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Listing 84 - 20 of 1969 results.

Financial Market Predictions with Factorization Machines: Trading the Opening Hour Based on Overnight Social Media Data

Research Article
Author(s): Johannes Stubinger, Dominik Walter, Julian Knoll
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
This paper develops a statistical arbitrage strategy based on overnight social media data and applies it to high-frequency data of the S&P 500 constituents from January 2014 to December 2015. The established trading framework predicts future financial markets using Factorization Machines, which represent a state-of-the-art algorithm coping with high-dimensional data in very sparse settings. Essentially, we implement and analyze the effectiveness of support vector machines (SVM), second-order Factorization Machines (SFM), third-order Factorization Machines (TFM), and adaptive-order Factorization Machines (AFM). In the back-testing study, we prove the efficiency of Factorization Machines in general and show that increasing complexity of Factorization Machines provokes higher profitability – annualized returns after transaction costs vary between 5.96 percent for SVM and 13.52 percent for AFM, compared to 5.63 percent for a naive buy-and-hold strategy of the S&P 500 index. The corresponding Sharpe ratios range between 1.00 for SVM and 2.15 for AFM. Varying profitability during the opening minutes can be explained by the effects of market efficiency and trading turmoils. Additionally, the AFM approach achieves the highest accuracy rate and generates statistically and economically remarkable returns after transaction costs without loading on any systematic risk exposure.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by predicting financial markets based on overnight social media data. For this purpose, we observe tweets about the S&P 500 companies during the time span in which stock markets are closed and forecast the future price changes based on the collected information.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Study of Factors Linked to the Variation in Rentability in the Farming of Broiler Chickens in Northeast Algeria

Research Article
Author(s): A Berghiche, T Khenenou, I M Boualleg, A Bouacida, I Labiad
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Obtaining good zootechnical performance in broiler chicken farming requires continuous and regular zootechnical and sanitary monitoring throughout the breeding period to increase its rentability. Our work carried out at the level of private broiler chicken farming in Eastern Algeria with the objective of comparing zootechnical performance during the breeding period with that obtained under the optimal conditions of strain ISA 15. Whose controlled and compared parameters show: a very high mortality rate- a very low weight evolution- a higher consumption index.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Report of an Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in Iran, Clinical, Epidemiological and Pathological Study

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Reza Mohebbi, Masoumeh Heydary-Sureshjani, Seyed Hossein Marjanmehr, Sahar Ghaffari Khaligh
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute to sub-acute highly contagious and frequently fatal viral disease of goats and sheep and wild small ruminants caused by a virus in the genus morbilivirus, family paramyxoviridae. The flock of sheep including 800 fattening sheep were affected and the presence of PPR virus was assayed with RT-PCR test. The only significant change in the CBC was leucopenia. There were typical lesions on dental pad, hard palate, gingiva and tongue. The Morbidity and case fatality rates were estimated 50 and 60 percent, respectively. All deaths were happen in lambs and young sheep. Results of the histopathologcal findings indicated that the lesions were mainly located on the respiratory system, upper digestive system, kidney and lymphoid organs. Infiltration of mononuclear and inflammatory cells in lamina propria were seen in mouth, soft palate, intestines, lung, and tonsil. Secondary infection as result of immunosuppression activity of the PPR virus was happened and resulted in high mortality and case fatality. The present paper reports an outbreak of PPR in a sheep flock in Karaj, Alborz province in Iran, including pathological, and clinical observation and also serological detection.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that PPR virus is severely immunosupressor and secondary infection is inevitable in outbreak. In clinical examination most suggestive symptom is the buccal cavity lesions and in necropsy, lung is the organ with most severe lesions. All the outbreaks with high morbidity and mortality, occur in unvaccinated flocks.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Anthony Orji, Jonathan E. Ogbuabor, Asidok N. Okon, Onyinye I. Anthony-Orji
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
In the past few years, Nigerian banks have embraced the global trend of digitalization in banking operations. Thus, after the consolidation and recapitalization exercises, many banks have strengthened and streamlined their facilities, tailored their services as well as automated their operations. In the heat of competition, banks are now adding to the stock of e-banking in order to maintain a competitive edge over their competitors. However, despite the rapid development in electronic banking innovations, it is not clear whether e-banking innovations have impacted positively and significantly on banks’ performance in Nigeria. The main objective of this paper therefore is to estimate the impact of e-banking innovations (ATM transactions, mobile banking transactions, and point of sales transactions) on the performance of six selected banks in Nigeria. The study adopts a SURE model in the quantitative analysis of six selected old and new generation banks. The results indicate that automated teller machine transactions, point of sale transactions, mobile banking transactions are major e-banking innovations that contribute to old and new banks’ performance in Nigeria. The study therefore concludes that the selected banks and other banks should intensify efforts to increase their asset base and continue to invest in e-banking innovations in order keep preforming well and also remain profitable. The study also calls for efficient management and utilization of funds to train and educate bank workers and general public regularly on how to deploy and use e-banking channels and other related technological innovations respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is among the first in Nigeria to estimate the impact of e-banking innovations (ATM transactions, mobile banking transactions, and point of sales transactions) on the performance of six selected banks in Nigeria since after the consolidation and recapitalization exercise. Unlike other similar studies, the study adopts a SURE model in the quantitative analysis of six selected old and new generation banks.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks

Research Article
Author(s): I Wayan Budi Artha, Bambang Mulyana
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
This study aims to determine the effect of internal factors of the company (CAR, NPL, NIM, BOPO and CASA) and external factors of the company (inflation, economic growth and BI reference interest rates), both partially and jointly on the performance of State-Owned Banks measured with a Return on Assets ratio (ROA) and its implications on the Stock Price Index. The object of research is State-Owned Banks in the period of 2012 - 2017. The sampling technique is saturated sampling, that is, all members of the population are used as samples. The analysis technique used is Panel Data Regression. The results of this study indicate that CAR, NPL, NIM, BOPO, CASA, Inflation, Economic Growth and BI reference interest rate together have a significant effect on ROA. NIM, CASA and BI Reference Interest Rate partially had a positive and significant effect on ROA. BOPO, Inflation and Economic Growth partially have negative and significant effect on ROA. While CAR has a negative effect and NPL has a positive effect, but not significant on ROA. ROA has a negative and significant effect on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature, useful for science in banking about the relationship between the company's internal and external factors on bank profitability and its implications for the Stock Price Index. In addition, adding literature in the financial sector is used as a guideline for subsequent research that will examine banking.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

The Study of the Landscape Restoration and Reuse of Foreign Company Facilities in Tamsui, Taiwan

Research Article
Author(s): Chih-Yuan, Chang
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
This paper discusses both the surviving and now-disappeared foreign company facilities in Tamsui. The discussion topics include historical analysis of foreign firms and suggestions for preservation and reconstruction. The methodology of this study combines historical research of architecture with discussion of the cultural landscape, and proposes a discussion of lost landscapes and the preservation of the existing foreign company facilities in Tamsui. The Shell Company and the Douglas Lapraik & Co. warehouses in Tamsui are the witness and the cases of well-preserved with a scarcity value. These cases warrant preservation as a heritage site based on their historical value and for reasons of environmental sustainability. A representation of the foreign company storage and sites should be displayed in the Tamsui eco-museum for inclusion with the other historical heritage areas in Tamsui.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the surviving and now-disappeared foreign company facilities in Tamsui. The methodology combines historical research of architecture with discussion of the cultural landscape.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

The Poverty of Lecture as an Instructional Strategy in the Teaching of Science at the Secondary School Level

Research Article
Author(s): Thomas Aduojo Audu
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The issue of concern in this discourse is the poverty of lecture method of teaching in the teaching and learning of science subjects in the secondary school. Often times, science teachers cast aspersions on the prevalence of lecture in science classrooms given the popular belief that science, by its nature, dictates that activity-oriented methods should be used rather than a rather passive method like lecture method. It has however been argued in this paper that when lecture is enriched, it serves a vital role in delivering science lessons profitably. Based on this position, it was recommended that lectures should be suffused with other methods, science teachers are advised to use visual aids as they teach and emphasis should be placed on hand-on-activities and experiences so as to maximally realize the benefits of lecture as an instructional process so as to improve field practice.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the on-going debate on the limitations of lecture in science teaching and learning. Its uniqueness and primary contribution is the appeal to suffuse lecture with activity-based methods to improve students’ engagement, academic achievement, morale, and career prospects of learners, hence the advocacy for enriched lecture.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

A Comparison of Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Poverty and Rural Poverty in the North-West China

Research Article
Author(s): Xiaoxue Zhou, Jiancheng Chen
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This paper explores the contrast between urban poverty and rural poverty under climate change in north-west China based on association theory. In order to effectively evaluate the different impacts of climate change on rural and urban poverty, this paper establishes a dynamic GMM regression model of climate change, uses the north-west region panel data to clarify the relationship of ecological environment, carbon emissions and poverty alleviation in north-west China. The empirical test results show there exists an inverted U-shaped curve relationship between carbon emissions and the rural poor income, but there is no significant correlation between carbon emissions and that of the urban poor. There is an obvious intertemporal transmission of poverty, and that of rural poverty is more obvious than urban poverty. Economic growth is still the most important power source of poverty reduction in urban and rural areas in north-west China, however, the number of years of education had no obvious influences on the income of urban and rural poor population.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the contrast between urban poverty and rural poverty under climate change in north-west China through empirical analysis, and analyzes whether the region has obtained a broader poverty alleviation through the consumption of natural resources.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

The Factor Testing of Indicators of Physical and Functional Preparation of Basketball Players

Research Article
Author(s): Dao Chanh Thuc
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
The problem of physiological study of non-traditional means of coaching attracts a lot of scientists’ attention in recent years. This is due to the need to provide a maximum development of certain muscle groups and direction of the coaching process. Proper use of simulators weight machines bring positive results (Valeria et al., 2018). Obviously, an important step in the use of technology is the right choice for team sports coaches and personal trainers for the effectiveness of the coaching process. One effective component of this process is the inclusion to a coaching program with the help of physical exercises would be TRX® function loops. Among specialists of functional and physical coaching innovation as TRX® – coaching is one of the best equipment for complex solution of the tasks. This exercise is an exercise using body weight. It was designed to develop strength, power, core stability, flexibility and balance. TRX® is the valuable creation for the sports industry of any levels. TRX® Coaching –Suspension Coaching became commonly usable for Fitness Health Clubs, Professional Sports and Elite Strength Conditioning Workout for Sports Teams (Dao and Le, 2018). Therefore, it was suggested the use of TRX® exercises in preparation of basketball players. The results of the study clearly show that the inclusion in the 18-25 years old basketball player coaching program with the TRX® functional loop contributes to a significant increase in overall fitness levels and ability to foster gas of life. Using TRX® during coaching can be considered to be an important factor in increasing the effectiveness of basketball preparation
Contribution/ Originality


Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Fabien Sundjo, Fozoh Aziseh
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The economic performance of CEMAC countries is severely poor, when compared to other communities of the same region. It is on the bases of this background, that this paper purports to empirically investigate the potential key drivers of economic performance in the CEMAC zone. Specifically, the study attempts to scrutinise the effect of: (a) educational expenditure, (b) gross physical capital formation, (c) public health expenditures, and (d) private health expenditure on economic performance. To ascertain these objectives, data is sourced from the World Bank Development Indicators (WDI) of 2017 and used is made of both descriptive and inferential statistics. The Panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE) regression model was employed to test the objectives, due to its capacity to produce appropriate standard error estimates with very insignificant loss of efficiency. The empirical findings, among others suggested that, all forms of investments included in the model, significantly influenced the economic performance of countries in the CEMAC sub-region. Specifically, the results showed that educational expenditure and gross physical capital formation positively influence economic performance in the CEMAC zone. Intriguingly, public and private health expenditures negatively influence economic performance in the said zone. The policy implications of these findings suggest that, emphasis should be laid on increasing investment on government’s educational expenditure and gross physical capital formation in the CEMAC zone, if economic performance must be revived.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses panel corrected standard errors approach, to scrutinize the causal relationship between the CEMAC economic performance and variables like educational expenditure, gross physical capital formation and public and private health expenditures.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 6

Firm-Level Investment Decisions Under Uncertainty and Irreversibility in Zimbabwes Private Firms

Research Article
Author(s): Joe Muzurura
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Zimbabwe’s business operating environment is abounding with both micro and macro uncertainties that regularly impact on firm-level investment decisions. Under uncertainty and irreversibility private firms are forced to integrate into their investment appraisals and decisions some expectations regarding future product demand and prices, likely returns on fixed capital investment, expected margins, cost of capital expectations and cash flow projections. These important issues are not known with definitive assurance and hence, making investment decisions under uncertainty a challenging task for Zimbabwe’s private firms. The study examined investment under uncertainty and irreversibility in Zimbabwe’s private firms using a polychotomous regression model with the three investment decision outcomes; “invest now”, “do not invest now” and “defer investment”. The major findings are that; (1) liquidity constraints, firm size and credit constraints significantly influence the probability of investing now irrespective of uncertainties in the economy. (2) Poor public infrastructure, political uncertainty, inconsistent application of the indigenization laws and absence of laws that protect private property rights increase the probability of private firms’ deferring investment decisions under uncertainty and investment irreversibility. The paper recommends that policy makers should reduce macro uncertainties in the financial sector that affect firm-level investment decisions, adopt policies that enhance productivity of public infrastructure and must observe national and international laws that safeguard investor property rights.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the few studies that used a polychotomous probabilistic distribution function to investigate investment decisions of Zimbabwe’s private firms given the presence of uncertainty and investment irreversibility.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 6

Development and Performance Analysis of Bisection Method-Based Optimal Path Length Algorithm for Terrestrial Microwave Link

Research Article
Author(s): Kalu, Constance
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
In this paper, Bisection method-based algorithm for the computation of optimal path length of terrestrial microwave link is presented. Also, performance analysis of the algorithm is presented in terms of the convergence cycle of the algorithm. The impact of various link parameters on the convergence cycle of the algorithm is also presented. Mathlab program was used to carry out sample numerical computation for a microwave link having the following parameters: frequency (f) = 12 GHz, transmit power (PT) = 10dBm, transmitter antenna gain (GT) = 35 dBi, receiver antenna gain (GR) = 35 dBi, fade margin (fms) =20dB, receiver sensitivity (PS) = -80dBm, Rain Zone = N, point refractivity gradient (dN1) = -400, link percentage outage (p0) = 0.01% . The results showed that the Bisection algorithm converged at the 17th cycle. It was found from the analysis that the convergence cycle of the algorithm varied linearly with frequency, decreasing with frequency from a value of 17 at frequency of 12 GHz to 15 at a frequency of 45 GHz. On the other hand, the convergence cycle varied nonlinearly with percentage availability of the link. Also, for a given frequency and link percentage availability the convergence cycle increased with increase in rain rate. The result of the research is very essential for microwave link designers to determine the optimal path length for effective link performance under different link configurations and locations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study applies Bisection algorithm to determine the optimal path length of line of site wireless communication link. The Bisection method presented in this paper is simpler and easier to be applied in more situations than the Newton Raphson method. Used in Emenyi, et al. [1].
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Development of Facilitated Participatory Spatial Information System for Selected Urban Management Services

Research Article
Author(s): Ozuomba, Simeon, Kalu, Constance, Akpasam Joseph Ekanem
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
In this paper, the development of a web based spatial information system for selected urban management services in Akwa Ibom state is presented. The selected urban management services include; disaster management, waste management, land administration and land transportation information hub. Participatory evolutionary software development methodology was used in the system development and the system was implemented using Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) for the web interface, PHP Hypertext preprocessor (PHP) for the server side scripting , MySQL for the database, Google map API (Application Programming Interface) for the maps and Apache as the web server. The web application was hosted locally using WAMP server and tested with some dataset obtained in the case study area. Relevant screenshots of the webpages are also presented. The web application presented in this paper can be used to facilitate participatory urban service in any given city or state.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates requisite flowcharts and accompanying web applications for online management of selected urban services. Notably, the software designs are based on the prevailing technical and socioeconomic conditions in the case study area (Akwa Ibom State Nigeria).
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Stanford University Interim Propagation Loss Model for a Gmelina Arborea Tree-Lined Road

Research Article
Author(s): Umana, Sylvester. Isreal, Nnamonso O. Akpbio, Samuel Etaruwak Mbong
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
In this paper, the extended Stanford University Interim (ESUI) path loss model was evaluated and optimized based on empirically measured path loss obtained along a suburban road lined with Gmelina Arborea trees. The study was for a 1800 MHz cellular network located in Orlu Imo state. The field measurement was conducted in August which is in the rainy season with the entire trees blossom with their green leaves. G-NetTrack Lite 8.0 Adroid app installed on a Samsung Galaxy S8 mobile phone was then used to capture and log the received signal strength (RSSI) in dB, the geo-coordinates of the measurement points as well as the particulars of the 3G network base station. Two datasets were captured and one f the dataset was used for the model optimization while the other dataset was used for validation of the model. For the training dataset, un-tuned ESUI model had a root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.82 dB and maximum absolute prediction error of 46.64 dB whereas the RMSE-tuned ESUI model had a RMSE of 4.094dB and maximum absolute prediction error of 3.41dB. Similarly, for the validation dataset, the un-tuned ESUI model had a RMSE of 48.37dB and maximum absolute prediction error of 48.19 dB whereas the RMSE-tuned ESUI model had a RMSE of 4.39 dB and maximum absolute prediction error of 3.0 dB. In all, the tuned ESUI model was derived and it gave good path loss prediction performance for both the training and the validation datasets.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is the derivation of a root mean square error-based optimized extended Stanford University Interim (ESUI) path loss model for a suburban road lined with Gmelina Arborea trees.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Cost Efficiency of Bioenergy Industry and its Economic Determinants in EU-28: A Tobit Model Based on DEA Efficiency Scores

Research Article
Author(s): Mohd Alsaleh, A.S. Abdul-Rahim
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This study looks at how increasing efficiency drives the production of the bioenergy in the European Union (EU-28) region. The paper used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) statistical approach to use the cost efficiency (CE) rate of the bio-energy industry of the EU-28 region as a dependent variable of this study in the first stage of analysis. The study’s second stage analysis used the Tobit Model to investigate the impact of economic determinants on the CE of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 region during the period between 1990 to 2013. The results of the second stage panel regression using Tobit model for the EU-28 region during 1990-2013 shows that CE has positive and significant correlations with capital cost (lnCI) and labour cost (lnLI). The results also show that cost efficiency and real interest rate (lnRIR).have a negative and significant relationship. The study showed that gross domestic product (lnGDP) and CE have a positive and significant relationship in the time specific model, but not in the country specific model. In addition, there is significant and positive correlations between CE and both the Interaction Dummy Country factor (Dum_CP) and the Country Dummy factor (Dum). The estimation also showed insignificant correlations between CE and both the Interaction Dummy Time factor (Dum_CP) and the Time Dummy factor (Dum).
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature in investigating the CE of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 region. This study uses new estimation methodologies such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the Tobit Model to investigate the impact of economic determinants on the CE of the bioenergy industry in the EU28 region during the period between 1990 and 2013.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Establishing Shipping Service Complex Standard Framework: Experience from Shanghai

Research Article
Author(s): Jiawei Ge, Xuefeng Wang, Pengcheng Wu, Tianrong Huang, Huixian Jiang
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This paper introduced the experience of Shanghai in building the waterfront urban complex with industrial characteristics. In order to ensure the logic and scientific rationality, this paper developed the standard system on the concept of system engineering, based on which a three-dimensional space was proposed for the Shanghai Shipping Service Complex (SSC). Fundamental elements such as technology, management, economy and environment are analyzed and further classified, thus ensuring the systematicness and scientificity of the standard. The framework of standard system was then established through further elaborating the initial structure with four aspects as shipping service, building technology, environment friendly and sustainable management.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper is a pioneer research in the standard establishment for urban complex. The primary contribution is proposing a framework and design logic in forming the standard system of the complex, providing reference for similar waterfront reconstruction projects.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Tadele Yeshiwas, Melkamu Alemayehu
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
The floriculture sector is a new agricultural industry in Ethiopia. However, together with associated industries the sector created job opportunities for thousands of people especially women and generates huge amount of foreign exchange earnings to the country. However, it’s social and environmental issues associated with the development of the sector are not yet well documented. The present review was therefore initiated with the objective to summarize and the sector development and document the issues raised associated with its development in the country. According to the review results the floriculture industry is suffering from insufficient infrastructure system necessary for further development of the industry which should be solved with the respective stakeholders. Moreover, the industry is accused from negative environmental and social impacts which may have negative impacts for future development of the industry. Continuous awareness trainings on health and safety issues through respective stakeholders and regular monitoring in the implementation of guidelines and roles regarding environmental protection is recommended to sustain the further improvement of the industry in Ethiopia.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: inpmonth-0000 Issue: 0

The Impact of Intensive Utilization of Cultivated Land on Grain Yields: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China

Research Article
Author(s): Ruozhou Wang, Yanqing Jiang
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Using time series data of agriculture in Shandong Province during the period from 2000 to 2015, this paper sets up an assessment system of intensive utilization of cultivated land, which has 4 criteria(input intensity, utilization intensity, output effectiveness and sustainability) consisting of 9 indices, comprehensively estimates the level of intensive use of agricultural land with entropy method, and empirically analyzes the impact of intensive utilization of cultivated land on grain yields through the use of a multivariable linear regression model. The results are shown as follows: (1) The level of intensive utilization of cultivated land in Shandong Province has been fluctuating upwards but not significantly progressing. (2) Grain yield per hectare is positively correlated with output effectiveness and utilization intensity, and the contribution of output effectiveness to grain yield per hectare is more than the other. (3) grain yield per hectare is negatively correlated with input intensity and sustainability. Therefore, in the long-term, cultivated land management strategy should be planned to improve the input intensity, to emphasis on the sustainability of farm land and to promote the consciousness of cultivated land protection in order to increase the productivity of grain yields.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by supplementing existing research related to Shandong Province cultivated land, few of which have been conducted on the relationship of grain yield and intensive utilization of arable land. Hence, the current research constitutes an original contribution in this field.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Akinwalere B.O, Okunlola J.O
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The study examined the roles of extension in the adoption of agroforestry practices in South west Nigeria, with a view to providing data on the practices of agroforestry in the area. It highlighted the extent of agroforestry, the ownership and management of agroforestry practices, the utilization and sustainability of the practices, as well as the challenges faced by farmers practicing agroforestry. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 200 agroforestry farmers. A large proportion (82%) of the respondents are married and the mean age was 52years. Majority (81.5%) of them had formal education while 92% are involved in farming as their primary occupation. 39.5% of the respondents are involved in the practice of shelter belt and wind breaks, 35% are involved in improved fallow, 24% in Taungya, 22% in fuel wood production, 16% in the practice of Alley cropping, 10% in Tree on range land, while 7% and 2.5% are into home garden and apiculture respectively. About half (54.5%) of respondents had no contact with extension services, access to extension service in the study area as rated by farmers is an indication of low extension agent to farmer ratio. The result of Pearson moment correlation coefficient showed that there was no significant relationship between extension contacts and sustainable adoption of agroforestry practices (r = 0.12, p = 0.07).
Contribution/ Originality
The study examined the roles of extension services in the adoption and utilization of agroforestry practices by farmers. It discussed the various agroforestry practices available, the acceptability and perception of the farmers. The study also revealed the lack of proper extension services needed for successful implementation of any adoption process.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Assessing the National Sanitation Policy in Rwanda

Research Article
Author(s): Amos Shyaka Kazora, Khaldoon A. Mourad
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
Populated cities in Rwanda rely on decentralized wastewater management systems due to the absence of central sewerage systems and the limited finances for sanitation infrastructures. This paper studied the influence of the national sanitation policy and the best available technologies in addressing and reinforcing decentralized wastewater treatment practices in Kigali city such as on-site and off-site sanitation systems. Different sanitation and wastewater management related policies were reviewed with emphasis on densely populated cities. The paper highlighted the need for a sustainable sanitation policy focusing on the safe disposal of the wastewaters and the proper connection to protect the ecosystem and to improve the status of the sanitation services in Rwanda. It was also noted that policies cannot be implemented without a real intervention of the local authorities in monitoring, advising and putting practical guidelines for individuals and communities before and after constructing their treatment systems.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper highlighted and reviewed the social and environmental problems related to the wastewater management practices in Kigali city, which has had negative impacts on human health and the ecosystem. The message to be delivered: Connecting every household to an improved sanitation system to meet the MDGs doesn’t make any sense if the collected wastewaters were not treated and managed properly after the collection. Therefore, the paper reviewed and suggested some interventions to be included in the national sanitation policy of Rwanda trying to approach sustainable sanitation principles for the country sake before achieving any other global goals.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2