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Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis

Olabode, H.O.K


Ameh, J.A


Egwu, G.O


Bello, R.H


Nwniyi, F.C

Olabode, H.O.K 1 ,

Ameh, J.A 1 Egwu, G.O 1 Bello, R.H 4
Nwniyi, F.C 5

  1. Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja 1

  2. Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ilorin 4

  3. Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja 5

Pages: 8-14

DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2016.2.2/

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Article History:

Received: 03 June, 2016
Revised: 10 November, 2016
Accepted: 16 November, 2016
Published: 21 November, 2016


Fungal infection in dogs and other domestic pets caused by Candida species have been previously reported. Several available antifungal drugs for treatment of yeast associated infections have been used with diverse effects. This study establishes antifungal susceptibility profile on identified Candida species isolates associated with canine conjunctivitis using disks diffusion method as described by NCCLS (M44-A). The antifungal disks used include Amphotericin-B (20mcg), Nystatin (100units), Itraconazole (10mcg), Ketaconazole (10mcg), Fluconazole (25mcg). The identified Candida species were C. albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Percentage susceptibility was high in both Amphotericin B (77.27%) and Nystatin (58.18%), while Itraconazole showed (54.54%), Ketoconazole (55.45%) and Fluconazole was least (11.82%). The sensitivity ranking showed Amphothericin B > Nystatin > Itraconazole > Ketoconazole > Fluconazole and increased resistance amongst the Azoles especially Fluconazole (70.90%) in comparison with Polyenes. C. albicans showed the highest resistance (84.51%) to both Fluconazole and ketoconazole (67.61%). C. parapsilosis showed 63.64% and 61.54% percentage resistance to Nystatin and Itraconazole respectively. In conclusion, this finding showed that Amphotericin B and Nystatin were most effective against isolated Candida species. Proper diagnosis of the underlying ailment is necessary in conjunction with routine anti-fungal susceptibility testing to avoid drug abuse and resistance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of canine Candida species epidemiology and control using conventional cultural, characterization and antifungal sensitivity test methodology. This first preliminary study conducted in Abuja-FCT, Nigeria revealed effectiveness of Amphotericin B and Nystatin on Candida species isolates associated with canine conjunctivitis.


Anti-fungal sensitivity testing, Candida species, Canine conjunctivitis.



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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

All authors indicated their consent prior to the commencement of this study. We hereby declare no conflict and competing interests.


The authors appreciate the efforts of Mr. Hakeem Onigbanjo, Dr. Ifeanyi Casmir and Madam Grace Popoola for their assistance during the preliminary stages of this research as well as the staff of Microbiology Department, University of Ilorin for chara

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