Fungal infection in dogs and other domestic pets caused by Candida
species have been previously reported. Several available antifungal
drugs for treatment of yeast associated infections have been used with
diverse effects. This study establishes antifungal susceptibility
profile on identified Candida species isolates associated with canine
conjunctivitis using disks diffusion method as described by NCCLS
(M44-A). The antifungal disks used include Amphotericin-B (20mcg),
Nystatin (100units), Itraconazole (10mcg), Ketaconazole (10mcg),
Fluconazole (25mcg). The identified Candida species were C. albicans, C.
krusei, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Percentage susceptibility
was high in both Amphotericin B (77.27%) and Nystatin (58.18%), while
Itraconazole showed (54.54%), Ketoconazole (55.45%) and Fluconazole was
least (11.82%). The sensitivity ranking showed Amphothericin B >
Nystatin > Itraconazole > Ketoconazole > Fluconazole and
increased resistance amongst the Azoles especially Fluconazole (70.90%)
in comparison with Polyenes. C. albicans showed the highest resistance
(84.51%) to both Fluconazole and ketoconazole (67.61%). C. parapsilosis
showed 63.64% and 61.54% percentage resistance to Nystatin and
Itraconazole respectively. In conclusion, this finding showed that
Amphotericin B and Nystatin were most effective against isolated Candida
species. Proper diagnosis of the underlying ailment is necessary in
conjunction with routine anti-fungal susceptibility testing to avoid
drug abuse and resistance.
This study contributes to the existing literature of canine Candida
species epidemiology and control using conventional cultural,
characterization and antifungal sensitivity test methodology. This first
preliminary study conducted in Abuja-FCT, Nigeria revealed
effectiveness of Amphotericin B and Nystatin on Candida species isolates
associated with canine conjunctivitis.
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This study received no specific financial support.
All authors indicated their consent prior to the commencement of this study. We hereby declare no conflict and competing interests.
The authors appreciate the efforts of Mr. Hakeem Onigbanjo, Dr. Ifeanyi
Casmir and Madam Grace Popoola for their assistance during the
preliminary stages of this research as well as the staff of Microbiology
Department, University of Ilorin for chara