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Listing 87 - 20 of 1965 results.

In-Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Plantago Lanceolata Against Some Selected Standard Pathogenic Bacterial

Research Article
Author(s): Eshetie Kassaw, Tilahun Yohannes, Endalkachew Bizualem
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The leaves of Plantago lanceolata have been used for centuries to treat diseases. Currently there is an increasing incidence of multiple antibiotic resistances in microorganisms which is a major threat. Widespread overuse of antibiotics is one led to increasing clinical resistance of previously sensitive microorganisms and the emergence of previously uncommon infections. Thus all these calls for an urgent need to search new, effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. The objective of this study was to determine antibacterial potentials of extracts of P. lanceolata against standard pathogens bacteria. Active antibacterial compounds were extracted using three solvents. The antibacterial sensitivity activities of crude extracts were determined using agar well diffusion assay. MIC and MBC of each crude extracts were also determined using broth dilution method. The test showed various degrees of antibacterial activity towards each standard pathogenic microorganism with mean zone of inhibition ranges up to 18±2mm against S. typhi. The plant extract was showed as low 3±1mm to high 18±2mm diameter inhibition zone. Chloroform extract have the least inhibition zone while the ethanol have highest inhibition zone. The extract value of MIC was showed at the ranges of 12.5mg to 50mg while the MBC were showed at the range of 25mg to 50mg. The result of this study showed that leaves of P. lanceolata have considerable antibacterial potential. The claimed efficacy could be attributable to antibacterial activity of its components but its mode of action is unclear.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the antibacterial efficacy potential of P. lanceolata leaves crude extract. Therefore, even though it needs further studies, leaves of P. lanceolata may be considered as a potential option to antibiotic regimens.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3

Research Article
Author(s): Abdul-Kahar Adam
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
This research is an applied research using both quantitative and qualitative techniques instrument developed (questionnaire) and it’s been conducted in a broader spectrum of constructs to give a bigger picture of the Public Administration problems and challenges faced by Ghana which gives an indication as to why Ghana is not achieving Good Governance status. A total of 65 questionnaires were distributed but only 55 respondents where gather from the target group of Ghana National Association of Teachers (GNAT) within the Tamale Metropolis. A scientific tool used to run this analysis is SmartPLS 3. This research measures the relationship of two variables with Partial Least Squares and Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The main purpose of this research is to make contributions to the underpinning Public Administration as the main driver in the discourse of achieving Good Governance for a country. The hypothesis is that Public Administration has positive relationship towards Good Governance of the country. The findings confirmed the hypothesis that Public Administration is significant to Good Governance positively based on both reflective and formative models. In this study many of the Good Governance constructs are positively reflective but the Public Administration constructs which consists of behavioural ethics and institutional performance status had conflicting results in terms of significance and some are very low in the outer loadings. Institutional failures under the Public Administration need to be looked at seriously by all stakeholders and adopt a way forward model. This research drew inspiration from a theory of Matei et al. (2016).
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the importance of public administration towards achieving positive good governance since the study uses new scientific methodology to define relationships and their applicability. It is to inform stakeholders of the missing links for proper development decision-making of the poorer nations in Africa.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience

Research Article
Author(s): Anthony Nzeribe NWAUBANI, Vincent N. EZEABASILI
Journal: Financial Risk and Management Reviews

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Abstract
Nigeria implemented major financial reforms between 2004 and 2005 in which mergers and acquisitions became an imperative option for most of the deposit money banks to meet the new and hiked minimum capital base requirement. This study examined the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on depositors’ confidence in the Nigerian banking sector. An ex-post facto research design was used with secondary data collected for twenty years. The study covered all the deposit money banks in Nigeria within the period 1995-2015 with 2005 as a base year separating pre and post merger periods. Multiple regression and paired student t-test approaches were employed to analyze the data with the aid of SPSS (20) software. The output yielded mixed findings. While M&As as proxied by dummy merger showed mostly positive and insignificant impact on confidence of depositors, they indicated positive significant impact when measured by shareholders’ funds - an alternate proxy. The paired student t-test yielded significant positive impact on depositors’ confidence. Overall, the findings suggest that the mergers and acquisitions have positively and significantly impacted on depositors’ confidence in the Nigerian banking sector. It is recommended inter-alia that banks should endeavor to further enhance their shareholders’ funds while partnering actively with monetary authorities in pursuit of aggressive financial inclusion via innovative product offerings for cheap deposits and financial stability. This will further enhance the depositors’ confidence in the banking system.
Contribution/ Originality
The work is one of the very few studies which have examined the impact of mergers and acquisitions on depositors’ confidence in Nigeria banking sector and also of those whose findings suggest that mergers and acquisitions have positive significant impact on confidence of depositors in the Nigerian banking system.
Economics » Financial Risk and Management Reviews » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Ale, A.S
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Various studies have been carried out on urban dual-carriage ways and its implication on sustainable development in different parts of world. In Nigeria, work on dual carriageway for sustainable development still remained under explored. This study therefore, focused on urban dual carriageway for sustainable development of Ado- Ekiti and to enhance good quality of life of the people. Data for this study were obtained from primary and secondary sources as well as field observation.250 copies of questionnaire were administered in 5 purposively selected areas in Ado-Ekiti with the use of questionnaire. Simple random sampling method was used to choose 30 houses at an interval of 10 houses through balloting .Secondary data were sourced through journal articles and edited books. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistic techniques. Chi-square statistical method were adopted to test the two hypotheses stated (i) effect of dual carriageway on socio-economic activities in the area and (ii) the impact of dual carriageway on travel time and cost of transport in the area at 5% level of significance. It was discovered that dual carriageway has great influence on socio - economic activities, trip generation, travel time, cost of transport among others in Ado- Ekiti
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Economic Contributions and Environmental Effects of Geothermal Energy: Çanakkale-Tuzla Geothermal Example

Research Article
Author(s): Rüştü ILGAR
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Today, energy is important, the value of renewable resource geothermal energy created by the economy is quite high. In addition, there are fewer environmental effects than fossil resources. Turkey has rich geothermal resources due to its location on the Alpine-Himalayan folds. Geothermal resources in Turkey are used in electricity generation, in industrial, agricultural, residential heating and health tourism. The Çanakkale-Tuzla geothermal area, which is one of the geothermal areas in Turkey and located on the Biga Peninsula, is important due to the realization and privatization of electricity production from geothermal power. The research was carried out in order to examine the environmental effects and economic contributions of geothermal energy in Çanakkale-Tuzla. Çanakkale-Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant is Turkey's 776th with 7.50 MWe installed power and Çanakkalen is the 16th largest geothermal power plant. The facility is also Turkey's 30th largest geothermal power plant. Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant has an average of 46,090,778 kilowatt hours of electricity production and can meet all the energy needs of 13,925 people in daily life. Annual electricity production of Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant is increasing continuously from 2012. According to 2015 data, this plant has achieved 1.04% of the provincial production with 48.298.037 production. Similarly, according to 2015 data, Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant has received 0,018% of the total electricity generation in the country.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: inpmonth-0000 Issue: 0

The Relationship between Teachers Beliefs, Teachers Behaviors, and Teachers Professional Development: A Literature Review

Research Article
Author(s): Dos Santos, Luis Miguel
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Foreign language teaching and learning is one of the topics in the field of K-12 education and adult learning. Most of the current research studies tend to focus on the development and training of foreign language learners. However, issues such as teaching strategies, methodologies, classroom management, and personal beliefs of teaching and learning are neglected. As teachers are primary tools to deliver lessons at all different levels, educators and researchers are increasingly concerned about how teachers’ beliefs and personal background may influence classroom management, curriculum and instruction planning and expectations of students. The current study is a literature review of the concept of teachers’ beliefs, followed by a review of studies exploring teachers’ beliefs using different methodologies. The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and teachers’ classroom practices is also discussed, along with factors influencing teachers’ beliefs in teaching professional development courses.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on teachers’ personal beliefs and teaching behaviors. The paper's primary contribution is also to study how teachers’ personal beliefs influence their classroom management, teaching styles, and instructional feature.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

When Virtual Becomes Better than Real: Investigating the Impact of a Networking Simulation on Learning and Motivation

Research Article
Author(s): Nahed F. Abdel-Maksoud
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Virtualization technology has been around for many years, and its use is increasingly becoming common in education, in general and in computing fields, in particular. This can be attributed partly to its potential to reduce costs, boost efficiency and overcome limited resources through its virtual applications such as servers, storage devices and networks. However, the question is: "would that be at the cost of the quality of learning?" Besides, the way virtualized environments impact motivation needs further clarification, since it is a neglected area of research. This quasi-experimental study tried to address such questions through investigating the impact of virtualized networking software (OPNET Network Simulator) on students' learning and motivation. 116 undergraduate students enrolled in a computer networking class at one of the universities in Egypt participated in this study, who were then randomly assigned to an experimental group (N= 59), which used the OPNET Network simulator, and a control group (N= 57) which studied the same content via the traditional physical lab. Two instruments; a networking test, and a Motivation Scale were administered to both study groups prior and post the intervention. Results showed that students of experimental group who used OPNET Networking simulator had significantly higher grades and greater motivation levels than those of the control group.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper's primary contribution is to find out how virtual learning environments can prove more effective than real environment on both learning and motivation. The current study came to this conclusion by employing a quasi-experimental method, while other studies relied mostly on anecdotal or tentative evidence.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Effects of Utilizing the STAD Method (Cooperative Learning Approach) in Enhancing Students' Descriptive Writing Skills

Research Article
Author(s): Subadrah Madhawa Nair, Mogana Sanai
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Students’ ESL writing skills in general are not at a desirable level. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of utilizing the STAD method to enhance descriptive writing skills among students in an international school in Selangor, Malaysia. This study employed an action research design. The sample consisted of 20 Year 6 students aged between 11 and 12 years. The data for the research was obtained using a pre-test and a post-test, focus group interviews with students, teacher’s reflection and an observation checklist. The action-research was carried out over a period of 6 weeks. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and the qualitative data (interviews, teacher’s reflections and observations) was analyzed based on emerging themes. The findings from the quantitative data indicated that the STAD method helped to enhance students’ descriptive writing skills. The analysis of the qualitative data revealed that students enjoyed writing in groups and they stressed that they learned a lot from their friends when they wrote in groups. The teacher’s reflection revealed that the STAD method improved students’ writing skills through collaborative learning as they get the opportunity to edit their group essays. Findings from the observation showed that students were actively engaged in the process of writing during group work and their social skills improved too. This study has pertinent theoretical implications, pedagogical implications and practical implications in ESL writing.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effectiveness of utilizing the STAD method to enhance students’ ESL writing skills in an international school. This study has strong pedagogical implications as it serves as a guide to teachers on how to carry out action research using the STAD method.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Metadiscourse in the Academic Writing of Local and International Students at a University in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Muhamad Khairul Zakaria, Faridah Abdul Malik, Radzuwan Ab. Rashid, Zahariah Pilus, Nur Shahida Zakaria
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study examines the use of metadiscourse markers among 50 Malaysian and 50 Arab Pre-University students. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of metadiscourse markers between Malaysian and Arab Pre-University students {?2 (1, n = 100) = 7.17, p-value is .007} where the use of metadiscourse markers among Malaysian Pre-University students was substantially higher than that of the Arab Pre-University students. In the use of interactive markers, the results showed significant differences between Malaysian and Arab Pre-University students in the use of transitions, evidential and code glosses. Additionally, in the use of interactional markers, Malaysian and Arab students differed in their use of hedges, engagement markers and self-mentions. These variances in the frequency and forms of metadiscourse markers utilized by the students could be attributed to the diverse cultural backgrounds of the two groups of students. It is therefore suggested that English language teachers integrate and incorporate cultural elements in their lessons with regard to metadiscourse markers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the examination of metadiscourse markers employed by ESL students and this has offered interesting findings and thought-provoking insights. The discoveries would certainly be enlightening for stakeholders such as syllabus designers of academic writing classes and language instructors.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Investigating Readiness for Acceptance of Change for the Adoption of Blackboard LMS at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammed Ilyas
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study applies the theory of Readiness for Organizational Change (Holt et al., 2007) with respect to the Learning Management System (LMS) such as Blackboard. Widely adopted in organizational environments, this theory discusses four types of antecedents: content, process, context and individual differences in order to determine behavioral patterns in change recipients. Based on prior studies, and modifying Holt et al’s model, this paper created a Model for Readiness for Acceptance of Change (MRAC) to meet the requirements of implementing the Blackboard LMS at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University (PSAU), Saudi Arabia. This paper studied three variables: readiness for acceptance for change, change beliefs and resistance to change. 340 respondents, male and female, comprising Faculty and students PSAU from all schools and levels, participated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared to collect data. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. The results suggested that readiness or acceptance for change is a multidimensional variable influenced by factors such as context, change beliefs, individual differences and resistance to change. The results also suggested that respondents were aware of the usefulness of a change, their beliefs were stronger but they lacked readiness for that change.
Contribution/ Originality
This study shall contribute towards motivating Faculty and Students for adoption of Blackboard LMS. It will also provide useful insights to policy makers and university management to take initiatives for developing positive beliefs in Faculty and learners in order to develop Readiness for Change.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation

Research Article
Author(s): Kwami Ossadzifo WONYRA
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of the manufacturing sector on economic growth through the role of human capital. Our data cover Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries from 1990 to 2015. We use fixed effects, random-effects and Hausman-Taylor estimators. We take into account the unobservable characteristics of countries by including fixed effects or random effects in the model. Our results show that the manufacturing sector through its value added has a positive impact on economic growth in SSA countries. In addition, the interacting models show that the quality of human capital is an accelerator of the role of the manufacturing sector. The coefficient of the catch-up term is negative and significant in all models indicating that countries with a larger productivity gap relative to China are developing faster than countries closer to China. This finding is consistent with the convergence effects usually found in growth model estimates, which are either related to convergences towards a stable state or to a catching-up of growth linked to the international diffusion of knowledge.
Contribution/ Originality
Unlike previous work, this article brings three major innovations. First, the inclusion of the key role of human capital, then the construction of the productivity indicator by considering China as a reference, and finally the consideration of the endowments of natural resources of countries in sub-Saharan Africa as country-specificity.
Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries

Research Article
Author(s): Tekam Oumbe Honore, Tchouassi Gerard
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
This article shows that trade policy and democracy positively affect economic development. A panel of 11 Central Africa economies with 176 observations from 1995 to 2010 is used to econometrically test this hypothesis. The use of Generalised Least Squares (GLS) shows that there is a link between economic development, captured using Human Development Indicators (HDI), democracy, imports, exports, inflation and regional integration. Inflation and exports negatively affect the well-being of the population. An increase in the inflation rate causes a reduction in purchasing power. An increase in the exports of commodities tends to decrease the quantity of goods available for the country of origin. Imports have a positive effect on HDI probably because this variable tends to increase the quantity of goods available. Imports and democracy have a positive effect on the level of development in Central African countries. The findings are important to policy makers Central Africa who seek to increase trade within, between and with other democratic countries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that trade policy and democracy contribute positively to economic development.
Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Insecticidal Activities of Five Medicinal Plant Materials against Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infesting Cowpea Seeds in Storage

Research Article
Author(s): Luke C. Nwosu, Okechukwu A. Obi, Daniel D. Adanyi, Victor C. Okereke, Vivian A. Azoro, Kalu U. Ukpai, Gospel U. Nzewuihe, Isiaka A. Lawal, Onyekachi A. Uwalaka, Gerald M. Ugagu, Akubuike N. Eluwa, Temitope E. Arotolu
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Powders from five elite plant materials (nutmeg, Myristica fragrans; red hot chilli pepper, Capsicum annuum; ginger rhizome, Zingiber officinale; black pepper, Piper nigrum and alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta) at 1.5 % w/w concentration were assessed against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus infestations on stored cowpea seeds under laboratory environmental conditions in three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria by members of the Research Group. The conventional synthetic insecticide, permethrin was included as standard check, while untreated seeds served as the control. Adult mortality, oviposition rate and adult emergence were the indices considered in the experiments. For the first three days of exposure, black pepper (P. nigrum) powder caused the highest percentage mortality (68.8, 78.0 and 83.8 % respectively) of the bruchid adults and differed significantly (P < 0.01) from the rest of other treatments with the exception of permethrin that caused 78.8, 85.0 and 91.3 % mortality respectively. Similarly, black pepper powder and permethrin treatments differed significantly (P < 0.01) from the rest on number of eggs laid and emerged adults with the exception of Z. officinale rhizome, which did not differ significantly from P. nigrum on number of eggs laid. The results therefore suggest that black pepper powder has higher insecticidal potential over other plant materials and could serve as a biotechnological substitute to the synthetic insecticides in the control of C. maculatus infestations and damage in stored products.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that some bioinsecticides derived from medicinal plant materials could serve as substitute to the hazardous synthetic insecticides at economically justified concentration in the control of C. maculatus infestation and damage in stored cowpea seeds.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?

Research Article
Author(s): Aboubakari MOUSSA
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
Every nation has his own resources contributing to the well-being of population and the creation of wealth. The sector that contributes in the country growth is not unique, but there are some who require a close look because they have large contribution in the economic growth such as agriculture sector. The determinants of a country economic growth are a lot but contribute differently to the growth. In this paper, we will discuss the extent of agricultural sector to the economic growth in Republic of Benin and how much it contributes. We will use time series data from 1970 to 2016 and co-integration method considering the order of integration. The results reveal that the GDP per capita, agricultural value added and the human development index have long-run relationship. In addition, an expansion of agricultural sector will have a significant impact on the economy in the long-run and ameliorate the living condition of population.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between agricultural sector and the economic growth in Republic of Benin. It gives the empirical answer to the extent of agricultural sector contribution in the economy of Republic of Benin.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Outside in, Inside Out: Tourism Competitiveness and Brazilian Strategy Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Rosana Mazaro
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
The paper identifies and characterizes the Brazilian strategy to cope with the international competitiveness in tourism as well as implementation of the governance mechanisms suitable for regions and destination in the country. This research is a case study using qualitative analysis and descriptive results. Investigative procedures adopted the methods of the documents content analysis and specialised bibliography. It is used the T&TCI-WEF series secondary data sources for analysis “Outside In” and the ICTN-MTUR for “Inside Out” analysis. The comparison between both shows symmetrical similarity between the results and distinct point of the view are converging and similar in the overall analysis of Brazil destination’s competitiveness. Infrastructure, safety and security problems and unstable business environment are factors, which burden further T&T development in the country. From the point of view of opportunities, the analysis of the evolution of both views reveals and highlights important elements for the establishment of tourism competitiveness strategies for Brazil in base its potential.
Contribution/ Originality
Analyses the performance of competitiveness from its historical evolution; Compares two different methodologies for assessing the tourism competitiveness; It uses competitiveness studies as a methodology to evaluate the implementation of strategies in tourism; It serves as a basis for the evaluation of public tourism policies and definition of actions.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

International Tourism Demand in Bangladesh: An ARDL Bounds Test Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Muntasir Murshed
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Tourism can somewhat be compared to the Cinderella industry, much because of its development being unattended despite having immense potentials in generating development within an economy. This paper aims to fill the gap in the literature by modeling tourist demand in Bangladesh as a function of its real fundamentals using time series data over the period 1980 to 2017. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root tests along with the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration and causality analyses are considered. The results reveal that the relative cost of living in Bangladesh and travel costs negatively affect international tourism demand while the relative cost of living in India, national income and exchange rate are found to be positively associated to tourism demand in Bangladesh. Moreover, long run causalities stemming from all the explanatory variables to tourism demand are also established in light of the statistical evidence found. Thus, it is pertinent for the government to escalate tourism development in Bangladesh which can also play a pivotal role in the diversification of the nation's export basket.
Contribution/ Originality
To the best of knowledge there is no empirical paper focusing on the international tourism sector of Bangladesh economy. This paper fills that gap by employing a multivariate framework to determine the demand side factors influencing tourism in Bangladesh.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Determinants of Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Olarewaju Fatai Ogunlana
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
This study have examined the determinants of corruption in Nigeria's public sector using ten local government areas in Lagos State and Federal Capital Territory in Abuja during the period 2017-2018. Plethora of studies has analyzed the relationship between corruption and economic growth using different econometric techniques and statistical simulation. This study, however, departed from the common methodological approach by conducting a survey of corruption in public sector to ascertain its determinants. Findings from a survey of one thousand and seventy six (1976) subjects were documented and multiple variables emanated as critical determinants of corruption in public sector. The study recommends that policy makers should intensify efforts at re-orientating the society against the ills of corruption by establishing high ethical standards to which all and sundry must adhere.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing body of literature by adopting a survey technique to ascertain the determinants of corruption in Nigeria's public sector by exploring ten (10) local government areas in Lagos State and Federal Civil Service in Abuja. A large number of studies in this area have employed theoretically established and econometric expositions to validate the determinants of corruption. The study uses common statistical technique to analyze both the causal and determinate variables motivating corruption.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Ebere Ume Kalu, Ogochukwu E. Ugwu, Victor Chijioke Ndubuaku, Ozioma Patricia Ifeanyi
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
This work was set out to measure the responsiveness of foreign reserves to exchange rate variables with a focus on the Nigerian economy. Foreign reserve was used as a dependent variable and all the exchange rate related variables used as independent variables. Time series data spanning 1996 to 2016 was used. A combined use of the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) and correlation matrix were employed. It was found that a positively significant relationship exists between real exchange rate and reserves with nominal exchange rate sharing a positive but non-significant relationship with foreign reserves. This makes a case for proper policy direction in the management of exchange rate in a manner that produces the best economic results for the Nigerian economy. The results are considered useful for economies in the shape of Nigeria for generalization and policy direction in the management of foreign reserve and its interface with exchange rate and its related factors.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by uncoupling exchange rate into nominal and real in measuring the nexus with foreign reserves. This study uses new estimation methodology which is the ARDL approach unlike prior studies that used OLS predominantly. The paper contributes the first logical analysis by carrying out pre-test, estimation proper and diagnostic analyses. The paper's primary contribution is that it exposes the fact that a nexus exists between foreign reserves and changes in exchange rate.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Anxiety in Classroom Presentation in Teaching - Learning Interaction in English for Students of Indonesian Study Program at Higher Education

Research Article
Author(s): Sulastriningsih Djumingin, Sukardi Weda, Juanda .
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Anxiety in the classroom presentation has a debilitating effect on students’ success in learning a foreign language (FL) or a second language (L2). This article aimed at investigating students’ Anxiety in classroom presentation in Teaching – Learning Interaction of English as a Foreign Language for Students of Indonesian Study Program in general at higher education levels in Indonesia. The participants of this study were the students of Indonesian Education and Literature Department, Faculty of Education and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar (N = 62). There were 55 or 88.71% females and 7 or 11.29% males from the seventh (42 or 67.75%) and ninth (20 or 32.25%) semesters. The findings reveal that the most frequent source of students’ anxiety was attending disorganized classroom presentation. The implication of the study is that anxiety is an interesting phenomenon in language study which potentially contributes to students’ failure. Therefore, teachers at a school need to manage the class well, while the lecturers at the university need to give a lot of time for students to learn the topics for discussion.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on Anxiety in classroom presentation in teaching - learning interaction in English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia. As one of contributing factors to classroom low achievement, Anxiety syndrome needs to be understood by teachers and learners at the university.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Industry 4.0: Employers Expectations of Accounting Graduates and its Implications on Teaching and Learning Practices

Research Article
Author(s): Erlane K Ghani, Kamaruzzaman Muhammad
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study aims to examine employers’ expectations of knowledge and skills in accounting graduates before hiring them. Using a qualitative approach on accounting practitioners and academics, this study shows that the expectations employers place on accounting students in the Industry 4.0 environment is set to change significantly, particularly in technologies used in the preparation, reporting and dissemination of financial information. Specifically, this study showcases the strong views expressed by a panel of experts comprising accounting practitioners, particularly on the subjects of job redundancies and the degree of replacement of human activities by electronic devices and machines. The replacement of physical human activities by machines is therefore expected. In addition, accounting practitioners see the need for accounting graduates to focus on continuous learning and education, particularly in acquiring knowledge and skills in IT. Hence, there is a need for academics and universities to incorporate various accounting technologies and simulations that are applicable to the Industry 4.0 environment, in their teaching and learning activities. This study contributes to existing education literature by providing new findings on the expectations of employers of future accounting graduates. In addition, this study contributes to the further understanding of academics and universities in strategizing ways and innovating new teaching and learning approaches so that accounting graduates’ employability can be enhanced and the needs of the current market for accountants can be accommodated.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is the first to provide findings on the expectations of employers of future accounting graduates in the era of Industry 4.0 in a Malaysian context.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1