifera (HEPNN) flower were investigated for Total antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate (FTC), Thiobarbituric acid, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, Phosphomolybdenum, Hemoglobin glycosylation, and reducing power methods were estimated in both flowers and compared with standard ascorbic acid in dose dependent manner. In-vitro assays to inhibit free radicals such as 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl radical (DPPH), superoxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also carried out.  Antioxidant capacity measured by FTC and compared with TBA method showed low absorbance values than control which indicated a high level of antioxidant potential. Both HEWNN and HEPNN flower extracts exhibited maximum activity 16.53 mg and 14.21 mg at 1000 µg/ml extract concentration in FRAP method and 62.5 mg and 56.3 mg ascorbic acid equivalents at 500 µg/ml extract concentration in phosphomolybdenum method. There was also significantly high antioxidant activity (55.5% & 41.6%) of haemoglobin followed reducing power (0.351 & 0.248 Abs) at same 500 µg/ml extract concentration. The results obtained suggest that alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in flowers yield considerable antioxidant activity. The maximum scavenging activity of HEWNN and HEPNN against DPPH (67.52% & 55.51%), superoxide radical (81.2% & 64.5%), nitric oxide (70.2% & 57.7%), and hydroxyl radical (60.53% & 46.72%) and H2O2 (54.29% & 48.13%) were evaluated. The IC50 values were compared to the standard ascorbate in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained suggest that on comparison with HEPNN flower, HEWNN flower extract may act as a better chemo preventive agent providing promising antioxidant property and offering effective protection from free radicals.  Our results clearly indicate that both HEWNN and HEPNN flower extracts have potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity in all assays. Nelumbonucifera can be used as a lead compound for drug development in future. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated to compare the antioxidant status of two different varieties of Nelumbonucifera flower extracts. Our results clearly indicate that both HEWNN and HEPNN flower extracts have potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity in all assays.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa

Research Article
Author(s): Maxwell C.C. Musingafi, Shupikai Zebron
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
In this paper we discuss the role, challenges, and benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) in the rural areas development efforts and processes in Africa. Modern ICT is largely about the capability to electronically input, process, store, output, transmit, and receive data and information. The efficient use of ICT, driven by better high-speed internet (broadband) access, is widely recognised as key to raising productivity and stimulating innovation in the global village. During the last decade, largely due to the spread of mobile phone technology in rural areas, ICTs have demonstrated the positive and significant impact they can have on economic development by improving the business environment in rural areas. ICT provides access to market and business information, brings financial services literally to the hands of rural consumers, helps local communities organise and link themselves, and, through the connection with others, exchange know-how and ideas. ICT plays a significant role in promoting entrepreneurship and economic progress in rural areas, contributing to improve the competitiveness of agriculture and forestry, the quality of life and diversification of the rural economy. High-quality Internet provision helps unlock the potential of rural areas, and thus makes them more attractive places to live. ICT helps existing businesses to perform tasks more effectively and efficiently and respond to their demand for rapid access to diverse kinds of information. 
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Production of Cost-Effective Adsorbents from Native Materials

Research Article
Author(s): Bethrand Tabugbo Nwufo, Attah U. Priscila, Emmanuel Usman Onche
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The adsorption of methyl red by activated carbon produced from five native materials: Ram horn, plantain peels, Sugar cane chaff, Car tyre and Ram hair were studied invivo. Methyl orange was significantly adsorbed by all the activated carbons and the rate increased with time until equilibrium was reached after 24 h. The Freundlich’s adsorption parameters were determined to be 1.71 (plantain peel), 1.20 (car tyre), 1.14 (ram hair), 1.02 (sugar cane chaff) and 1.00 (ram horn). In this study, plantain peel has the highest adsorptive capacity while ram horn has the least. The order of adsorptive capacity is plantain peel>car tyre>ram hair>sugar cane chaff>ram horn. The use of these native materials as adsorbents will lead to cost efficiency and reduce operational cost.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that locally available adsorbents are cheaper and can be used as substitutes for industrial adsorbents which are more costly. All the adsorbents investigated showed favourable adsorptive capacities. These non-conventional, low cost adsorbents are readily available as wastes in many Nigerian localities. 
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 04-2014 Issue: 4

Response Surface Methodology (RSM) A Good Optimizer for Transesterification Reaction of Chrysophyllum Albidium Seed Oil To Chrysophyllum Albidium Oil Biodiesel

Research Article
Author(s): T. F. Adepoju
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
In an effort to optimize the reaction conditions of biodiesel production from Chrysophyllum albidium seed oil, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied and the effects of reaction temperature (X1), catalyst amount (X2), reaction time (X3) and methanol/oil molar ratio (X4), and their reciprocal interactions were examined. A total of 30 experimental runs were generated based on Central Composite Design (CCD) and carried out. A quadratic polynomial was obtained for predicting the transesterification process and the ANOVA test showed the model to be significant (p<0.05). The validity of the predicted yield (82.7323 % w/w) was confirmed by carrying out three independent replicates experiments at the following optimized conditions, X1 = 41.63 oC, X2 = 0.59 (wt %), X3 = 62.32 min and X4 = 3.00. The optimal biodiesel yield was validated to be 82. 6702% (w/w), which was well within the range predicted by the model. The fuel properties of Chrysophyllum albidium biodiesel produced were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and DIN EN 14214 biodiesel standards. The fatty acid profile of the biodiesel revealed that the dominant fatty acids were oleic (60.101%), arachidic (2.0145%), palmitic (18.403%) and linoleic (18.942%).
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to knowledge. This study uses new estimation methodology for conversion of seed oil to biodiesel. This study originates new formula to improve the yield of biodiesel. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of biomass waste to produced biodiesel. The paper contributes the first logical analysis in optimization of transesterification process. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that a renewable energy can be obtained from biomass waste. This study documents economic impact of using biomass waste to produce biodiesel.
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 04-2014 Issue: 4

Effect of Various Irrigation Regimes and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Soybean (Glycin Max)

Research Article
Author(s): Ali Arezoomand Chafi, Ebrahim Amiri , Ali Abdzad Gohari
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the Effects of water infiltration to soil in yield and water use efficiency in soybean (Glycin max) in Langeroud, North of Iran. The study was done on a split plot in a complete random block plan with 3 replications in the 2011 crop year. In this pilot study, a randomized complete block design with a split plot design and 3 replications was carried out in the field. Each plot had a dimension of 2×5 meters and 7 rows respectively. The main factor management without irrigation (rainfed) and irrigated with a period of 6, 12 and 18 days, and nitrogen fertilizer treatments consisted of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 were considered as sub plots. Different levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and interaction between them, pods significant at the 5% level were reported. 12 days to a yield maximum of Irrigation Management 5125.6 kg per hectare, respectively. The lowest seed yield without fertilizer at 3888.1 kg/ha was but with increasing fertilizer significantly increased seed yield. The level of 90 kg.N/ha, the maximum yield of 4228.1 kg per hectare was obtained. The highest pod yield of 12 day irrigation management with the 5312.3 kg per hectare was obtained. The highest pod yield was of 90 kg per ha of nitrogen was increased from 90 to 120 kg of nitrogen reduced pod yield from 5438.3 to 4804 kg/ha.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Anti-Corruption Crusade in Nigeria: More Words Than Deeds

Research Article
Author(s): Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine, Joseph Chukwuneke Okoye
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
It is generally agreed that corruption is an evil wind that affect everyone and retard societal progress. While there are several theories that explain its prevalence in society, the point to emphasize is that it has become a way of life in Nigeria. This explains why it has been difficult to combat its rising profile. Within the framework of nature of society, neo-patrimonialism, prebendalism, economy of affection, and political god-fatherism theories, an eclectic approach. The paper examines the structural basis of corruption in the country and efforts’ being made by anti-graft agencies to combat the scourge. It is the position of the paper that given the effect of corruption on national development, the fight against corruption is a war that must be won. Therefore, all hands must be on deck to expunge this scourge from the nation’s body polity. The first fundamental step among other measures to redress the prevalence of corruption in the polity is to transform the state from an alien force to an entity that caters for the welfare and well-being of the people. Yet, the need for patriotic and visionary leaders that will show the way out in the fight against this common enemy (corruption) through personal example, irrespective of whose ox is gored cannot be overemphasized.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is a contribution to the existing literature on corruption and the fight of corruption in Nigeria. The study’s contribution to knowledge can also been in the area of interrogation and integrating some of the theories explaining the nature and prevalence of corruption in Nigeria.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Impact of Laser Land Leveling On Water Productivity of Wheat under Deficit Irrigation Condations

Research Article
Author(s): Abdelraouf R. Eid, Mehana H. Mohamed, Sabreen Kh. Pipars, Bakry A. Bakry
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Nowadays determining the optimum crop water requirements is considered one of the most important factors affecting plant productions, especially, with scarce water resources. This may be due to the interrelation between the amount of water added and the ability of plant. Two field experiments were carried out during the two growing seasons 2010/2011–2011/2012, at the Research Farm of the National Research Centre in Nubarya region, Egypt, to study the effect of both deficit irrigation and laser land leveling on saving water and increasing yield of wheat crop under Egyptian growing conditions. Studied factors were deficit irrigation (100% Irrigation Requirements "IR", 80%IR, 60%IR and 40%IR) and land leveling techniques (conventional "C" and laser "L"). The following parameters were studied to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation and laser land leveling; (1) Soil moisture distribution, (2) Growth of wheat plant, (3) Yield of wheat , (4) Irrigation water use efficiency of wheat and (5) Economical parameters of wheat production process. Statistical analysis of the effect of the interaction between land leveling and irrigation on IWUE of wheat indicated that the maximum values were detected at adding 100%IR*L. However, no significant difference was observed between 100%IR*L >80%IR*L >and 60% IR*L, this means that we can save 40% of irrigation water by adding 60% IR with laser land leveling technique to irrigate wheat under sandy soil conditions.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to improve water use efficiency of wheat under deficit irrigation conditions and rotational irrigation system by using laser land leveling techniques.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

An Analysis of Corporate Governance in the Banking Sector of Zimbabwe

Research Article
Author(s): Clainos Chidoko, Nhamo Mashavira
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The study looks at the effect of corporate governance issues in the banking sector of Zimbabwe. This study consisted of 25 respondents, from compliance departments of selected banks. From the findings it can be concluded that corporate governance plays important function in stabilizing the banking sector and well functioning of the commercial banks in Zimbabwe. The study recommends that the corporate governance board should make sure that banks should practise a culture of good corporate governance on regular basis and  deal with those who fail to comply to good corporate governance. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on corporate governance in the banking sector of Zimbabwe. The study dealt directly with the compliance departments of selected banks. The study found out that a culture of good corporate governance is essential for the well functioning of business.  
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Antibody Titers Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Health Care Workers in Khartoum State, Sudan

Research Article
Author(s): Eltayib Hassan Ahmed-Abakur, Amal Obaid, Mohamed Ahmed Abrahim-Holi
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection and its consequences. The best strategy to eradicate HBV infection is a universal vaccination program. This study was a descriptive cross sectional study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of HBV vaccine in term of anti-HBs Ab level among vaccinated health care workers (HCWs) in Bahri Teaching Hospital, Khartoum state, Sudan. Ninety HCWs agreed to participate in this study, HBV antibody level (quantitative antibody) against HBsAg were measured using ELISA technique. The majority of study population 66 (73.33%) were aged (21-30 years), the active age groups (21-30) and (31-40) revealed remarkable reduction of HBsAb titer,  29 (43.93%) and 11 (55%), respectively. A total of 49 (54.4%) participants showed antibody titers above 10 IU/mL, 14 (15.6%) of them revealed strong response with  anti-HBs Ab titers >100 IU/mL while HBsAb titers less than 10 IU/mL was detected in 41(45.6%) participants. A total of 83(92.22%) of the study population had the vaccine dose  at proper interval whereas 7(7.78%) had the vaccine at irregular time. Eighteen18 (27.3%) of the participants who had the vaccine less than 5 years ago and 22 (91.7) of candidates who received the vaccine more than 5years ago did not respond to vaccine. Sixty-six (66; 73.33%) of the entire participants were females and 24 (26.67%) were males, out of which 28(42.2%) and 13(54.2%) of male and female, respectively fail to develop anti-HBsAb titer 10 IU/mL. Conclusion:  this study revealed that other non immunological factors influence the outcome of vaccination; interval after vaccination and chronic disease were found to be significantly correlated (P<0.05) with antibody titers following hepatitis B vaccination.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature regarding the importance of checking the post vaccination status of HCWs as it ensure safety of employee, reduces rate of transmission and functioning as a cost effective exercise at individual as well as national level.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 3

Another Look at the Sarima Modelling of the Number of Dengue Cases in Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Research Article
Author(s): Ette Harrison Etuk, Nathaniel Ojekudo
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Martinez, et al. [1] analysed monthly numbers of dengue cases as reported in Campinas, southeast Brazil from 1998 to 2008, by SARIMA methods. Assuming X is the original series, they analysed the logarithm of X + 1. The models they proposed and compared are of orders (2,1,2)x(1,1,1)12, (2,1,1)x(1,1,1)12, (1,1,2)x(1,1,1)12, (1,1,1)x(1,1,1)12, (2,1,3)x(1,1,1)12, and (1,1,3)x(1,1,1)12. Using the R software, they chose the SARIMA(2,1,2)x(1,1,1)12 model as the best on the basis of Akaike information criterion, AIC. The result in this work is different: the SARIMA(2,1,1)x(1,1,1)12 model is herein adjudged as the best on the same minimum AIC grounds. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is that monthly recorded dengue numbers in Campinas, South east Brazil, follow a SARIMA (2, 1, 1) x (1, 1, 1)12 model. It was previously believed that a SARIMA (2, 1, 2)x(1, 1, 1)12 model was the better model. The Eviews software was used to do the analysis. Residual analysis of the chosen model shows that it is very adequate.  
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

Research Article
Author(s): Tadele Shiberu, Habtamu Ashagere, Mulugeta Negeri
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Seven different plant extracts as botanical insecticides were evaluated for their toxicity against termites in Ethiopia. Aqueous extracts of tobacco leaves (Nicotianatabacum), Birbira seeds (Militia ferruginea) and Endod leaves (Phytolaccadodecandra) were achieved 100% mortality after 24 hours which as did positive control (chloropyrifos 48% E.C). Also Pyrethrum E-185 flowers (Chrysanthemum sp.) caused an average of 91.25% mortality in both workers and soldiers termites with no significant difference between them. Neem seeds (Azadirachtaindica), Kosso seeds (Hageniaabyssinica) and Bisana seeds (Croton macrostachys) were less active than the other botanicals but significantly better than the negative control. Bisana seeds (Croton macrostachys) was less toxic effect among all treatments even after 5 days. All treatments were more effective against workers termites than against soldiers termites. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that to identify the promising research output under laboratory condition. Then develop a termite Management Strategic Plan (PMSP) to address the issues of greatest concern for farmers in Western Shawa of Ethiopia. The input gathered at this study provided an important perspective on the pest management products and techniques used in laboratory as well as on the field.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority

Research Article
Author(s): Kamalludin Bilal, Hishammudin Mohd Ali, Ibrahim Sipan, Nurlaila Ali, Norwahidah Abas
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Green infrastructure planning has grown in prominence since it was first discussed in the late 1990’s.  Since the President’s Council on Sustainable Development discussed the concept researchers and academics from across the globe, though predominantly the UK, Western Europe and North America, have won the process.  Green infrastructure is an important trust in National Landscape Policy (NLP).  Malaysia is moving towards to a developed nation by the year 2020.  An environmental requirement should be take into accounts to emphasize to ensure the planned development.  The government to intensify efforts to raise awareness and participation in issues of global warming carries out efforts extensively, green technology is the discourse is often featured.  The preservation of green spaces in urban areas can function as recreational and social interaction areas in engaging the citizens who peaceful, harmonious, unified, and healthy.  However, the approach to Green Infrastructure in Malaysia is still at an early stage, but these efforts have actually started to walk among scholars and researchers to disentangle the appropriate method with the situation in Malaysia.  The purpose of this paper is to discuss a conceptual framework in order to bring the context of facility management.  This is also the way to get the performance evaluation for green infrastructure criteria for local authorities in Malaysia. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes an evaluation criteria and act as the fist logical analysis to produce green infrastructure framework.  At the end of this research, it will produce an evidence base to help tackle the priority issues in the construction industry in Malaysia.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 3

Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria

Research Article
Author(s): Bachir Bey Mostapha, Louaileche Hayette, Mouhoubi Zina
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The harmful effects of the free radicals on human organism could be inhibited by antioxidants of fruits and vegetables such as tomato. In the present work, the antioxidant contents as well as the antioxidant activity of eight tomato varieties grown in Algeria are evaluated. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents are assessed using spectrophotometric methods.The phenolic compounds extracted using solvents with different polarities (methanol, 50% methanol, ethanol, and 50% ethanol) have been determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activities have been evaluated using the DPPH scavenging activity and the reducing power assays. Ascorbic acid content ranged between 7 and 16.7mg/100g while carotenoid concentration varied from 5.7 to 9.57mg/100g. The phenolic content varies according to the variety and the extraction solvent; pure alcohols (ethanol and methanol) allow better extraction than the diluted ones (50% ethanol and 50% methanol). Linear correlations are noted between the antioxidant activity and phenolic, carotenoid and lycopene contents. The results indicate that the samples present variations in their antioxidant substance amounts and antioxidant activity; this could be attributed to the varietal factor. The hybridisation between Joker and Marmande varieties, which present the highest phenolic and carotenoid amounts, respectively, could give another variety with a high antioxidant activity. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time the phytochemical content (ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, lycopene and total phenolics) and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power) of some tomato varieties grown in Algeria.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature

Research Article
Author(s): Emeh, Ikechukwu Eke-Jeffry
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
The ability of any country to consistently improve her economic growth and development depends on good governance embedded in well-structured and diligently implemented public policies developed by officials within institutions of government to address public issues through the political process, called legislation. These officials, in Nigeria are the legislators, who are faced with the situation of jointly identifying a desirable future condition, creating policies and taking actions to move towards the desired future state; monitoring progress to allow for necessary adjustments; adjustments that will lead to that desired future state. That desired future state is the whole essence of governance. But in Nigeria today, especially since the upsurge of perennial and escalating unemployment, the lawmaking body of the nation cannot be said to have jointly identified the Nigerian problems, enacted policies that will ensure good governance in the country. Finding the reason for such inadequacies and the way forward is the thrust of this paper, as it x-rays the role of the Nigerian legislature in enacting social security policies for the unemployed and aged Nigerians for attainment of good governance where poverty, hunger, destitution and unemployment are eradicated.
Contribution/ Originality
While social security has overtime been relegated to the background by the Nigerian government, Nigerians have learnt to fend for themselves to avert the usual heartbreak that occasions expectations from the government. What is more is the fact that unemployment and Nigerian youths/graduates are intertwined as there is  no mentioning of either of them without recourse to the other. Clearly, the government has lost touch with the reality on how to solve this social problem.  This paper therefore calls for social security as a panacea to the social and economic insecurities that have bedeviled Nigeria, as asserted by Prof. Ben Nwabuze in 1989 that the abandonment of social security is the reason for any threat that Nigeria is facing when iterating that the wantonness with which state security is pursued in place of social security is the real cause of social insecurity necessitated by economic insecurity.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9