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There is relatively little research on whether city business tax
structures either attract or repel business activity. Using very precise
establishment-level data, the study examines the economic impacts of
such taxes on all U.S. cities with populations over 40 thousand. Results
indicate that activity-based city business taxes and sales taxes had
statistically significant effects on the growths of business
establishments and their related employment. Contribution/ Originality
This is the first study to document overall business taxes paid by firms
in U.S. cities. This is also the first study to show that higher levels
of such city business taxes reduce employment and the number of
establishments in U.S. cities. Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1
Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management
This study is an exploratory study that aims to examine the impact of workgroup emotional climates on group effectiveness in Egypt. The paper contains a review of literature on the concept of workgroup emotional climate. The study findings reveal that workgroup emotional climate is correlated with group effectiveness. These findings open up new questions to be explored by future research. Contribution/ Originality
This research contributes to the extant literature by developing an in-depth understanding of the relationship between workgroup emotional climate and group effectiveness. The study takes account of the features of different cultures, particularly the Egyptian culture. The study determines the explanation power of the Workgroup Emotional Climate (WEC) on group effectiveness.
This study sought to recognize the effect of public debt on unemployment and domestic product. Also, it aimed to identify the developments that occurred in some indices in the Palestinian economy. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers employed the data covering the period (1999-2014) as well as the simple regression analysis. The findings showed that the percentage of public debt to gross domestic product amounted, on average, by 20%. Furthermore, it was found that there is a connection of statistical effect between the rate of public debt and the independent variable, rate of debt, to gross domestic product. Meanwhile, the findings showed no connection between the rate of public debt and gross domestic product. Contribution/ Originality
Very few studies sought to tackle the topic of this study, or at least this topic was not dealt with from all angles. This paper is an addition to existing literature as it contributes to recognize the effect of public debt on unemployment and domestic product. Furthermore, this study is among very few studies that use regression analysis in the period between (1999) and (2014) to highlight the aforementioned relationship.
In this study, we prove one of the fundamental strong laws of classical probability theory, the Hartman-Wintner’s law of the iterated logarithm for non-commutative martingale using a simple exponential inequality. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by proving the Hartman-Wintner’s law of the iterated logarithm for non-commutative martingale using a simple exponential inequality as a counterpart of the Kolmogorov’s law of the law iterated logarithm.
Man as seriously endangered the forest ecosystem, perhaps due to lack of knowledge on the implications of his activities. This paper assesses the influence of modern information system and socio-economic status, attitude and awareness to forest resource sustainability and conservation in Boki Local Government Areal. Four communities were used of which six hundred copies of questionnaire were administered to residents in the area. The socio-economic status and the modern information dissemination system were captured in the questionnaire. Findings from the data collected show that communities with high socio-economic status have positive attitude and awareness to forest resource conservation and sustainability. This result was affirmed in the tested hypotheses which show a high calculated value greater than the critical value. Contribution/ Originality
This study will help to bridge the gap in the existing literature. New methodology and formula were originated in this study. However, there is still insufficient data on the subject matter. Nevertheless, this paper will provide a baseline information on the effectiveness of information system in forest resource management.
This paper analyzes the lead-lag relationships between construction investment and GDP at business-cycle frequency by the tests of Granger causality and the impulse responses in the framework of the vector autoregression, using the annual Japanese data. The analysis find that private construction investment tends to lead GDP, not vice versa, in the Granger sense and is of value in predicting the course of GDP one year ahead. Government construction investment, on the other hand, tends to lag GDP. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated empirically whether construction investment preceded the economic growth in business-cycle frequency within the methodological framework of Granger causality.
This paper examines the profitability of using an emerging country, currency that is pegged to the U.S. dollar in carry trade against floating currencies. It also examines the effect of embedding forecasting techniques in its profitability and risk-adjusted returns. While carry trade is performed largely with currencies that adapt a floating exchange rate system, conducting such a strategy using pegged currency has proven to be very rewarding, especially when the strategy is enhanced with forecasting methods. Carry trade is a speculative strategy where carry traders take advantage of interest rate differential between two currencies. It is conducted by borrowing a low interest rate currency and investing in a high interest rate currency. According to uncovered interest parity (UIP), carry trade should not yield any profit. If investors are both rational and risk-neutral, then exchange rate changes will eliminate any gains arising from the differential in interest rate. But literature has shown that UIP does not hold. This failure has led to unprecedented returns for that strategy matching the returns of the S&P 500 and outperforming it in terms of Sharpe ratio. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on carry trade by examining the feasibility of using pegged currencies in such strategy. This study is one of the few studies which has investigated the effect of embedding forecasting methods in the selection process and its effect on return, risk and risk-adjusted returns.
A sample survey was conducted in six districts of three woreda in South Omo zone of SNNPR to assess smallholder beef cattle fattening and marketing systems under farmer management condition. Using a purposive sampling technique, a total of 120 households from six districts were included in the survey. The sample respondents indicated that about 97.5% were castrate their animals for fattening purpose while only 2.5% didn't. About 25.6% of the sample respondents had experience in fattening of uncastrated animals while 74.4% had not experienced in fattening uncastrated animal. About 90.6% of the fattening system they carry out was outdoors,5.1% was indoor and 4.3% were both indoor and outdoor. About 78.9% of the sample respondents indicated that the establishment of farmers' cooperative organization could help to exploit the existing livestock potential in a better way while 21.1% didn't think. About 77.9% Of the respondents indicated that although individual farmer tells the selling price for their own product, they were unable to sell at their own selling price. This is because market price setting for the product was by trader ,15.9% was by negotiation,2.7% was by farmer individually,1.8% respondents determined prices through involvement of brokers/middlemen-this offers the lowest profit margin for the producer due to the fee paid to the middle men and 0.9% was by both broker and negotiation. According to sample respondents, the majority of individual farmer didn’t set the price for their own product, they were price takers. Cattle marketing in the study area function at two levels, namely village level and primary markets. Market actors were producers, consumers, middlemen, restaurant owners, traders and butchers. The channels of cattle marketing was farmers-to-farmers, farmers-to-consumers, farmers-to-traders and farmers-to-butchers. Most of the feed resources were locally available Therefore, to increase the quality and number of animals fattened, providing farmers with sufficient training and extension services on improved cattle fattening technologies, adaptation and introduction of improved feeds and feeding system, market information are needed. Season and market locations were found to affect price of cattle suggesting the need to plan cattle fattening targeting season and market location to benefit farmers from better price, so that cattle fattening become sustainable. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that investigating the existing cattle fattening practices and marketing systems, constraints and opportunities, the main actors in marketing of beef cattle fattening and locally available feeds used for beef cattle fattening in order to plan and develop improved cattle fattening and marketing systems.
Purpose: The intended audience for this paper is retina surgeons who perform retinal detachment (RD) operations, anesthesiologists and dentists who use nitrous oxide, ophthalmologists and optometrists who encounter RD patients, students of ophthalmology and optometry, and RD patients, their families and friends. To help future retinal detachment (RD) and macular hole patients understand imminent eerie visual events, the author developed a mathematical model for the behavior of an injected intraocular C3F8 perfluoropropane gas bubble after an RD operation. Ophthalmologists could use this model to create animations showing patients what to expect. Methods: Our subject had three RD operations with the injection of perfluoropropane gas. After each of these operations, he daily recorded the horizon to gas bubble angle and the radius of curvature of the gas bubble. These data were used to calculate the volume and surface area of the gas bubble. Then formal modeling techniques were applied. Results:One gas bubble, which lasted 73 days, was studied extensively. Fitting the measured data required four geometric submodels, corresponding to the four possible bubble configurations. Conclusions: This model for the absorption of an intraocular gas bubble had two components: the structural component described the four geometric configurations that the bubble went through in its lifecycle and the dynamic component that described the absorption rate of the gas. The model suggests that the gas-bubble absorption-rate is not proportional to either the surface area of the bubble or the surface area between the SF6 gas and the aqueous humour. Rather the gas-bubble absorption-rate is proportional to the surface area of gas in contact with the retina. Contribution/ Originality
This is the first paper to show the four sequential geometric models of an intraocular perfluoropropane gas bubble after a retinal detachment operation. This bubble is absorbed at a rate proportional to the amount of gas in direct contact with the retinal surface.
Tobacco smoking continues to be a bane in the US. Nearly 540, 000 people die annually because of cigarette smoking. These deaths are preventable. Smoking is implicated in lung cancer and many other medical conditions. Billions of dollars have been spent on health issues related to smoking. Lung cancer affects men and women. Nicotine addiction is the culprit in continued smoking and understanding its role is important in promoting smoking cessation. Smoking cessation is important and scientific evidence and approaches exist in the literature. We have explored traditional, non-traditional and novel modalities for smoking cessation and the need for physicians to be actively involved in recommending smoking cessation. We have also discussed special populations that have special requirements for smoking cessation. Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is making stakeholders aware of the implications of smoking and the role of the physicians and policy makers in reducing the incidence of cigarette related deaths. It also emphasizes how available smoking cessation methods may be beneficial to smokers.
The Sarvak Formation in Bi Bi Hakimeh oil field (well No.29) with the thickness of 324 m consists of limestone in Cenomanian - Turonian period. The upper boundary of the Sarvak Formation is in the form of disconformity with the Gurpi Formation. The lower boundary of Sarvak Formation is not clear because of lack of sequential excavation. According to microbiostratigraphy studies, 4 genera and 2 species of planktonic foraminifera and 22 genera and 28 species of benthic foraminifera are identified and based on them, three biozones were introduced including Nezzazata–Alveolinids assemblage zone, Rudist debris, and Oligosteginid facies. The zones are in consistence with zones introduced by Wynd (1965). In the study area (southwest of Iran), the Sarvak Formation is subdivided into 8 microfacies that are distinguished by petrographic analysis on the basis of their depositional textures and fauna. In addition, four major depositional environments were identified in the Sarvak Formation. These include shelf lagoon, platform margin, slope and basin environmental settings, which are interpreted as a carbonate shelf without an effective barrier separating the platform from the open ocean. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the upper cretaceous sequences of oil fields. The results of this study will help to make biostratigraphy biozones, interpretation of microfacies and depositional environments upper cretaceous, Recognition of lithology specificities and Separation and definition of the upper cretaceous sequences.
The selection of a site for landfill is one of the most difficult steps in landfilling process. Several techniques and methods have been used in a sanitary landfill site selection in the literature. In this paper two methods consist of a method based on the artificial neural network method and simple additive weighting (SAW) method have been used to landfill site selection in Lorestan province, IRAN and the results of two methods compare to each other. The input data of the research consist of 9 digitized data layers including geology, faults, slope, vegetation, residential areas, road and railways, groundwater resources, dams, drainage network maps. The land suitability map prepared by means of SAW method has been grouped in five categories with 0.5 intervals (Ai: 0 to 2.5). Derived map from the neural network modeling exhibit a gradual suitability for a landfill site. With SAW method that was used in the first step of the research, most of the area is considered unsuitable, while by the neural network method, the area with high suitability covers different parts of the study area. One of the most characteristics of the neural network methods is flexibility. The maps that are provided by these methods help the decision makers to select areas with a high suitability value and then proceed to field investigations according to the level of enforcement of the other policies. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about the multi-criteria decision making and the using intelligence tools for site selection. This study uses new methodology for landfill site selection by means of artificial neural networks. This study originates new model for site selection based on the geological and geographical data.
Analysis of an organization’s financial performance reveals whether an organization’s financial condition is performing better or worse. This reflects its performance and achievement in that time period. In order to achieve good financial performance, the organization’s staffs need to be committed to work according to the organization’s plans and its budgetary commitment. Leadership type is crucial in determining the organization’s success because it affects and enhances the staff’s commitment to participate in creating and implementing the organization’s budget. Supervision control is needed to ensure that budgetary commitment is on target and does not deviate from its predetermined commitment. This study to analyzed the role of supervisory role and leadership type on budgetary commitment and financial performance across 15 hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. 10 participants were surveyed from each hospital with questionnaires about supervisory role, leadership type, budgetary commitment, and financial performance. We also obtained secondary data in the form of financial statements from each hospital and later correlated this data with our questionnaire using a path analysis computer software Smart Partial Least Square. The results showed that a hospital’s managerial supervision (estimated path coefficient = 0.222, p=0.001) and its leadership type(estimated path coefficient= 0.572, p=0.000) positively influenced the hospital’s budgetary commitment. Leadership type(estimated path coefficient = 0.294, p =0.020) and budgeting commitment(estimated path coefficient= 0.243, p=0.030) directly influenced a hospital’s financial performance. While managerial supervision has no direct effect on a hospital’s financial performance (estimated path coefficient = 0.130, p=0.125), it exerts its effects on financial performance indirectly through its effect on budgetary commitment. Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the practitioners of the hospitals through the implementation of budgetary commitments and the achievement of financial performance, especially the leadership of the delegate authority to subordinates and prepare human resources who are competent in the implementation of the budget thus improve financial performance.
This study examined the valuation of financial performance from 13 Indonesia Estate Firms. The valuation involves eight key performance indicators which are based on accounting principles including Return on Equity, Return on Investment, Total Asset Turnover, Cash Ratio, Current Ratio, and others. Those indicators are combined with indicators weighted to be as Financial Health Score. Both the indicators could be improved simultaneously, but whether the improvement always valuable or not? To answer this question, Economic Value Added (EVATM) was employed to measure shareholder value. Financial reports of 13 firms from the period of 2002 to 2011 are selected. Nine hypotheses were proposed to examine the relationship between performance indicators and financial health score to EVATM. Each hypothesis was tested under Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model. The findings indicate that all tested hypotheses show significant relationship. However, it can be identified that the creation of financial performance based on accounting method, it would disclose the shareholder value. But EVATM method demonstrates that actually some companies suffer a loss of their value although the financial performance improved. Contribution/ Originality
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has long presented IR theorists with a paradox. This is due to the fact that it survived decades of intra-mural conflicts without having provided member states with any of the benefits that justify regional institutional arrangements in Europe. Current debate over the association?s effectiveness centers on ASEAN?s informal, strictly intergovernmental decision-making process, generally referred to as the ?ASEAN Way?. Supporters credit it with having prevented intra-regional conflicts from escalating into open war by building confidence among member states; while critics regard endurance of this sovereignty-centered decision-making process as a fundamental obstacle to regional integration and emphasize the significant costs it entails. Notwithstanding widespread recognition of the essential role the ASEAN decision-making process plays in explaining regional cooperation, scholars seldom went beyond presenting the various formal and informal procedures, examining their consequences in relation to specific aspects of cooperation, or acknowledging their role in serving the interests of governments. The aim of this article is to provide an in-depth assessment of the evolution of regional decision-making actors and practices and examine the extent of the changes provided for by the ASEAN Charter. It looks at the role these practices play in achieving the objectives member governments set for the association, and finds that the basic policy-making cycle negotiated in late 1960s ? early 1970s has been reinforced by subsequent institutional changes. The conclusion discusses implications of the continued relevance of this process to fulfilling ASEAN objectives. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature on ASEAN by investigating the evolution of a key aspect of regional association which, though widely recognized as crucial to understanding the extent and direction of cooperation, seldom constitutes the focus of research.
This study presents the effect of temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and evaporation on solar energy in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. The data was recorded every 5 minutes daily and monthly, covering 2008 – 2014, in The Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Meteorological Logging Unit. The MATLAB software used in the analysis of the data reveal a direct relationship between solar radiation and temperature and evaporation, and an inverse relationship with rainfall and relative humidity. The mean atmospheric temperature is 26.02oC, while solar energy varies between 47.07 mJm-2 month-1 and 113.99 mJm-2month-1 with a mean of 87.87 mJm-2month-1. During the rainy season (April – September), the mean monthly solar energy is 86.69mJm-2month-1, while in the dry season (October – March), the mean is 89.05mJm-2month-1. The amount of evaporation per temperature ranges from 2.92 mm/oC to 4.47 mm/oC with a mean annual of 3.57 mm/oC. In the rainy season, this value varies from 2.79 mm/oC to 3.79 mm/oC. In the dry season months, the variation is from 3.12 mm/oC to 4.47 mm/oC. The rainfall-to-evaporation ratio of 5.71 in rainy month demonstrates that about the amount of rainfall is recorded for the amount of water evaporated. This correlates with the fact that humidity is high. The results of this work could be used in the design and construction of solar energy technologies to provide energy. Moreover, the results could also provide input for climate risk information, local and national planning and decision-making for sustainable development in the areas of agriculture, aviation, health, and weather forecasting. Contribution/ Originality
The most enigmatic problems with the nearly 200 salt domes pierced in the Persian Gulf and in the Zagros Mountain Ranges (ZMR) in southern Iran, a unique morphology in the world, have been the matter of this study, which is based on a combination of field work, enhancement of satellite and aerial photographs etc. In the ZMR, structural anomalies are frequently associated with similar facies distribution patterns. In the eastern portion of the region, emergent salt plugs of Infra-Cambrian age exhibit the same alignment patterns. Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present Zagros fold belt, but rather indicate their affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Land sat imagery and aerial photographs. Bending of anticlines in the competent cover rock, combined with minor strike-slip faults and horizontal displacements of parts of folded structures, strongly point to the presence of these basement faults. The salt plugs, which have pierced cover rocks of up to 10000 m thick, are distributed on the Arabian Platform along regional basement faults. The area of diapir outcrops is bounded by the Oman Line to the east and by the Kazerun fault to the west. Pieces of the basement have been brought up to the surface on some of the salt domes. The fragments were transported by rotational ascent of the Hormuz Salt Formation to the present and former land surfaces. The recognition of features related to basement tectonics and realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes are important adjuncts to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in this region. To our best knowledge, data of basement faults in the study area are scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine basement faults and their relation to salt dome distribution. Considering the fold axes bending, the trend of the salt plugs and also the distribution of epicenters of the last century, n umerous new basement faults are introduced in this paper. Contribution/ Originality
Ramsar area is located across and between Alborze Mountain and Caspine Sea in North of Iran. About 30 spas are located south of the Ramsar and Sadatshar town. They are almost in between 20 to 70 m elevation. Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks and alluvial deposit are exposed around the Ramsar area. In tertiary, acidic Plutonism was active and intrusion into the Paleozoic and Cenozoic formations. Quaternary and Alluvium deposits are exposed and extending on the Jurassic formations in Ramsar plain and have thickness lower than 10 m in show springs. The annual precipitation in the Ramsar region is 976 mm.There has not any proper Thermal spring management in Ramsar area yet. This could post some serious problem on improper management of Thermal spring sites, where its environment has been put into jeopardy. This study aims to provide a way to classify the Thermal springs in Ramsar area. The result of this study help in the classification of Thermal spring sites for official planning improvement of administration and sustainable development of natural resources of the area.The study makes use of the Department of Applied Geosciences in Islamic Azad University. GIS data of a total of 9 Thermal springs in the attempt to set up a classification system of Thermal springs in Ramsar area. These data include surface temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, TDS, pH values, H2S, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, SiO2, SO4 contents, their locations, usages and other relevant information.The surface temperature of Thermal springs are between 19oC – 65oC and Na-K-Cageothermometer shows estimated reservoir temperature range from 25 o C – 195 o C. Most of the water from these Thermal springs is relatively turbidness and their composition is sodium choloride. The Thermal springs in this area generally exhibit high SiO2 and Na content; strong smell of sulfur.In addition, there are 9 Thermal springs that show high concentration of Cl, Ca, Na, K and Mg.There are three major criteria used in the classification system in this study, temperature, pH and their usage. On the basis of temperature, there are three classes of Thermal springs in Ramsar area: hyper thermal spring (10 %, 50-99o C); thermal spring (80%, 30-50o C). There is one class achieved on the basis of pH values: all of Thermal springs exhibit weak acids. There are 4 types of usage classification: swimming pools, Tourism, space heating and drying of organic materials. Contribution/ Originality
Tribal and minority populations’ square measure progressively exposed to risk factors as a results of urbanization. The study was conducted within the Rakhain community in Cox’s Bazar district, Bangladesh, with the aims of deciding the patterns of unsafe drinking and their socio demographic characteristics. This cross-sectional study was done among 287 Rakhain people. Informations were collected by face to face interview using pretested structured form. Seriously sick, lunatic person and who weren't interesting to involve were excluded from the study. Substance use was significantly high among the age group of 35-44 years. Their mean age was 40.66 (±11.275) years. Majority of the respondents was male 148(52%), married 222(77.4%) and educated up to primary level 179(62.4%). The very best proportion 68(23.7%) of the respondents were housewife and day labourer and lowest was jobless 26(9.1%). Their average monthly family financial gain was 17874.56 (±7208.553) Taka. More than fifty percent Rakhain consumed beer as hazardous drinking. Statistically important association was found between their pattern of drinking and socio-demographic characteristics (p <0.001). Hence improvement of educational and employment status of tribals strongly needed. It’s dreadfully necessary of interventions to promote knowledge, awareness, and health skill among the ethnic Rakhain tribes to guide a healthy life. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated to find out the areas where interventions are needed. Findings of this study will help policy makers to prepare appropriate policy to bring healthy Rakhain community which is an ethnic tribal community residing in coastal area of Bangladesh.
Rickets, a condition caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, has a myriad of presentations and affects children all over the world. Infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who are vitamin D deficient are affected, particularly in the absence of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. While breast feeding is encouraged, breast milk is deficient in vitamin D thus; exclusively breastfed infants require vitamin D supplementation. This case describes a three-week-old male infant with a continuum of rickets, which went undiagnosed from the initial presentation of noisy, difficult breathing and snoring at the pediatric emergency department. This case emphasizes that rickets may not always have a classical presentation. Contribution/ Originality