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This study aims to examine the integration of Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE) with some Arab and international financial markets, which are (Jordan, Iraq, Germany, and France). The study used monthly data of each stock market index during the period 2010-2015. To achieve the objectives of the study, five tests are used. Namely, Unit Root Test, Johansen Cointegration Test, Vector Error Model, Vector Autoregressive Models (Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition) and finally Granger Causality. The findings show a long-run relationship between DSE and other studied markets. Consequently, markets move together in a long-term. No evidence is found about short-term relationship. In addition, DSE seems to respond slowly to changes in the other markets; as a result, shocks on these markets do not explain the variation on DSE index. Finally, Granger Causality test reveals absence of causality among these markets. Thus, investors can benefit from diversifying their portfolios in short-term, but not in the long-term. Contribution/ Originality
This paper is the first research examines the integration of Damascus Securities Exchange with the Arab and international markets during the period 2010-2015. In addition, it is considering the impact of the Syrian crisis on the relationship between Damascus market and other markets
Three methods are used to predict the results for two years of the Men’s NCAA Division1 March Madness Basketball Tournament. These methods include using the machine-learning method of the support vector machine, the data mining method of the random forest, and a newly developed Bayesian model using the property of probability self-consistency as an extension of Shen et al. (2015). The random forest method and the support vector machine method are found to possibly do slightly better than the Bayes model, although the results vary. Possible ideas as to how to extend the Bayes model are given. Contribution/ Originality
This study develops a Bayesian model using the property of self-consistency and compares this model with two other modeling techniques in predicting the results of March Madness.
Samples of road races are taken for various distances, including 5K, 10K, half-marathon, and marathon. Age/gender adjusted times are calculated for each runner of every road race included in the samples. Hypothesis tests are conducted comparing the average age/gender adjusted running time for men with the age-gender adjusted time for women for each race in the sample and then using meta-analysis techniques to collectively compare the mean adjusted times for each of the various distances. Hypothesis tests are also conducted comparing the variances of the age/gender adjusted running times for women with the variance of the age/gender adjusted running times for men, as well as the proportions of men and women who have age/gender adjusted running times greater than the 60th percentile, and then less than the 40th percentile. Overall, the average age/gender adjusted running times for women are less than those of men for each of the distances. It is found that a significantly higher proportion of men perform at or above the 60th percentile compared to the proportion of women for each of the race distances. It is found, however, that the variances of the age/gender adjusted running times for men are larger. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature by comparing the proportions of male and female runners who finish at or above their 60th percentiles of age/gender adjusted running times and who finish at or below their 40th percentiles of age/gender adjusted running times for each of the major road race distances.
This study examined the relationship between market share and profitability of the banking sector in Nigeria. The study involved ten banks listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE). Secondary data was collected from the NSE covering a period of nine years from 2003 to 2011. The multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The dependent variable in the regression model is profitability represented by profit after tax (PAT), while the independent variables are two components of market share for banks: deposit customers (DC) and loan customers (LC). The results of the study revealed that market share represented here by deposit customers (DC) and loan customers (LC) have positive relationship with profitability (PAT) of the banking sector in Nigeria. The researchers recommended that management of banks in Nigeria should entreat quality of management as an important part of market share effect because superior management causes banks to operate at a higher level of effectiveness and efficiency in managing the deposit portfolio and loan volume which in turn will boost profitability. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the causality relationship between deposit volume, risk asset portfolio and profitability. Thus, this study highlighted the importance of identifying high-net-worth customers with integrity and good credit rating whose patronage contributes to the growth of banks and a developing economy.
Two questions guide this research on the influence of strategy implementation to the performance of the micro enterprises in the Ruiru Sub County, Kiambu County, Kenya. The first is whether micro enterprises in Ruiru Sub County carry out strategic planning including strategy implementation. The second is whether strategy implementation has any competitive influence on their performance. Most literature and research on strategic planning is on big firms (Pearce and Robinson, 2007). In Kenya strategic planning is relatively new and less common in small enterprises. Micro enterprises ranking at the bottom of the pyramid of businesses in Kenya are more likely to ignore it. Although they contribute heavily to service delivery and job creation many of them are handicapped in growth and expansion. Data was collected on a sample drawn from 737 micro enterprises from 3 different industries in Ruiru Sub County using descriptive research design. Stratified random sampling was used with a 20% sample size which was 147 elements. Data was collected from the micro enterprises’ owner-managers by use of self-administered or interview administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with computer software. The findings conclude that micro entrepreneurs in Ruiru Sub County make business strategies and implement them and strategy implementation significantly influences the performance of these micro enterprises. For the micro entrepreneurs who engaged in strategy implementation the average rate of success on the three performance variables of profits, business turnover and market positioning was 75% while those who did not implement strategy was 25%. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the importance of strategy implementation and its contribution to the performance of micro enterprises. The empirical evidence provided shows that where strategy implementation is carried out, there is a strong positive relationship between it and performance variables of profits, business turnover and market positioning.
This study attempts to examine the factors that determine the import demand function of Pakistan using time series data of 1973-2013. Autoregressive Distributed Lag bounds testing approach cointegration is used to determine long run while ECM in ARDL framework to determine short run adjustments. The results showed substantial proof of the existence of a cointegration association at various degrees among variables included in the models. Contribution/ Originality
We study the Markovian process on parameterized approximate nonlinear one-dimensional double Morse potentials, used to describe the collective proton dynamics in one dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. Using Kramer’s method, the first and second moment of the proton’s dynamic is evaluated respectively in the case of over damping, intermediate damping and very low damping limit. We found out that in the case of an over damping limit and intermediate damping, the dynamics of the proton decrease when the curvature parameter increases. In the case of very low damping limit, the motion of the proton in the well became independent on the curvature parameter. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the interaction between the heat bath and the hydrogen bonds chain subject to parameterized nonlinear one-dimensional double Morse potentials more precisely the dependence of some physicals quantities with the curvature parameter.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Centauraea calcitrapa against multidrug resistant bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) , purify and identify the active compounds. A sensitivity test was performed using disc diffusion method that resulted in the appearance of multiple drug resistance phenotypes of tested bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Centauraea calcitrapa showed that inhibition zone diameter against Staphylococcus aureus (23mm), Enterococcus faecium (17mm) , Klebsiella pneumoniae (15mm), Acinetobacter baumanni (22mm), Enterobacter cloacae (20mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18mm) . Highest activity was exhibited against Staphylococcus aureus and can be considered to be more effective than the most commercial antibiotics. The active compound was purified using column chromatography and visualized using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of active purified compound ranged from 15.6 to 62.5μg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) values were two-fold higher than the corresponding MIC values ranged from 31.25 to 125μg/ml. The active purified compound was partial identified using UV, IR, 1HNMR and mass spectroscopy. The analysis of data obtained indicated that; the purified active compound belongs to janerin group of chemical compounds. (Centauraea calcitrapa) is a new source for discovery of bio-active compound against (MDRB). Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the antibacterial activity of Centaurea plant (family Asteraceae) in Egypt against MDRB. Egypt is one of main countries for diversity of this group of plants. Therefore, this study documents the antibacterial potential of Centauraea calcitrapa extract in Egypt against MDRB.
Background: Time-efficient exercise protocols may encourage subjects to exercise more frequently and could thus be excellent tools for health promotion. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the time-efficient methods HIT and/versus WB-EMS on cardio-metabolic risk factors in untrained middle-aged males. Methods: Untrained, healthy males (30-50 years) were randomly allocated either to 16-weeks of WB-EMS with 3 applications of 20 min/2 weeks, or 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance) training (HIT) performing 2 sessions/week. Both methods addressed all the main muscle groups. Metabolic-Syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score), abdominal body fat and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) were defined as the study endpoints. Results: HIT and WB-EMS were similar (p≤.096) effective to improve the MetS-Z-Score (HIT: p=.031 vs. WB-EMS: p=.001) and abdominal body fat (HIT: -4.5±8.1%, p=.014 vs. WB-EMS -4.0±5.2%, p=.002) in this cohort. No significant changes (HIT: -2.7±7.4, p=. 216 vs. WB-EMS: -2.2±10.2 p=.441) or group-differences (p=.931) within and between the groups were determined for TC/HDL-C. Conclusion: WB-EMS and HIT-RT is equally effective, attractive, feasible and time-efficient methods for combatting cardio-metabolic risk factors in untrained middle-aged males. WB-EMS can be considered as an effective option, particularly for subjects with low time resources unwilling or unable to conduct exhausting HIT protocols. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that both exercise methods, high intensity resistance training (HIT) as defined as “single-set-to-failure protocol with intensifying strategies” and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) are equally effective, attractive and feasible approaches for tackling cardio-metabolic risk factors in untrained middle-aged males with limited time resources.
This research was carried out at two farms located in the Karacabey region of Turkey: an extensive goat farm (A) and a semi-intensive goat farm (B). A total of 32 Saanen goats (3 years old) at an early stage of their second lactation were selected from Farm A and Farm B. The total DM intake (TDM) values were 1.89 and 1.86 (kg d-1) for goats housed on the A and B farms, respectively. Compared with Farm A, Farm B produced more milk each day (P<0.05; 1.38 -. 1.76 kg day-1). The milk samples taken from Farm A had a higher (P<0.05) milk fat content than the samples from Farm B (milk fat=4.40 and 1.89 %, respectively). The serum creatinine values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the blood of goats from farm A compared with farm B (1.11 and 0.56 mg dl-1, respectively). Comparison of glucose levels from both farms showed a significantly higher level of glucose in the blood samples from goats at Farm B (P<0.05; 24.23 and 61.43 mg dl-1). Serum parameters for cholesterol, GGT and urea were not affected by the feeding system (P > 0.05). Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the milk composition, bacteriology and selected blood parameters of dairy goats under different feeding systems.
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most common member of the family Amaryllidaceae (Alliaceae) which grows as a herbaceous biennial vegetable crop with cross pollinated and monocotyledonous behavior having diploid chromosomes number 2n=16. In order to identify Genotypic difference in growth, yield and yield related traits of Onion varieties, the field experiment was carried out at the research station of Mehoni Agricultural Research Center, southern, Ethiopia in the 2013 and 2014 cropping season under irrigation condition. The experiment was consisted of varieties of onion arranged in completely randomized block design with four replications. In 2013 cropping season, days to 50% maturity, bulb diameter and unmarketable were significantly affected by varietal difference. On the other hand, marketable yield, unmarketable yield and total yield were also influenced through varietal effect in 2014. The highest marketable yield (318.52 q ha-1) was obtained from Adama red variety; which, however, it was statistically on par with the marketable yield (289.26 q ha-1) at Nafis variety whereas the lowest marketable yield (222.41 q ha-1) was recorded at Nasik red variety in 2014 cropping season. Contribution/ Originality
The paper`s primary contribution is finding that to study genotypic difference in growth and yield related traits of onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties at southern Tigray, Ethiopia. Then, it provides concrete information on the best adaptable varieties to the specific agro-ecology for onion growers particularly in the specific study area.
The field experiment was carried out at the research station of Mehoni Agricultural Research Center, Fachagama, Ethiopia in 2013 and 2014 cropping season under irrigation and in 2014 for rain fed experiment only. The experiment consisted of four commercial tomato varieties arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. In the 2013 cropping season, days to 50% flowering and maturity, plant height, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruits per plant, marketable yield, unmarketable yield and total yield were significantly influenced by varietal difference. Likewise, it was also observed that variety exerted a significance effect on establishment percentage, days to 50% maturity, plant height, number of fruits/plant and marketable yield under both irrigation and rain fed and on unmarketable yield under irrigation conditions of the 2014 cropping year. Under irrigation, the highest marketable yield (414.58 q ha-1) was obtained at Chali variety followed by Miya variety (289.17 q ha-1) in 2014 while the lowest value (110.83 q ha-1) was obtained from Melka sholla in the 2013 cropping season. Whereas the highest (295.58 q ha-1) and lowest marketable yields (283.33 q ha-1) were observed at Chali and Melksa sholla varieties under rain fed condition of the 2014 cropping season. Contribution/ Originality
The paper`s primary contribution is finding that to study the agronomic evaluation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill) varieties for phonological, growth and yield related characters. In that case it provides tangible information and addresses the issues of best adaptable varieties to the specific agro-ecology for tomato growers.
Pollutants removal from combustion gases during diesel engines operation is one of the most widely known environmental applications of activated carbons. In order to guarantee the successful removal of contaminants and pollutants on activated carbons, the development of new adsorbents has been increasing in the last few years. This paper presents a systematic study for cleaning diesel engines of CO, SO2, NO2 and H2S using the process of physical adsorption on novel adsorbents obtained from tropical biomasses. The combustion gases were qualitative and quantitative analyzed by Gas Chromatography. The use of this simple method is a valuable alternative to meet emission standards in Developing Countries. It was demonstrated that the agricultural wastes studied here are a feasible alternative for granular activated carbons preparation for pollutants removal during diesel engines operation, approaching its efficiency to the commercial Catalytic Converters. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of a few studies which have investigated the use of agricultural wastes as alternative source for activated carbons preparation. The products synthetized trough this systematic investigation has the adequate adsorbent properties for environmental applications like pollutants removal during diesel engines operation.
African immigrants in the US encounter many issues on arrival to the US over time. The healthy immigrant effect (HIE) is a phenomenon that should be explored as many African immigrants lose their HIE on adoption of the ‘American lifestyle’. Family medicine practices in the US encounter a significant African immigrant population from different African countries, which is an underserved population. Highlighting their health issues will enable the family physician to become aware of their unique needs and manage these patients in their clinical practices. African immigrants tend to be viewed as ‘all from Africa’ when indeed Africa is a continent with 54 countries. Some of these unique health problems, though suffered by Americans may be differently manifested and therefore may require special management. Africans continue to migrate to the US and family medicine practitioners that are the first point of contact need to be educated to holistically manage them. Barriers to seeking health care and issues of physician patient relationship are important areas that also need to be explored in this special population. Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is making family physicians aware of the individual needs of African immigrants from different countries. It emphasizes that unique medical conditions may present in different ways in this special population. It also emphasizes how respective African cultures may impact access to healthcare in the US.
One of the major concerns is to do with the foundations, such as compressors, railroads, roads and so forth, which are under the influence of the static and dynamic loads. These foundations which have been affected by the traffic loads are regarded as uniform and differential settlements. Sometimes a number of pipes are laid under these foundations, thereby influencing the related settlements. In this study, it has been shown that an increase in the dynamic load when both the initial static load and the pipe depth are constant leads to an increase in the settlement. As compared to the ordinary condition, the amount of settlement is greater. Also, it was revealed that the amount of soil settlement is reduced by 54%, as compared with the unreinforced soil, considering that the initial static load and the pipe depth are constant, and that the dynamic load has been applied, and that the grid-anchor system has been used. This research has focused mainly on introducing an appropriate and unified strategy to improve soil behavior using the reinforcements, which reduce the soil settlement in these shallow foundations. In addition, this paper presents the equations for both reinforced and unreinforced soil under dynamic loading to prevent such complicated calculation involved in deformation analysis. According to these equations, calculation of the permanent settlement for each foundation with a given size on the grid-anchor reinforced sand with and without embedded pipe is feasible. Contribution/ Originality
Chlorophenols (CPs) is one of the organic pollutants and are most widespread in aqueous environment. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been extensively utilized for the decomposition of hazardous or recalcitrant pollutants in the environment. The study combined UV/TiO2 with ultrasonic procedure to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) wastewater. The effects of factors including pH value, initial concentration of 2,4-DCP and quantities of TiO2, Fe (II), and Fe (III) added on the removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP wastewater were investigated. Experimental results revealed significant additive effect attributed to the combination of two procedures, 13-watt UV irradiation and 10-watt ultrasound, under the pH 10 and 1g L-1 TiO2. In additional, the destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of 2,4-DCP was raised about 10 % when 250 ?M of Fe (II) and Fe (III) were added and this phenomenon was suggested that the Fenton-like reaction occurred. Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology to combine the advantages of ultrasonic procedure and photodegradation procedure of TiO2 to treat 2, 4-DCP wastewater. In this study, the low ultrasonic energy was used and the Fenton-like reaction occurred to raise about 10 % destruction removal efficiency.
The Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) algorithm was used in this study with four Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images to assess the evapotranspiration (ET) in Bissa forest, one of the healthiest Algerian forests located south of the Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that ET varies over the different seasons, the highest ET values were reached during the spring due to water availability, whereas, the lowest values were recorded during the summer. The relationship between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ET showed that the highest ET values coincide always with the highest NDVI except for January where even the lowest NDVI values correspond to higher ET. The intensity of ET was closely related to aspects, southeastern exposures showed the highest ET, whereas, northwestern exposures showed the lowest ET. Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology of evapotranspiration, one of the most difficult climatic parameter to measure. Several classical approaches were developed to estimate evapotranspiration; in the opposite of these classical approaches we applied a new remote sensing algorithm to solve the energy balance equation in order to estimate evapotranspiration.
In this paper, as an application in our results, the non-existence of limit cycles for the Liénard system x ̇ = y –F (x), y ̇=-g(x) with F (x)=(x^2-x) e^(-x) (x≥-1) and 5(x^2+x) e^(x+2)+2e (x≤-1),g(x)=x is discussed by the simple criterion. Graef  in 1971 has studied the uniformly boundedness of the solution orbits under the condition (C1) and further proved the existence of limit cycles under the conditions (C1) and (C2) . Recently, Cioni and Villari  in 2015 gave the same result as in Graef  under the conditions (C1) and (C3) includes (C2). Our aim is to discuss on the case of which (C1) is satisfied, but (C3) is not satisfied. As the result, we shall give the simple criterion for the non-existence of limit cycles for a Liénard system with these conditions. Contribution/ Originality
This study explored how sport in Australia contributes to and informs the ego identity formation of an individual. A single female participant between the ages of 18 and 25 years participated in a series of interviews. The participant was selected on the basis of their chosen career path (i.e. PD/H/PE teaching) and their constant involvement in sport. Data collected from the interviews was analysed using grounded theory, principles of constant comparative analysis. Findings from the study indicate that identity is a single, multidimensional structure comprised of interrelated dimensions. In addition, further key findings indicate that sports act as a vehicle for individuals to ‘perform’ their identity to society. Through processes of self-enhancement and protection individuals protect their identity from threats, maintaining or enhancing the value placed upon it by others. Their choice of self-enhancement or protection and the consequent behaviour is determined by their self-concept (determined by social comparison) and societal values. The implications of this study lie with those in the education and sporting industries. Sport programs need to be positive, enjoyable and allow students to experience self-determination for optimal identity development and efficient function in society. Contribution/ Originality
Research has indicated that imagery may aid in recovery from injuries and reduce the perception of pain in athletes during and after competitions. There is little research concerning acute pain and soreness, such as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the use of guided imagery for healing will affect soreness, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and muscle performance associated with DOMS. It was hypothesized that those who listened to a healing imagery script following inducement of DOMS would report less soreness, higher pain threshold, and have better muscle performance than a control group. Participants (thirty-eight) completed two days of testing with 48 hours between them. At the end of the first day, DOMS was induced by performing 6 sets of 15 reps of isokinetic eccentric exercise at -1.05 rad/sec. 20 participants listened to a healing imagery script 10 times within the 48 hours after inducement of DOMS while 18 listened to relaxing music. Each day consisted of tests of soreness, PPT, vertical jump, and a Wingate test. Healing imagery had no significant impact on perception of soreness, PPT, or vertical jump. The healing imagery group performed significantly better than the control group on the Wingate test in minimum power and power drop results following DOMS. Thus, it appears that imagery could impact long duration anaerobic performance as opposed to short duration explosive performance. Further research is needed to determine if healing imagery can improve performance on longer anaerobic and possibly aerobic activities. Additionally, it is possible that the limited exposure to the imagery in this investigation limited its ability to impact muscle performance and pain perception. Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is the finding that healing imagery following inducement of DOMS improves anaerobic endurance performance while having no impact on perception of pain and vertical jump.