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Listing 59 - 20 of 2018 results.

Female Employment and Fertility Decisions; Is there an Implication for Household Consumption in South-West Nigeria?

Research Article
Author(s): ADEBIYI Oyeyemi Omodadepo, OLOMOLA Philip Akanni
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study examined the impact of female employment and fertility decisions on household consumption in a working life cycle of South-West Nigeria. Survey method was used to collect data and multistage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 600 households in South-West Nigeria. 514 questionnaires were analysed after removing the incomplete. Linear Structural Relations Models was use to analyse the data. The result showed that household consumption is caused by fertility decision, female employment, income and female education. Fertility decisions had a positive and statistically significant relationship with household consumption while female employment has a negative but significant relationship with household consumption. The study concluded that the presence of children in households increases consumption in a working life cycle.
Contribution/ Originality


Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico

Research Article
Author(s): J.C. Garcia-Lopez, G. Alvarez-Fuentes, J.M. Pinos-Rodriguez, Y. Jasso-Pineda, E. Zapata-Perez, H.A. Lee-Rangel, S. Lopez-Aguire, M.A. Camacho-Escobar
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
The effect of Chrysactinia mexicana Gray extract on poultry challenged with Salmonella typhimurium, was evaluated: 1) The aim of the survey was to understand the status quo of backyard poultry production in a rural area, 2). A field study with forty Plymouth Rock Barred Laying hens were used to test the effects of C. mexicana, and 3) 160 day old Plymouth Rock Barred pullets, were assigned to: T1 control; T2 control + S. typhimurium challenge; T3 control + S. typhimurium  + C. mexicana; and T4 control + S. typhimurium + antibiotic. Crop, gizzard, proventriculus and duodenum colony forming units (CFU) were measured, and leukocyte and erythrocyte counts. In addition, weight gain and feed intake was measured. The liver, bursa, thymus and spleen were weighed. Results show that 75% of farmers in the community have hens. The main diseases in their fowl: respiratory 45%; diarrhea 35% and parasites 20%. 90% of farmers have no access to veterinary services. Results from the field study show differences (P<0.05) between the treated group with C. mexicana and the control group with no treatment. Feed intake, total weight gain and final body weight was higher (P<0.05) for control group among the other treatments. Treatment challenged plus antibiotic showed lower CFU counts than treatment with S. typhimurium and C. mexicana. Thymus, bursa and spleen weights were similar (P>0.05) for the C. mexicana and antibiotic treatments. Leukocyte and erythrocyte counts were lower (P<0.05) in control group. C. mexicana extract could be a tool to diminish bacteria in hens.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of Larrea tridentata extract on poultry performance challenged with Salmonella  typhimurium 

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

Lifetime Cancer Risk of Gamma Radioactivity Results from Smoking

Research Article
Author(s): Hany A. Shousha, Fawzia Ahmad
Journal: Cancers Review

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Abstract
Smoking is one of the causes of heart attack, lung cancer and cancers of mouth and larynx. The latter could be arises from exposure of those sensitive organs to a combination of both chemical carcinogenic and radiological exposure results from naturally occurring radionuclides in tobacco leaves. Coal is also used in smoking some types of tobacco products that could be carcinogenic due to presence of a high percentage of an organic matter with inorganic matter such as minerals and trace elements. Varieties of commonly available tobacco products as well as coal samples were examined for their radioactivity content using gamma ray spectroscopy and calculate associated radiological hazards. Results shows that the average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in tobacco samples vary from 2.6±0.2 to 8.9±0.7 (average 5.4), 1.9±0.1 to 9.5±0.8 (average 4.5), and 517.4±15.5 to 2401.2±72 (average 1360.4) Bqkg-1. Measured activity concentration for coal samples ranged from 10.8±1.1 to 64.4±2.1 (average 40.2), 3.5±0.1 to 28.3±0.3 (average 15.7), and 49.2±0.4 to 301.2±9.5 (average 215) Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K respectively. 137Cs activity concentrations in cigarettes and coal samples were ranged from 0.1±0.01 to 1.3±0.02 (average 0.5) and 2±0.01 to 5.8±0.8 (average 3.1) Bqkg-1 respectively. Radium equivalent, total annual effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were calculated. ELCR was higher than world's average of 1.45x10-3 for tobacco and coal samples. In Egypt no special and clear regulations for monitoring radioactivity content in imported coal and tobacco leafs or its products, which appear to be necessary.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Cancers Review » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Biogas Technology in South Africa, Problems, Challenges and Solutions

Research Article
Author(s): Patrick Mukumba, Golden Makaka, Sampson Mamphweli
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
Biogas is a gas that is produced from the biodegradation of organic materials. It consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide. The biogas from anaerobic digestion can be a solution to South Africa’s energy problems. It can be used for electricity generation, cooking and as transport fuel. There are over 200 biogas digesters scattered across South Africa and the use of biogas is not growing fast in the country irrespective of its benefits in reducing energy related problems such as pollution and energy shortage. This paper reviews biogas technology in South Africa and highlights the problems, challenges and solutions to the expansion of the technology. The research was conducted by surveying biogas digesters installed in the country and measuring the biogas potential from selected digesters. The problems and challenges to biogas technology expansion in the country include; lack of research work on biogas technology, low efficiency of biogas as compared to conventional fuels such as diesel and petrol, cheap electricity cost from coal fired thermal power stations, large amounts of hydrogen sulphides in biogas that can cause corrosion to biogas pipes and internal combustion engines. It was highlighted that biogas digesters to be installed in the country should be sized in accordance with the availability of substrate.  In addition, the calorific value of the biogas should be improved so that it can be used to fuel internal combustion engines and generator sets. It was also revealed that community based education on biogas production and its usage need to be initiated so as to reduce biogas digester failures. This would improve biogas technology expansion in the country.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Net-Zero Energy Building – Case Study Al Khobar City, Saudi Arabia

Research Article
Author(s): Nader. A. Nader, Rami S. Alsayed
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
The main goal of the proposed project is to demonstrate that considerable energy conservation can be done in residential building area in the KSA, considering the living conditions of house users. For this purpose, several houses will be tested using sizable Building Integrated PV (BIPV) system.  In addition, the energy needs per year for each household will be covered in this study. Moreover, the proposed BIPV system will supply sufficient amount of electrical energy to allow free daily commute for homeowner (max. 60 km a day) with use of the electric car. The results indicate that the use of an insulation layer (BioPCM material) in building structure will decrease significantly the cooling capacity by 20%. The addition of solar hybrid air conditioner system improved the EER by 5.41% and the COP by 12.24 %. Finally, the installation plan for the PV panels in each residential household is in agreement with the official KSA government policy.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the net zero energy building at Alkhobar area.  The paper primary contribution is finding the proper energy saving system, hybrid plus PCM.  Furthermore, this study documents all the work that has been done previously by same researcher (Nader, 2015;2016).     

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Optimal Sizing of Hybrid Systems and Economical Comparison

Research Article
Author(s): Arash Navaeefard, Omid Babaee, Hamid Radmanesh
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
Aim of study finding the best configuration among a set of system components. Power fluctuations and load disturbances in hybrid systems cause power inequality and system stability problems. Using hybrid energy storage systems is an effective solution in order to overcome unbalancing between power generating and load demands. In this paper, a methodology to perform the optimal sizing for Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in three hybrid systems is developed, and reliability index is considered as a constraint.  The optimum system configuration can meet the customer’s required Equivalent Loss Factor (ELF=0) with the minimum cost, and comparison cost between them.  In these configurations, power generators are photovoltaic (PV)/wind turbine and three combination of battery bank and hydrogen tank is used as an energy storage system. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been used to optimize the cost function, and has been simulated in MATLAB for justification purpose.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Effect of Environmental Pollution on Production and Metabolic Profile in Buffalo Cows

Research Article
Author(s): Fiorella Sarubbi, Raffaele Palomba, Assunta Arrichiello, Giuseppe Auriemma
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of environmental impact caused by dioxin on milk production and metabolic profile in the buffalo cows. The authors analyzed some representative blood parameters related to their different metabolisms, the amount of zinc in blood samples, and milk production parameters, on 160 buffalo cows raised in four farms located in areas with a different environmental impact. Urea, glucose, creatinine, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and zinc contents were determined on serum samples. Milk samples from each buffalo were collected. Daily milk yield and milk composition were significantly different among farms. No difference in milk protein content was found. Urea content, was higher. Glucose concentrations were significantly lower than in farms located in an area contaminated by dioxin. Creatinine values were normal. AST and ALT values were slightly higher than normal.  So far, there are not studies on the effect of dioxin on production and metabolic profile in buffalo cows. This study indicates that buffalo breeding herds exposed to dioxins would induce damage in the hepatic parenchyma cells as a result of animal welfare. Accordingly, the effects of environmental pollutants may expose the animals to several infections and diseases, which could affect not only the production traits, but also the qualitative features of their products devoted to human consumption.
Contribution/ Originality
Considering the increasing economic relevance of the Buffalo and considering the insufficiency information in the literature on the influence of micro pollutants on the buffalo, this work has focused the attention on the influence the environmental impact on buffalo health and on their production. It is important to remember that the animal is closely linked to the area, monitoring animal’s means monitoring the breeding environment.

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

Evaluation of Chemical-Nutritional Characteristics of Rainbow Trout Samples Affected by the

Research Article
Author(s): Sonia Marchetti, Flavia Buccella, Federica Castellani, Giovanni Zitti, Giuseppe Martino, Lisa Grotta
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Enteric Redmouth (ERM) disease is a serious systemic infection due to a gram-negative bacterium (Yersinia Ruckeri) which causes significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture all over the world. This disease is called “Red-mouth” for the reddening of the mouth. Other clinical manifestations of this disease are: exophthalmia, ascites and haemorrhage with ulceration of palate, gill and operculum resulting in anorexia. Although this disease has been reported in other fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are particularly susceptible to ERM. Rainbow trout is one of the most popular fish species in nature and in many countries it is also recognized as cultivated/farmed fish species, due to its fast growth and excellent nutritional quality. The target of this research being undertaken is to analyze the chemical-nutritional characteristics and evaluation of the oxidative processes in samples of rainbow trout fish affected by ERM compared to the healthy group. The results of analysis show significant differences concerning the contents of some qualitative and chemical-nutritional parameters in fish-meat samples belonging to animals that have recovered from the “red-mouth” disease and healthy ones. Despite this, the unhealthy rainbow trouts are good source of nutrition, similar than healthy trouts.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies evaluating nutritional characteristics of rainbow trout samples affected by the "Red-Mouth Disease" compared to healthy trout samples

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

The Effect of the Reduced Dose of GnRH on Conception, Ovulation and Ovarian Structures in Ovsynch Program of Lactating Dairy Cows

Research Article
Author(s): Fikret Karaca, Gokhan Dogruer, Mustafa Kemal Saribay, Yasar Ergun, Cafer Tayyar Ates
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of reducing GnRH dose on the formation of ovulation and conception, and sizes of the ovarian structures following an Ovsynch program in lactating cows. The cows were allocated randomly to two treatment groups (full dose; FD, n=20 and half dose; HD, n=20). Cows in the FD group were treated with 10.5 µg buserelin acetate on day 0, with 0.150 mg D- cloprostenol 7 d later and with 10.5 µg buserelin acetate 2 d later. Estrous cycles in HD group were synchronized using the same scheme as FD-treated cows, but the dose of buserelin acetate was reduced to 5.25 µg at both GnRH administration times. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasound with a 6-8 MHz linear trans-rectal probe on days 0, 7, 9, 10, and 11. Cows were inseminated at the 16-20 h after second GnRH administration. No significant differences were observed in the dominant or ovulatory follicle diameters in FD and HD groups. Ovulation incidence from second GnRH injection by the 24 hour after fixed-time AI did not differ between FD (85 %) and HD (90 %) groups. Also, the conception percentages did not differ statistically between the HD (50%) and FD (40 %) groups.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of reducing doses of buserelin acetate on the follicular development, ovulation and conception rates in the Ovsynch program of dairy cows.

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Technical-Economic Efficiencies of Snakehead Seed Production Under Impacts of Climate Change in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Research Article
Author(s): Nguyen Thi Kim Quyen, Truong Hoang Minh, Tran Ngoc Hai, Tran Thi Thanh Hien, Tran Dac Dinh
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
This study was carried out from February to December 2014 by interviewing 75 farmers who operate snakehead seed production in An Giang, Dong Thap and Hau Giang provinces, Vietnam. The results showed that the total area for production was 629.01±756.77 m2, whereas the volume for nursing was 582.10±119.81 m3 for pond system and 1,019.56±736.66 m3 for combining pond – hapa system). Each hatchery used 44.26±22.63 pairs of broodstock/breeding cycle and produced whole year. The quantity of seed per cycle of pond system was a half of that figure of other system while seed productivity per m3 was much lower. Snakehead seed was mainly sold to seed traders in the Delta (82.3%). With average production cost of 47.81±16.23 thousand Vietnam dong (VND)/m3, each farm in pond system could reach the total net profit of 49.83±18.74 thousand VND/m3, equivalent to 328 million VND/year. These corresponding numbers of pond – hapa system were 106.98±86.25; 196.12±87.45 thousand VND/m3, equal to 1.75 billion VND/year. Factors of climate change affecting snakehead seed production involved rainfall change, droughts, water and air temperature increase, salinity intrusion which caused  diseases easier (36%), affected seed production in general (31%), bad water quality (10%), .... To reduce the impacts of climate change to production, the farmer in snakehead seed production often changed selling market, suspended production of seeds, used better brookstocks by choosing them more carefully and a number of other measures.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the impact of climate change on snakehead seed production. The paper's primary contribution is finding that which and how climate phenomenon has effected on seed production as well as suggesting some adaptive methods for them.

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Social Aspects, Genetic Resources and Conservation of Companion Animal Cats (Felis Catus)

Research Article
Author(s): Orhan Yilmaz, Yakup Erdal Erturk, Fusun Coskun, R. Trevor Wilson
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Located at the boundaries of Europe and Asia, Turkey is home to an extraordinary variety of domestic animal species and breeds that include bees, camels, cats, cattle, dogs, domestic fowl, donkeys, ducks, goats, geese, horses, mules, pigs, rabbits, sheep, silkworms, water buffalo and several species of domestic birds (partridge, pheasant, pigeon and ostrich). In addition to the clearly distinct Angora and Van cat breeds a short-haired nondescript cat breed is found throughout Turkey. As well as private household ownership, Angora cats have been raised at Ankara Zoo which has belonged to the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock since 1939. The Van cat is raised at the Van Cat Research Centre at Yuzuncu Yil University in Van Province which also has a small clinic for the cats. There is a risk of extinction for the Angora and Van breeds but none for the short-haired nondescript type.  This paper reviews social aspects, the genetic resources and conservation status of the native cat breeds of Turkey.
Contribution/ Originality
The domestic cat is important in the social and cultural environments of Turkey and has been kept as a companion/pet animal for many hundreds of years.  Two local cat breeds are valuable additions to the biodiversity of domestic animals.  This paper provides the first overview of the cat in Turkey.

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil

Research Article
Author(s): Orhevba, B.A, Adebayo, S. E, Salihu, A.O
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The objective of this study is extraction and characterization of oil from tropical almond seed, trans-esterification and characterization of tropical almond seed oil biodiesel. All experiments were replicated and average results were evaluated. The moisture content of the seed was 2.04 %; the oil was extracted using solvent method and the percentage of oil yield was 50.33 %. The physicochemical properties of the oil obtained during the experiment were; density (0.90 g/cm3), specific gravity (0.89), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (14.1 mPa.s), cloud point (16.0 oC), pour point (11.5 oC), smoke point (173.0 oC), flash point (208.0 oC), fire point (271.0 oC), saponification value (199.19 mgKOH/g), acid value (3.37mgKOH/g), FFA (1.68 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (5.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (98.0 gI2/100g). The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel using oil to alcohol ratio of 4:1 and KOH as catalyst. The percentage of biodiesel yield was 75.0 % averagely. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel obtained during the experiment were; density (0.96g/cm3), specific gravity (0.90), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (5.20 mPa.s), kinematic viscosity at 100 oC (4.30 mPa.s) cloud point (7.0 oC), pour point (6.0 oC), smoke point (161.0 oC), flash point (186.0 oC), fire point (216.0 oC), saponification value (182.4 mgKOH/g), acid value (0.84 mgKOH/g), FFA (0.42 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (8.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (109.0 gI2/100g, the calculated cetane number was 51.70. The result obtained for the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel were compared with the ASTM standard and it was concluded that tropical almond seed oil is a good feedstock for biodiesel production since the result is within ASTM specification standard.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated new sources or avenue of novel underutilized sources. Biodiesel production from tropical almond seed oil will be a reasonable alternative to petroleum diesel since the available petroleum based fuels are exhaustive. Biodiesel will be of great advantage as this will reduce the adverse effect caused by the petroleum diesel, which include global warming, air pollution and emission of sulphuric compound. This study will also ensure there is good utilization of tropical almond seed.

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Village Chicken Production and Marketing in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Habtemariam Assefa, Aklilu Bogale, Berhanu Gebremedhin, Zeleke Mekuriaw, Teshome Derso, Yigzaw Dessalegn, Azage Tegegne, Dirk Hoekstra
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Chicken production in West Gojjam zone was characterized by using indigenous chicken with low input-output level. Despite its diverse socio economic role for smallholder farmers, production and productivity of village chicken was very low. As the result, chicken producers were not benefited from the sector. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of characterizing chicken rearing practice, flock dynamics and determining the off-take rate of village chicken production system. It was conducted in West Gojjam Zone of Ethiopia. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select representative respondents. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed. In the study area, the average numbers of local and exotic chickens kept by smallholder producers were 8.44+0.42 and 0.49+0.10chicken, respectively with the overall mean 8.93+0.42chicken. The flock structure was highly dominated by young chicks (3.82+0.28) and hen (2.47+0.09). The average chicken migrated into the flock per household per annum was 10.32+ 0.80 birds, whereas the outflow from the flock was 16.62+0.85birds. The number of chicken was higher at the middle of the year than the beginning and end of the year. On average, 2.9+0.12 layer chickens were kept per household. From which, in average 307.2+ 20.2 eggs were produced from local and improved breed in a year. Marketing in the district and PA were important marketing places for egg and live birds with the off-take rate of 34.94%. To improve chicken production in the study area, adaptive improved chicken breed should be introduced. Strategic vaccination, semi scavenging practices should be introduced and promoted in order to reduce chicken mortality. Capacity building through training and intensive follow up should also be made in order to enhance the level of awareness of smallholders on improved small scale poultry keeping practices.
Contribution/ Originality
This research contributes a lot in filling village chicken production knowledge gap in West Gojjam Zone. It reveals that how village chickens are reared, the nature of flock dynamics, chicken mortality rate and its cause, how to calculate off-take rate in chicken production, egg production and its purpose. Finally, it also gives insight the marketing place of live chicken and egg.   

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Technical Efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Ebonyi South Agricultural Zone, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Ugwu J.N, Mbah G.O, Chidiebere-Mark, N., Tim-Ashama A, Ohajianya D.O, Okwara M.O
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Technical efficiency of resource use is imperative for increased rice production in Nigeria. The study attempted to determine the technical efficiency of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi south  agricultural zone, Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study analyzed the socio-economic characteristics of the swamp rice farmers, determined the technical efficiency of the swamp rice farmers as well as the distribution of technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in the study area. Purposive and random sampling technique were used to select sixty respondents for the study. Structured questionnaire was the instrument of data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and stochastic production frontier. Results showed that the swamp rice farmers were in their active age (47years), predominantly male (70%), had average education (8 years spent in school) and married (86.7%). The maximum likelihood estimates showed that the variables of farm size, seed and labour were determinants of technical efficiency. The mean level of technical efficiency was 75.9% suggesting that an estimated 24.1% of the output is lost due to technical inefficiency in swamp rice production.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on technical efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Nigeria. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the mean level of technical efficiency was 75.9% suggesting that an estimated 24.1% of the output is lost due to technical inefficiency in swamp rice production.

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Culture with Reduction Feed on Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage in Cirata Reservoir

Research Article
Author(s): Rita Rostika, Achmad Rizal, Dewanti .
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
One of the consequences of intensive floating net cage fish farming is that it needs large amounts of manufactured feeds for the consumption of all the primary freshwater species reared. However, in trophic-level-based fish cultures, the population of fish that feed on plankton, periphyton, and detritus is larger than that of high-trophic-level carnivorous fish. This research aims to discover the ability of barb (Osteochilus hasselti) as a water purifier biological agent in Cirata Reservoir by find the Average daily Gains of the fish, Efficiency and Cost Reduction in production. The experiment ranges from September to November 2014 at Cirata Reservoir’s Floating Net Cage, starting by acknowledging the genus and the number of periphyton from week 1 to week 6. To analyze Growth Rate (GR),  a Complete Randomized Design is used by applying five treatments, namely Treatment A: not fed (control), Treatment B: feeding level 1% of the fish’s weight, Treatment C: feeding level 2%, Treatment D: feeding level 3%, and Treatment E: feeding level 4%. The data are then collected in Variant Analysis; if a significant difference is found, it is proceeded to F Duncan Test. The economic parameter are Efficiency and Cost Reduction in production. The results show that there are 20 kinds of periphyton from phytoplankton genus. Twenty types of periphyton of the phytoplankton were of Bacilloriophyceae, Chlorophyceae, and Cyanophiceae classes. As for periphyton of the zooplankton genera, it consisted of Euglenoidea, Rhizopoda, and Rotifer classes. The number of periphyton is not different among the treatments, the GR is not significantly different for every treatment. We found that increased efficiency in the treatment of A (not feed) and decreased production costs as 3 %.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that there are Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage which Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Cultured With Reduction Feed in Cirata Reservoir. 

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Popularity and Customer Preferences for Herbal Medicines in Nigeria: A Questionnaire Based Survey

Research Article
Author(s): Okoh Judith, Okafor Ijeoma, Kokonne Ekere, Ajeh Isaac, Isimi Christianah, Olayemi Olubunmi, Emeje Martins
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study was designed to ascertain the availability, affordability, and consumption of medicinal plants in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The age group of individuals interviewed was between 10 - 59 years. Results show that, herbal medicine awareness and usage was 97 % and 82 % respectively. Most respondents (97 %) admitted to having knowledge of medicinal herbs and their sources of information included family members (58 %), friends (21 %), Herbalist (9 %), and Pharmacy (3 %). Majority (54 %) of the participants took these medicinal herbs in liquid form. On sources of procurement, 17 percent of participants prepared these medicinal plants themselves, 19 % from pharmacies and 17 % from herbalists. Twenty three percent engaged in self-medication, while 21 % obtained their preparations from herbalists. Sixty-five percent said the products are safe and effective, while sixty-nine percent had no side effects while using the products. On affordability, 15 - 52 % admitted that herbal medicines are very affordable, while 20 % agreed that they are expensive. Over half of respondents' preferred locally manufactured herbal medicines. Analysis of sources of foreign medicinal goods shows that most (75 %) were from USA. About 78 % of the participants do not take these medicinal herbs with conventional drugs, alcohol (72 %) or cigarette (80 %). Overall, 69 % of our respondents have benefitted from the consumption of medicinal remedies. It is concluded that, the awareness, perception and access to medicinal herbs in Nigeria is increasing which is likely due to dearth of public health facilities. This calls for health administrators to design appropriate programs to implement and ensure the effective monitoring of circulating herbal products.
Contribution/ Originality
This survey is one of a very few to investigate the knowledge, perception and use of herbs in a civilized society. Our results provide the first scientific information in Nigeria in this respect and may inform policy decisions towards improving public health

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Problems of International Committed Partnership Cooperation: A Successful Case of Reconstruction Surgery in Japan for Laotian Child with Severe Facial Anomaly

Research Article
Author(s): Masaki Fujioka, M.D., Kenji Hayashida, M.D., Hiroto Saijo, M.D., Kiyoko Fukui, M.D., Satoko Ishiyama, M.D.
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Background: Various models of international medical aid have been proposed in many developing countries, including the donation of material, visited by surgical teams, and surgical outreach programs. However, they have limitations in the treatment of patients with severe or rare diseases. Object: We present the successful treatment of a Laotian child with cleft face anomaly, who underwent reconstruction surgery in Japan, and highlight the problems of a committed partnership system. Case presentation: A 2-year-old Laotian girl with severe facial anomaly required revision surgery; however, no physicians in Laos accepted her for treatment. An international medical cooperation volunteer group campaigned to raise funds for her treatment, and our medical center accepted their offer to perform the surgery. Surgery was performed successfully, and the patient went back to Laos 2 weeks after surgery.  Conclusion: When international "Committed Partnership" cooperation is required, several challenges can arise, including expenditure, choice of the medical centre, period of stay, lack of information, special design of surgery, different lifestyle and manner, and language barrier. Although many challenges confronted, we believe that partnerships between surgical centers in developed countries and medical volunteer groups in developing countries can succeed with their efforts and noble spirit.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is explaining the specific difficulty of international medical aid, and showing the way to improve variable problems of international health cooperation in this Committed Partnership system.

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Spatial Variability in the Distribution of Migrants and Indigenous Labour Force among Oil Companies in Ogba/Ndoni/Egbema Local Government Area of Rivers State

Research Article
Author(s): Okpiliya, F. I., Osah C., Okwakpam, Ikechi, Ekong A
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Labour migration is generally seen as a cross-border movement of people for the purpose of employment in another geographical area. It is a decision by individuals that impacts on the welfare of the household, the home community, and in the end the whole economy in various ways. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variability in the distribution of labour migrants among oil companies in Ogba/Ndoni/Egbema Local Government Area of River State. There are a total of nine oil companies operating in the study area, out of which six were selected for study because of their accessibility to information. The locations of the oil companies are Obrikom (Agip), Obagi (Ponticelli Nig. Ltd), Ogbogu (Saipem), Idu (Agip), Obite (Total) and Omoku (Agip). Six hundred copies of questionnaire were distributed to the oil companies with each having one hundred copies. The content of the questionnaire bothers on demographic characteristics of the respondents, place of origin of migrants, employment structure and the distribution of migrants among the six oil companies. The study adopted both descriptive and inferential statistics for data analysis. Descriptive statistical method such as tables, charts, standard deviation, means frequencies and percentages were used whereas the inferential statistical tool i.e. the independent ‘t’ test was used to test for the variability in labour migration and the differences in population of indigenes and labour migrants in the oil companies. The result of the study generally indicated that 332 (68%) of the migrants come from Imo, Delta and Akwa Ibom State; 42% of the workforce in the oil companies are semi-skilled; 1415 of the total number of labour force of 2358 are migrants while 943 are indigenes. The result of the test statistics analysis indicated that the number of labour migrants in the study area was highly variable with the mean of 236 and the computed variance of 284.83. The standard deviation was 11.44. The result of the hypothesis, showed that the calculated value of 2.0 was greater than the table value of 1.96, which led to the rejection of the null hypothesis meaning that there is a significant difference between the number of indigenes and migrant workforce in the oil companies in Onelga. This study finally recommended for more employment of indigenes than migrants so as to avert certain conflicts by the indigenes arising from marginalization.
Contribution/ Originality


Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Local Content Agenda: The Role of Institution Theory on Policy and Practical Challenges in Local Procurement Practice by Mining Entities in Tanzania

Research Article
Author(s): Baraka Kambi, Michael Kambi
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Local content is a famous agenda that sweeps across Africa. In Tanzania it is one of the new agenda that needs attention. This paper answer the question which asks, what are the challenges of local content in local procurement especially in major mining entities in Tanzania? The paper has deployed Institutional theory in addressing the research question. The paper has tried to explain what has transpired in Tanzania over local content agenda and the recommendations on how to deal with the challenges.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the local content agenda based on the challenges of procurement practices in the mining sector in Africa particularly in Tanzania. It has pinpointed the challenges that the local nationals are facing in the mining sector value chain and institutional and organizational capacities that can be deployed to mitigate the challenges.

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Added Value of Ijarah Tamwilia Service in Jordanian Islamic Bank (Case Study of Contract No: 2012/500)

Research Article
Author(s): Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study is one of very few studies which has investigated case study of added value of Ijarah Tamwilia in Jordanian Islamic Bank. As result to search, Customer did not get added value as result to lose Islamic conditions fairly. Customer lost benefit of managing risk of Ijarah Tamwilia up to Islamic rules and face costs more than expect. There is gap between the Shania Supervisory Board and employee which comes as result to weak control beside there is no obligatory contract come from Shania Supervisory Board to employee. As the gap cause, customer loosing contract benefit it causes to cancel contract accounting data because of losing the contract Islamic rules. Searcher recommended directing employee of Ijarah Tamwilia up to Islamic rules conditions practically which will effect on Ijarah Tamwilia service marketing and accounting because of its financing Islamic rules and Islamic investing rules to give fair added value. Employee has to work with accepted Islamic model.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the gap between Islamic Supervisory Board and practically managing in the bank. It found and discussed Ijarah Tamwilia contract in Jordanian Islamic Bank. There was applying unaccepted contract by Fiqh by manager to achieve bank profit and managing risk.

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1