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Listing 79 - 20 of 1965 results.

On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models

Research Article
Author(s): Katleho Makatjane, Ntebogang Moroke, Diteboho Xaba
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
The aim of this study is to build an early warning system (EWS) model for inflation rates of South Africa (SA). A logistic regression model (LRM) is used in collaboration with a Markov-switching Bayesian vector autoregressive (MS-BVAR) to produce the estimates. Monte Carlo experimental methods are used to simulate both the inflation rate and repo rate of the SA economy. The procedure simulated 228 observations for the period of January 1999 to December 2017. Preliminary results confirmed the applicability of both models for further analyses. MS (2)-BVAR(1) proved to be the most appropriate model for detecting regime shifts in inflation rates. The results indicate that SA inflation might be in a low inflation regime for the period of 11 years and 4 months. Surprisingly, we discovered that the repo rate is not a good tool to combat the inflation rate in SA i.e a 1% increase in the repo in a month significantly increased inflation rate by about 81%. The findings also confirmed 51% and 53% of in-sample and out-of-sample SA inflation crises forecasts to be correctly classified. This is in accordance with the reported results of Cruz and Mapa (2013) and Makatjane and Xaba (2016). The verdicts of the study are relevant for policy purposes and literature.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology to quantify the likelihood of future inflation crises in South Africa.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Oyediran, W. O., Omoare, A. M., Alaka, F. A., Shobowale, A. A., Oladoyinbo, O. B.
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
In the past two decades watermelon production has been a major source of livelihood sustainability in the rural farming system especially among the younger farmers. In recent time however, climate change has threatened and undermined this potential. This study was therefore carried out to assess rural farmers’ coping strategies to effects of climate change on watermelon production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 150 watermelon farmers as sample size for this study. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were used to analyse the data. The findings showed that there was significant relationship between respondent’s personal characteristics and coping strategies adopted by the watermelon farmers at p < 0.05 level. Also, there was significant relationship between sources of information and coping strategies adopted by the watermelon farmers at p < 0.05 level. It is hereby recommends that effort should be put in place by the government and Seed Council of Nigeria (SCN) to come up with improved, and high drought and disease resistant watermelon seeds to increase productivity and reduce cost of seeds importation in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that watermelon farmers combined both scientific and indigenous farming strategies to cope with adverse effects of climate change.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Predictors of the Drop in School Marks in Secondary School: Evidence for Effects of Students’ Socio-Demographic Background

Research Article
Author(s): Florian Klapproth, Romain Martin
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Referring to the stage environment fit theory (Eccles and Midgley, 1989) we examined whether after the transition from Luxembourgish primary to secondary school students’ school marks would drop. Actually, using latent growth curve modeling it was found that school marks deteriorated in their main school subjects German, French, and mathematics. The drop of school marks was larger in mathematics than in languages. Moreover, the drop of school marks was affected by various socio-demographic variables as the students’ gender, their socio-economic background, and their ethnicity. This finding stimulates the assumption that certain subpopulations of students in Luxembourg receive different support in school, regardless of their academic competences. However, even students’ competences were predictive of the development of their school marks. In the vocational track, high achievers were more likely to drop in school marks than low achievers. We presume that this result indicates a lack of academic challenges in the vocational track, which might eventually hinder better performing students in keeping their initial high achievement level.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Effect of Plasmodium Falciparum on Liver Function Parameters of Children in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Augustine O. OLUSOLA
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
Background: Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, primarily affecting children under five years of age. The highest death burden occurs in young children who have not yet developed protective immune mechanisms against the parasite. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Plasmodium falciparum infection on liver function in malaria patients in Ikare Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria. Methods: Blood samples taken from 101 patients (children between the ages of 6 months – 5years) at the State Specialist Hospital Ikare Akoko Ondo State Nigeria between August to October, 2012 were examined. After screening, the patients were grouped into two. Group 1, the test group (those who tested positive to falciparum malaria) and a total of 101 children were selected into this group while 101 children who tested negative to malaria were selected into group 2 (control group). Changes in the activities of serum enzymes were determined in both groups using normal range values as baseline. Results: In falciparum malaria patients, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities respectively were 63.10+2.76, 138.46+5.04, 70.50±4.33 and those of the non infected patients respectively were 62.39+2.96, 131.46+4.38 and 65.57 ±2.39. This indicates the serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP in infected patients were significantly (P = 0.05) elevated relative to their non-infected counterparts, an indication of defective liver function. Conclusion: This study suggests that malaria parasites could be responsible for derangement of the liver functions in patients and could therefore contribute to organ damage in affected individuals if not treated.
Contribution/ Originality
This is an original article. It has not been submitted to any other journal for publication. The major contribution to knowledge by this research work is that it suggest malaria parasites could be responsible for derangement of the liver functions in patients and could therefore contribute to organ damage in affected individuals if not treated.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes

Research Article
Author(s): M. Noor Salim
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Potato production in Indonesia is not yet optimal, other factors are related, knowledge level, job outpouring rate, working capital, production facilities and management. The purpose of research to determine the level of productivity and factors of production that is the number of labor, age, education and length of working of labor use. The study was conducted in Pangalengan District, South Bandung in November 2017 until January 2018. The samples were 30 potato farmers. Work productivity is based on the ratio between the amount of revenue and the amount of income employees. Analysis of data with multiple linear regression. The optimization of labor usage based on production elasticity is the ratio of marginal product price to labor cost. Simultaneously the amount of labor income, age, education and length of real employment for employees who work with the magnitude of the division of 75.5%. In general, the amount of labor has a negative effect on the use of labor, while age, education and duration of employment cannot be used for labor usage. The optimization level of -9.589 <1, indicates that the use of labor in the study site is too much, not optimal. The proposed suggestion is that the use of labor needs to be recalculated in the maximum amount of the farmers' maximum wage energy. Suggestions of analysis in accordance with the stages and networks in farmer groups or between groups of farmers.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Detection and Prevention of Phishing Attack Using Linkguard Algorithm

Research Article
Author(s): Raphael Olufemi Akinyede, Joseph Adebowale Adelakun
Journal: Journal of Information

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Abstract
Phishing is another sort of network attack where the attacker creates an imitation of a current site page to trick users into submitting individual, financial related, or password information to what they believe is their service provider's site. The idea is an end-host based anti-phishing algorithm, called the Link Guard, by using the generic attributes of the hyperlinks in phishing attacks. The link Guard algorithm is the idea for finding the phishing electronic messages sent by the phisher to get hold on the data of the end user. Link Guard depends on investigation of the attributes of phishing hyperlinks. Each end user is implemented with Link Guard algorithm. Subsequent to doing as such, the end user perceives the phishing emails and can abstain from responding to such mails. Since Link Guard is qualities based, it can identify and prevent not only known phishing but also obscure ones.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by introducing an idea in an end-host based anti-phishing algorithm, called the Link Guard and it uses generic attributes of the hyperlinks in phishing attacks. This study uses new estimation methodology for finding the phishing electronic messages sent by the phisher to get hold on the data of the end user.
Computer Sciences » Journal of Information » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Ethnobotanic Study of Use of Medicinal Plants Utilized in the Quilombola Community of Chapada Da Natividade, Tocantins, Brazil

Research Article
Author(s): Vanilza Dias Cardoso, Dalmarcia de Souza Carlos Mourão, Fernando Machado Haesbaert, Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Pedro Raymundo Argüelles Osorio, Rosângela Ribeiro de Souza, Priscila Fonseca Costa, Eduardo Côrtes Ribeiro Ferreira, Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar, Gil Rodrigues dos Santos
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
The knowledge of medicinal plants utilized by the quilombolas is considered important in the conservation of these plants within the Brazilian biodiversity, and must be preserved and transmitted over the generations. Thus, the objective of this study was to make a survey of the use of medicinal plants utilized by the Quilombola Community of Chapada da Natividade, located in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. The data gathering was carried through informal interviews with listing of the plants and the sampling technique utilized for selection of informers was the “Snow Ball”. There were registered 32 species belonging to 22 distinct families. The families with the higher number of cited species were Fabaceae, Anacardidaceae and Lamiaceae. The predominant medicinal uses are mostly associated to the respiratory and tegumental systems, with the leaves being the most used parts, in teas by decoction and infusion. Also, there was carried the study of the main illnesses, considering the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of them. The results show a vast diversity of vegetal species utilized, and that the role of the medicinal plants is not only as agent in the cure of diseases, but also as cultural form
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the main medicinal plants used by Quilombolas for the treatment of diseases and the different forms of preparation. This contributes with information that can help in the alternative treatment of diseases, as well as a cultural form of preserving the knowledge acquired through the generations.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Organisation Restructuring: The Influence of Interpersonal Conflict, Anomie, and Trust in Management on Counterproductive Work Behaviour

Research Article
Author(s): Shereen Noranee, Alwi Shabudin, Azilah Anis, Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahim, Abdul Kadir Othman
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Employees’ reaction to organization restructuring varies as some react positively towards change but others refuse to accept it. Those who react negatively may engage in counterproductive work behavior. Since the existing studies are scarce in addressing this issue especially during organization restructuring, the present study is meant to investigate the influence of interpersonal conflict, anomie and trust in management on employees’ counterproductive work behavior. Data were collected from 215 non-managerial staff of a company offering maritime related services, which is undergoing restructuring exercise. Using a multiple regression analysis, it was found that trust in management and interpersonal conflicts negatively influence counterproductive work behavior while anomie or feeling helplessness or hopelessness positively influences counterproductive work behavior. The implications of the study are discussed in the paper.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the role of trust in management, interpersonal conflict and anomie in influencing counterproductive work behavior. These three factors are significant predictors of counterproductive work behavior.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

The Relationship Between Low-Carbon Finance and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Industrial Bank of China

Research Article
Author(s): Wan Muchun, Zhu Wenzhong, Zhang Siqi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
The action plan of China-proposed One Belt One Road initiative play a significant role of sustaining the green and steady growth of Chinese economy. Meanwhile, it also brings tremendous opportunities and challenges for low-carbon economy. Developing low-carbon finance is necessary for developing low-carbon economy in China. Commercial banks' primary objective is to maximize profits, so they inevitably pay attention to the influence of competitiveness and earnings after developing carbon finance. Industrial Bank as China’s first bank joining Equator Principles is the typical example of commercial banks which develop low-carbon finance. This paper analyzes the total assets, non-performing loan ratios and net capital of the bank and concludes that if a commercial bank can do a good internal management, the development of low-carbon finance will promote its sustainable development. In other words, the sustainable development based on low-carbon finance will generate visible benefits to the bank.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that commercial banks can improve its market competitiveness, decrease its operational risk, enhances its profitability and gain support from investors through developing low-carbon economy. The finding in this study sheds light on the sustainable development of Chinese commercial banks.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

The Politics of Fear in the US Political Discourse about Migration: An Argument- Based Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Taher Ben Khalifa
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Nowadays, the politics of fear is frequently visited across the world; such as in Europe (Federici, 2006; Wodak, 2015; Greenhill, 2016). In the US, political figures, and especially presidents, are proved to use fear to justify their denials to welcome refugees (Ben Khalifa, 2017a; 2017b). Being grounded in this course of literature, this paper seeks to determine how Obama and Trump manipulate fear to justify their immigration policies. It focuses on the examination of several speeches that the two presidents delivered on this issue. The critical analysis and evaluation of the arguments they used in these speeches will be based on the use of practical reasoning (Walton, 1996; Fairclough and Fairclough, 2012). To apply this theoretical combination I followed a simple method of research that consists of three successive steps: a) going through the selected speeches to determine the logical components of each argument; b) re-constructing and analyzing the developed arguments; and c) evaluating these arguments and undertaking the logical interpretations. The obtained findings are of two types: theoretical and practical. Theoretically, it is proved that circumstances and values should be considered as essential components in the structure of the fear appeal argument. Practically, it is shown that the speakers used in their rhetoric of fear such discursive strategies like flash-back, narration, meaning-making, and graduation to: persuade the world that the US will not welcome refugees because they harm its home security; convince the Americans that welcoming more refugees will threaten their lives and values; and make their policies the most appropriate choices to save America and its values. So, fear is politically manipulated to serve the speakers’ interests and to justify their public policies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by elaborating a more developed structure of the fear appeal argument and making connection between the rhetoric of fear and the art of policy justification. Also, it highlights the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to determine the goals behind any manipulation of fear.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

An Observational Study Evaluating the Impact of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Oral Cavity and Temporomandibular Joint

Research Article
Author(s): Besalat Hussain, Fatima Mushtaq, Naima Javed, Affa Khan
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Over a past few years, a very limited number of studies researched whether the chikungunya virus affects the oral cavity in addition to pronounced symptoms in extremities but on literature review different studies were found to have different conclusions. Thus an Observational Study was conducted evaluating the impact of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Oral Cavity and Temporomandibular Joint. This was a cross sectional study having a self-designed questionnaire, descriptive and associative tests were run for Data analysis using SPSS. Out of 527 tested, 204 patients were found seropositive and 135 were selected for data analysis on their consent (N 135). Pain and burning sensation of mouth (71.1%), discomfort in mouth opening (65.9%), Bleeding gums (53.3%), and taste aversion (50.3%) were the most common complaints followed by Inability to chew food (48.1%), Discomfort in swallowing (35.5%), Halitosis (34.8%) and tenderness over TMJ (30.4%). The study significantly recorded pain, discomfort and bleeding gums intraorally. Pain, tenderness and decreased efficiency of temporomandibular joint were also noted.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of Chikungunya virus infection. Interval estimation statistical method is used. It is one of very few studies which have investigated impact of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Oral Cavity and Temporomandibular Joint and concluded it to be quite painful and uncomfortable to bear causing burning gums, limiting speech, decreased chewing ability, altering taste perception, TM-joint and muscles tenderness and difficulty in food swallowing.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Political Economy and Stakeholder Perspectives on Inclusive Low-Carbon Energy Transition: Case of Kenyan Rangelands

Research Article
Author(s): Angela Mungai, Richard Mulwa, Stephen Anyango
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
Kenya, among other developing countries, is challenged by low access to clean power, particularly among households located in remote rangelands of the country. This study sought to evaluate the role and perspectives of energy sector actors in the transition of low-carbon off-grid technologies to households in Kenya as an alternative to the national grid for powering isolated low-income communities. To this end a key informant survey was conducted, involving State and non-state energy sector actors to assess the level of capacity, policy inclusiveness, constraints and delivery of clean off-grid energy technologies to rural households. Key findings revealed that County Government and non-state actors are largely excluded from clean energy planning for off-grid communities. In addition, women, within the framework of women’s groups are strong players in this sector and have a high potential to expand clean energy access to off-grid areas. It was also found that despite the Kenyan Government commitment towards a green economy, a change in policy direction would be necessary to ensure a multi-stakeholder planning approach for increased private investment and inclusive access to clean energy.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies investigating stakeholder perspectives and policy gaps constraining clean energy transitions into remote Kenyan rangelands, indicating that key constraints are economic, cultural and under-inclusion of local government and indigenous communities, particularly women, in national off-grid clean energy planning and implementation.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Process Design of Associated Natural Gas to Dimethyl Ether Production Via Direct Synthesis

Research Article
Author(s): Ipeghan J. Otaraku, Chinonso Onyekaonwu
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
The flaring of associated natural gas in Nigeria results in environmental degradation and economic wastage. Thus, several routes for monetizing this associated gas, especially Gas to Liquid processes, have been proposed and researched extensively. Amongst these, is the Gas to Dimethyl ether (GTDME) process. Dimethyl ether (DME) is a clean and economical diesel-alternative fuel which has properties that are similar to those of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and therefore, can also be used as a fuel in power generation, home heating, and cooking. This paper evaluates the technical and economic viability of converting stranded and associated gases to Dimethyl ether via direct synthesis using associated gas from the Niger Delta region as feed, to serve as a route for the stoppage of natural gas flaring and underutilization in Nigeria. The multi-function single reactor plant was modeled with Aspen Hysys Process Simulator (version 8.6) and an economic analysis was carried out, using bare module costing, to determine the profitability of the plant, taking note of the Dimethyl ether market and price. The simulated plant produced ready-to-use Dimethyl ether with a molar purity of 97.47% and an annual revenue of $23 million at the current cost price of $0.99 per kg liquid DME; thus, proving the profitability of the Gas-To-Dimethyl ether plant in tackling the gas-flaring problem.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the direct conversion of associated gas to Dimethyl ether, as a way of its utilization, instead of flaring. It is geared toward provision of more components of clean fuel and environmental conservation.
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Implications of Poor Electricity Supply on Nigeria’s National Development

Research Article
Author(s): Zekeri Momoh, Joseph A. Anuga, Anagba, Joseph Obidi
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Since 2005, the Federal Government of Nigeria has undertaken a long-term structural reform of the power sector to improve the provision of electricity to its citizens. The government has developed the power sector from a single state-owned utility to an unbundled system with private participation and ownership of assets across generation and distribution. This study contributes to the existing literature that unravels the implications on Nigeria's National Development. This study is situated within the output-oriented approach. This study uses new estimation methodology with data obtained from various qualitative and quantitative secondary sources while content analysis and table and pie chat were used in its analysis. Furthermore, the findings show that poor electricity supply has resulted to decay and collapse infrastructure, closure of industries as well as a rapid decline in the availability of social amenities like potable drinking water, improved health care services, etc.
Contribution/ Originality


Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Public Procurement in the Health Services: Application, Compliance and Challenges

Research Article
Author(s): Charles Adusei
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Public procurement is a strategic partner in achieving the public good. The purpose of the study was to examine the public procurement in the health services. A mixed method approach through the survey with Pearson Correlation and Kendall Coefficient of Concordance aided the analysis of the study. The study found that training enhanced the application knowledge whereas documentation verification was a key compliance modality. The bureaucracy was a challenge while the Medical Superintendent and the hospital Administrator were the officers for policy approval and supervision of the Public Procurement Act. The paper suggests the need for regular training of staff and stronger stakeholder participation in the procurement processes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on public procurement in the health services by focusing on the social and moral connotations in public procurement by public official's actions and inactions on the citizenry welfare.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Assessing the Relocation of Adekunle Ajasin University to Akokoland on Transportation System and Rural Development in Ondo State

Research Article
Author(s): Gabriel Olusola OWAGBEMI
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study investigates the impact of relocation of Adekunle Ajasin University (AAU) on transportation system and its effects on the socio-economic life Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from randomly selected respondents numbering three hundred and eleven. The quantitative data collected were analysed with statistical package for the social sciences, while the quantitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Findings revealed that transportation business has recently experienced changes. Most of the respondents (70.4%) agreed that 'Okada' transportation-system became a booming business with the relocation of AAUA. The teeming population of students and staffers had impacted positively on socio-economic activities in Akoko-land. Majority of the respondents 72.7% agreed that the increase in the number of 'agolo' buses (as taxi cabs) and 'Okada' motorcycles has made inter-town movements easy for most people. 64% agreed that improvement in the transportation sector in Akokoland has alleviated the negative impact of poverty on many youth. The study recommends that Government should intensify rural development by increasingly making the presence of Government visible through citing educational institutions, cottage industries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of relocation of higher institution of learning on rural transportation and rural development. The paper's primary contribution is finding that siting of higher institution of learning in rural area brings about socio-economic development.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Sphene and Zircon Fission Track Analysis of Syenite Rocks of the Sushina Hills, Purulia-Bankura Shear Zone (TPSZ)

Research Article
Author(s): Amal Kumar Ghosh
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Sushina hills are situated in the Purulia-Bankura Shear Zone. This is tectonically disturbed narrow zone nearly 100 Km long having WNW-ESE trend. Two different rock assemblages namely Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex and rocks of Singhbhum Group occur on the two sides of this shear zone. In this paper, I have used fission track ages of two cogenetic minerals and their corresponding closure temperatures to describe the denudation history. The difference of their fission track ages provides the rate of denudation 4 m/Ma during the period 970Ma-1458Ma due to tectonic activity. The youngest age of zircon of 970Ma represents the timing of the initiation of denudation.
Contribution/ Originality
Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis has been widely used to constrain the low-temperature thermal histories of many igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks in a wide range of geological settings. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the rate of denudation 4m/Ma and the timing of the initiation of denudation.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

The Effect of Proactive Market Orientation on Company Performance: The Case of Medium and Large Manufacturing Companies in Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Aschalew Degoma Durie, Elias Shetemam Beshir
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of proactive market orientations on companies' performances to come up with possible managerial and theoretical insights as to how manufacturing companies become proactive in formulating and implementing their marketing strategies of these days. Quantitative research approach with explanatory research design was employed. The variables used in the research were formulated based on the extant literature review which includes proactive customer orientations, proactive competitors' orientations, and market-based innovations as determinant variables and the companies' performances as an outcome variable. Textile and leather companies become the center of attention for this study because being proactive is the demand of the competition for such industries as fashion dictates the needs of customers and the dynamism of the competition in general. Simple random sampling technique was applied and a total of 76 qualified questionnaires were used for the data analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for data analysis and SPSS version 22 was used for the purpose. Based on the result, all of the three independent variables are found to significantly affect the dependent variable while proactive customer orientation is the strongest predictor among the three predictor variables. Hence, the managerial implication is implied for the companies that while being proactive is essential in general, being proactive in understanding the current needs of customers and predicting the changes in those needs in the future is particularly important in order for those companies to remain relevant and sustainable in the market.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the determinants of company performance by adding market based innovation to the known factors of proactive consumer and competitor orientations. The study also challenged prior findings that claim market based innovation has indirect effect on company performance
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Audit Fees and Audit Quality: A Study of Listed Companies in the Downstream Sector of Nigerian Petroleum Industry

Research Article
Author(s): ALIU Momodu Mohammed, Okpanachi Joshua, Mohammed Nma Ahmed
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study examined the relationship between audit fees and audit quality of listed companies in the downstream sector of the Nigerian petroleum industry. In order to achieve this objective, a total of nine (9) listed companies in the downstream sector of Nigerian Petroleum Industry were selected. Secondary data used for the study was extracted from the annual reports of the selected companies for eight (8) financial years (2007-2014). Audit quality which is the dependent variable was regressed on audit fees alongside leverage and age as control variables using the binary logit regression method. Finding shows that audit fee has a negative significant relationship with audit quality, while leverage also has an inverse relationship but was not significant. Firm age, on its part, had a positive sign and significantly associated with audit quality. It was therefore concluded that high audit fees have the likelihood of compromising auditors’ independence, thereby, resulting in lower audit quality. The study recommends that regulators of the auditing practice should adopt measures that would regulate and monitor the audit pricing process in order to strike a balance that would curtail over-charging and or under-charging which evidence shows could impair the independence of the auditor, thereby affect audit quality.
Contribution/ Originality


Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

A Historical Analysis of the Nature, Causes and Impact of the Foreign Debt Crisis in Latin America, 1970- 1980

Research Article
Author(s): Johnson Olaosebikan Aremu
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study examined the nature, causes and impact of the huge foreign debt crisis in Latin America between the 1970s and 1980s referred to generally as the ‘lost decade'. As a survey research, it employed the historical method of research and analysis. It gathered its data extensively through library search and adopted the qualitative technique of content analysis of historical documents. The paper noted that the debt crisis in Latin America came to a head in August 1982 when Mexico publicly declared its insolvency. It identified a number of factors that brought about this endemic burden of foreign debt in Latin America. These included: the over-preponderancy of foreign loans granted to Latin American states, particularly Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela, in the 1970s and the attendant inflation and increasing floating interest rates. These had combined to serve as great challenges to the economic development and survival of the Latin American countries during the period of study. The various attempts at debt rescheduling and cancellation between 1980 and 1989 were equally well documented. It concluded that Latin American countries should avoid excessive external debts to avoid disaggregation in their economic development in the nearest future.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on development crisis in Third World countries. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that excessive external debt is a major impediment to socio-economic growth and development in Latin American states.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2018 Issue: 3