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Listing 24 - 20 of 1965 results.

Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Mak Met, Ibrahim Ali
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This study investigated the moderating effect of demographic factors (age, gender, education level, tenure, and job level) on the relationship between monetary motivation and employees’ job performance at oil and gas offshore production facilities in Malaysia. The outcomes of this study provide useful insight that could influence company’s performance management, resourcing and talent management strategies and policies. Data were collected using self-administered survey questionnaire from 341 employees at oil and gas offshore production facilities of selected companies in Malaysia. Convenience sampling method was used. Quantitative data analyses, which included descriptive, reliability, and inferential analyses were performed using the Statistical Product and Service Solution 21. At the .05 level, the results of the General Linear Model univariate analysis of variance showed that there was a significant moderating effect of tenure and job level on the relationship between monetary motivation and employees’ job performance while gender did not show any significant moderating effect. Age and education level showed weak moderating effect. Employees with tenure of 31 years or more reported significantly higher job performance level compare to their younger counterparts with tenure of 10 years or less. Managers and supervisors scored significantly higher job performance level than technicians.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the moderating effect of demographic factors (age, gender, education level, tenure, and job level) on the relationship between monetary motivation and employee’s job performance in oil and gas industry in Malaysia.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 3

The Impact of Rice Production, Consumption and Importation in Nigeria: The Political Economy Perspectives

Research Article
Author(s): Terwase, Isaac Terungwa, Madu, Abdulrazak Yuguda
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Nigeria’s population is estimated at 174, 507,539 with the annual growth rate of 2.54%. The country is endowed with enormous mineral and natural resources with vast land adjudged to be the most fertile and suitable for agriculture. Rice demand and consumption is high among its people irrespective of their region or culture. This paper attempts to investigate the level of the country’s production, consumption and importation of rice, with a view to establishing its impact on its economy and development. The methods adopted for obtaining data for the study were purely empirical and secondary. It was found amongst others that; while the level of production of rice is low, the consumption is high and its importation is highly inelastic. It was recommended that, deliberate attempts must be made by government in terms of policy to improve its agricultural base particularly in rice production not only as a substitute for its importation and domestic use, but export as well. This will go a long way in increasing foreign earnings, which can be replicated, and serve to complement the country’s economic growth and development.
Contribution/ Originality
i. This study contributes to the existing literatures on rice production and consumption in Nigeria on its development.
ii. It also contributes in unveiling the lopsidedness in Nigeria’s level of rice production with its domestic consumption and the high level of her dependency on rice importation as against export.


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 4

Good Governance, Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Research Article
Author(s): Okinono Otega, Mohammed Muneer’deen O. A
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Good governance has always been an important issue in global development. Most third world countries have been identified by the World Bank as chronically groaning under the spell of under-development, rooted in corruption and bad leadership. Many ad-hoc solutions embarked upon by various International Organisations have proved insignificant in most African countries. The pseudo-development approaches based on the replication of western mode of development to the developing world have aroused suspicion that the mode of development in the West cannot be used as a basis for engineering growth in other parts of the world, particularly Nigeria. Many studies are conducted in Nigeria to explain how good governance leads to development and poverty alleviation, yet sufficient breakthrough is not achieved. There is need to explore why it is difficult for Nigeria to translate its economic development to enrich its people. This article examines the loopholes in the development priorities of various governments in Nigeria. It is timely based on the recent IMF statistics that Nigeria is now the largest economy in Africa. It examines the impact of development and good governance on poverty alleviation in Nigeria; seeking to explore the potency and place of good governance in poverty alleviation in the largest country in Africa. Relevant literatures were reviewed to closely examine the gap, which ultimately provides rationale for conducting the research. The study, based on the established rapport between good governance, development and poverty, examines the relevance to the Nigeria case. It is therefore premised on the conviction that the three concepts are inevitably intertwined and thus if properly integrated can be employed in studying Nigerian situation and used in the alleviation of poverty.
Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this paper is finding that discussions on good governance, rural development and poverty management are relevant to Nigeria as the most recently ascertained ‘the largest economy in Africa’; contributing in the existing literature on good governance, rural development and poverty alleviation as applied mostly on Nigeria.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 4

Some Modified Linear Regression Type Ratio Estimators for Estimation of Population Mean Using Known Parameters of an Auxiliary Variable

Research Article
Author(s): J. Subramani, G. Kumarapandiyan, S. Balamurali
Journal: Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research

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Abstract
The present paper deals with modified linear regression type ratio estimators for estimation of population mean of the study variable when the Kurtosis, Skewness, population correlation coefficient and quartiles of the auxiliary variable are known. The bias and the mean squared error of the proposed estimators are derived and are compared with that of simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) sample mean, the usual ratio estimator and the existing modified linear regression type ratio estimators. As a result, we have derived the conditions for which the proposed estimators perform better than the other existing estimators.  Further the performance of the proposed estimators with that of the existing estimators are assessed for a natural population. From the numerical study it is observed that the proposed modified ratio estimators perform better than the existing estimators. 
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Non Syndromic, Bilateral, Dentigerous Cysts Associated with Inverted Mandibular Third Molars: A Case Report

Research Article
Author(s): Purnachandrarao Naik. N, Ravi Kiran. A, Samata. Y, Vijay kumar. A
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
Dentigerous cyst is an epithelial-lined developmental crater that encloses the crown of an unerupted tooth at the cementoenamel junction. Bilateral or multiple dentigerous cysts are often associated with few syndromes. Even though dentigerous cysts are common developmental cysts, bilateral occurrence of dentigerous cysts are extremely uncommon and to date, only 22 cases have been reported in literature till 2011. In English based language literature review, we only found nine reports of non-syndromic bilateral dentigerous cyst associated with mandibular third molars. The present article report a case of bilateral non-syndromic, dentigerous cysts associated with inverted mandibular third molars in a 25 years old male patient with brief review of literature.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes about the rare entity which is associated with various syndromes and systemic disorders, so careful examination and proper diagnosis is useful to rule out various systemic disorders & syndromes
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Anthropometric Parameters as Predictors of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Central Indian Children 5-15 Years

Research Article
Author(s): Sachin Pawar, Vinod Shende, Satish Waghmare, MT Jivtode
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
The development of pulmonary function and growth of physical parameters are concurrent in children. Hence, measurement of lung function is essential for evaluation of physical development of children and adolescent with respiratory disease. A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 primary, middle and high school children of 5-15 years. Their anthropometric parameters and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were recorded and multiple regression equations for predicting PEFR from anthropometric variables were derived. Highly significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was observed between all the anthropometric and pulmonary parameters. Significantly high R2 values were found when age, height, weight, chest circumference, BSA and arm span were used as independent variables in the regression analysis. Thus, this study establishes reference standards for predicting PEFR in normal healthy children residing in Central India.  
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Application of Saliva as Diagnostic Bio-Fluid- An Overview

Research Article
Author(s): Manu Rathee, Mohaneesh Bhoria
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
Saliva, a biologic fluid, recently has been a boon in the field of diagnostic science, as the  presence of viable biomarkers in saliva elaborate its applications in multiplexed assays, disease diagnosis, clinical monitoring and for clinical decisions of patient care.  Application of saliva in diagnosis is undeniable as ease in sample collection and conventional procedure. This article provides emerging evidence to provide an overview of salivary diagnostics in various fields of diagnosis and affirm its application as diagnostic Bio-Fluid.
Contribution/ Originality
This article documents a comprehensive overview of diagnostic application of noble bio-fluid i.e. saliva. It encompasses the information on utilization of saliva in myriad of diagnostic field, with advantages of being conventional and convenient, as per inclusion of recent literature.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Retrospective Study on Outcome of In-Patient Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from September 2011-September 2012

Research Article
Author(s): Chalachew Misganaw, Metasebia Mesfin, Megdelawit Tesfaye, Andualem Derese
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
Background: Malnutrition often affects young children and contributes to more than 60% of deaths in children in developing countries. Aggressive hospital based management of sever acute malnutrition is recommended to meet the acceptable standards regarding outcome of the treatment. This study aimed to assess the treatment outcome of severely malnourished children treated in Jimma university specialized hospital (JUSH).Methods: Retrospective reviews of charts of severely malnourished children admitted at JUSH from September 2011 to September 2012 were made. In this study, a total of 173 cards were selected using systematic sampling technique. The numbers of discharges cured, defaulted, and average length of stay in days (d) were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify and control potential confounders. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Of 173 cases of malnutrition, 53.2% (92) had kwashiorkor and 30% (52) were Marasmic cases. Of the total, 87% (152) were cured while 5.8% (10) had died. The average length of stay was around 21 days. The study revealed significant association between age distribution and type and outcome of malnutrition. Association is also evident between presence of associated medical illness and duration of stay (p < 0.05).Conclusion and recommendation: In conclusion, the overall recovery, defaulter and mortality rates were within the acceptable range of sphere standards. Thus, the in-patient program was effective. However, more should be done to improve treatment outcome along with duration of stay by working aggressively on management of medical associated problems.
Contribution/ Originality
CM conceived and designed the study. He also wrote the paper. MT. MM and AD contributed in the conduct and analysis of the study. All of the authors have read and approved the manuscript.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Urban Area - Review of Protective Forest Management

Research Article
Author(s): Fran Postenjak, Karmelo Postenjak
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
Protective forests are areas, primarily used for wood production in the past, where forests gradually attain different roles based on its purpose and management plan. Forests are significant factors in karst management where over time devastated forest areas have been cultivated with conifers.One of those areas is camp (N 43°55’, E 15°30’) in small coastal city- Pakoštane, where we’ve conducted our research. It is almost a century old Aleppo pine culture which spreads over 25 hectare, on limestone based brown and red soil with more than 45 % stony surface. Holm oak forest is community (Orno – Quercetum ilicis H-ić 1957.) with mostly dense canopy, normal density and no silvicultural work in past few decades. The forest has following structure- number of trees: Aleppo pine 346/ha, Holm oak 261/ha, evergreen deciduous bushes (< 2,5m height) 1047/ha or in total 1654/ha; - basal area: Aleppo pine 26,47 m2/ha, Holm oak 3,23 m2/ha, evergreen deciduous bushes 4,33 m2/ha or in total 34,03 m2/ha. In contrast to normal ecological-management type (EMT) III-L-10 [1] significant differences have been detected. Absence of necessary silvicultural interventions is visible considering relevant indications of present state: average crown transparency “2”, short and thin canopy, great number of deadwood: Aleppo pine 432/ha and Holm oak 148/ha, appearance of fungus fruiting body on 60 trees/ha, construction work mechanical damage of both trunk and root system 140 trees/ha and lastly Aleppo pine tree marking conducted by non-professional forester- resulted in wrong selection of trees that are meant to be fallen in future maintenance period.Natural forest degradation that is taking place in this woodland, due to anthropological influence on stand, unfortunately led the forest of this auto-camp in troublesome state.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to urban forestry- arboriculture, as urban park research on protective forests management and user safety in private parks. It contributes in the existing literature on urban park-protective forest, governance and as a current practice review it points out the ongoing problems and malpractice occurring in urban forestry.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils

Research Article
Author(s): Javier Hedo, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Consuelo Wic, Manuela Andres Abellan, Jorge de Las Heras
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause relevant changes in soil properties. Soil plays an important role in the fertility and stability of the forest ecosystem [1] as it highlights the microorganisms that accomplish reactions to release soil nutrients for vegetation development [2]. Wildfires and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause relevant changes in forest and soil properties [3, 4]. Fire may alter physical-chemical soil properties (i.e., soil organic matter content and its structure, hydrophobicity, pH and nutrient cycles) [5], microbiological and biochemical soil properties (i.e., microbial biomass, microbial activity, soil enzymes activities) [5]. Long-term studies into soil quality, or which evaluate soil recovery capacity after forest fires or post-fire silvicultural treatments, are scarce. To evaluate soil quality, the use of a general character parameter like soil respiration is commonly used [6, 7]. This study aimed to investigate soil respiration, microbial biomass and ratios (metabolic and MBC / TOC) in burnt and unburnt soils of an Aleppo pine forest ecosystem affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago. It is noteworthy that we define recovery as a scenario which returns to the same activity levels before wildfire perturbation. Our results demonstrated that 17 years after the fire event occurrence, the quality of the burnt soils reached the undisturbed soil levels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated long-term recovery of the burnt Mediterranean soils, in dry and semiarid climates, and the paper’s primary contribution is finding that forest management must be taking into account soil parameters to achieve good adaptive procedural guidelines.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Effect of Different Concentrations of Vermicompost (Biohumus) On the Root Collar Diameter and Height Growth in the Seedlings of Anatolian Black Pine

Research Article
Author(s): Atilla Atik
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
In the present study, effect of vermicompost, a product of Biohumus®, on the root collar diameter and height growth of 1+0 aged seedlings of Anatolian black pine growing in Bartin-Turkey was investigated. Seedlings were treated with three different concentrations of vermicompost solution from seed dibbling. Statistical comparison of morphologic data for treatments was performed using ANOVA test while the treatments were categorised using Duncan test.Compared to control, mean root collar diameter growth was found to be about 25% higher in seedlings in V1 treatment type (Vermicompost of 1:1000) and nearly 26% more in V2 and V3 treatment type while height growth was 13% more in V1 treatment and 20% in V2 and V3 treatment.Findings of the study were thought that Vermicompost can be used to obtain quality black pine seedlings in nurseries by developing root collar and plant height.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is important in terms detect the effect on forest tree seedling production of vermicompost fertilizer.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Serum Rankl/Osteoprotegerin Complex and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Chronic Heart Failure

Research Article
Author(s): Alexander E. Berezin, Alexander A. Kremzer
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
The objectiveof this study was to assess an interrelationship serum RANKL/OPG complex with counts of circulating pro-angiogenic endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) labeled as CD14+CD309+, and CD14+CD309+Tie2+ in patients with ischemic chronic heart failure (CHF).Methods: The study retrospectively evolved 153 patients (86 males) aged 48 to 62 years with exiting proven stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Systolic or diastolic CHF was defined among 109 (71.2%) patients. Twenty five 25 individuals were included in the control group. Circulating RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG were measured by high-sensitive ELISA kit at baseline. EPC populations were labeled by flow cytofluorimetry per High-Definition Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter methodology.Results: Numerous of EPCs with phenotypes of CD14+CD309+ and CD14+CD309+Tie2+ were significantly lower in CAD patients when compared with healthy subjects. The trend to significant decrease of EPC numerous depending presence of CHF was found. The sRANKLlevel, OPG level, and sRANKL / OPG ratio were significantly higher in CHF subjects as compared to those without CHF (P=0.001). On multivariate analysis, CHF, sRANKL/OPG ratio, OPG, and NT-pro-BNP remained as independent predictors of decreased EPCs with phenotypes of CD14+CD309+ and CD14+CD309+Tie2+. When sRANKL/OPG ratio was added to the standard predictive model (CHF) improved relative integrated discrimination indices by 12.5% for CD14+CD309+ depletion, as well as by 17.3% for CD14+CD309+Tie2+depletion were found. Conclusion: We found that sRANKL/OPG ratio remained statistically significant predictor for depletion of pro-angiogenicEPCsin CAD patients.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that inflammatory cytokines, such as components of RANKL/OPG complex, areable to negatively modulate the level of circulating pro-angiogenicendothelial progenitor cells labeled as CD14+CD309+, and CD14+CD309+Tie2+ and thereby reduce a reparative potency of vasculature in heart failure patients.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Chromium Complex Pre-Catalysts in Ethylene Oligomerization/Polymerization

Research Article
Author(s): Venkataramana Katla, Shizhen Du, Carl Redshaw, Wen-Hua Sun
Journal: Review of Catalysts

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Abstract
Recent progress of chromium complex pre-catalysts in ethylene oligomerization and polymerization is reviewed herein. As well as the well-established trimerization of ethylene by chromium catalytic systems, such pre-catalysts have more generally been explored for ethylene oligomerization. Furthermore, chromium complex pre-catalysts have been found to exhibit high activity during ethylene polymerization. The catalytic activities can be influenced by the nature of ligands present, which can provide useful knowledge in determining structure-activity relationships. This review provides collective references concerned with the design of complex pre-catalysts with a view to ethylene reactivity. 
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Review of Catalysts » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Thermodynamics Properties of Copper Halide Alloy (CuBr0.5Cl0.5)

Research Article
Author(s): Elnaz Parham, Ali Mokhtari
Journal: Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications

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Abstract
Ab initio density functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the thermal properties of the CuBr0.5Cl0.5 alloys over a wide range of temperature. Using the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) for the some physical quantities of interest such as heat capacity at constant volume and entropy are calculated and discussed. The theoretical results show good agreement with the available experimental data for CuBr and CuCl. The present results show that symmetric and asymmetric structure of CuBr0.5Cl0.5 have a good agreement with the calculatingly value for heat capacity.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Unsteady MHD Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow of Radiation Absorbing Kuvshinski Fluid through Porous Medium

Research Article
Author(s): B. Vidya Sagar, M.C. Raju, S.V.K. Varma, S. Venkataramana
Journal: Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications

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Abstract
An analytical study is carried out for an unsteady MHD two dimensional free convection flow of a viscous, incompressible, radiating, chemically reacting and radiation absorbing Kuvshinski fluid through a porous medium past a semi-infinite vertical plate. The dimensionless equations governing the flow are solved by simple perturbation technique. The expressions for velocity, temperature and concentration are derived. The influence of various material parameters on flow quantities are studied and discussed with the help of graphs. The expressions for Skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also derived and discussed numerically. Temperature increases with an increase in radiation parameter and radiation absorption parameter where as it decreases with an increase in Prandtl number. Concentration is observed to be decreased when chemical reaction parameter and Schmidt number increase.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of Newtonian fluids. Most of the practical problems involve non-Newtonian fluids type. This study uses new estimation methodology of analyzing the heat transfer characteristics of non-Newtonian fluid. This study originates new formula of solving nonlinear governing equations using perturbation method. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a well-known non-Newtonian fluid Kuvshinski fluid in the presence of uniform magnetic field. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that effects of various physical parameters on the flow quantities. This study documents a well-known non Newtonian fluid namely Kuvshinski fluid in the presence of thermal radiation, radiation absorption and chemical reaction of first order. 
Engineering » Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Hydrocarbon Pollutant Emitted From a Diesel Engine Fueled With Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel No.2

Research Article
Author(s): Alireza Shirneshan
Journal: Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

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Abstract
In this study, effects of biodiesel in fuel mixture (biodiesel and diesel fuel No.2) on hydrocarbon (HC) pollutant that emitted from a 4 cylinder water cooled diesel engine were studied. The data were collected by the standard experiments on a direct-injection diesel engine. Results showed that by the use of biodiesel, HC emissions decreases 30 to 85% than net diesel fuel No.2 Also results indicated that by increasing rpm of the engine emission of HC decreases continuously. On other hand HC emissions are higher at low engine loads.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Rayleigh Distribution-Based Model for Prediction of Wind Energy Potential of Cameroon

Research Article
Author(s): Afungchui David
Journal: Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

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Abstract
Modelling and prediction of wind characteristics are essential design inputs in the development of wind energy systems. This paper exploits the characteristics of the Rayleigh probability density function to analyse the wind potential of all the regions of the republic of Cameroon. In the procedure, the probability density (PD) curves of some representative towns of the ten regions of Cameroon are presented. These curves highlight the fraction of time for which some wind velocity V prevails at the sites and the most frequent wind speed expected at these sites which coincide with the peak of the PD curves. We then proceed to calculate the power density of the sites, as well as the energy available for wind turbine extraction. We recommend the Savonius rotor for the regions of low wind speed based on its low cut-in speed of 1m/s.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the wind energy potential of Cameroon in an exhaustive manner covering all the regions. It also proposes the prospect of harnessing the energy of the wind and recommends the Savonius rotor as the wind turbine generator of choice in Cameroon.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Thermodynamic Parameters for Solvation of Nano ZNO and Its Dopes In 50% DMSO - 50% DMF (V/V) Solutions at Different Temperatures

Research Article
Author(s): E. A. Gomaa, M. Kairy, A. Fekri, Y.A. Sherif
Journal: Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

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Abstract
The molal solubility for nano zinc oxide (ZnO)  , copper (2%) doped ZnO , Fe(2%) doped ZnO , Ti(2%) doped ZnO , Ag (25) doped ZnO  in 50%DMF and 50% DMSO, (v/v), volume to volume were measured at 293.15, 303.15 , 313.15, 323.15K .The thermodynamic parameters, Gibbs free energy of solvation, enthalpies and entropies of solvation were evaluated for nano zinc oxide and nano zinc oxide doped from the solubility measurements. These thermodynamic parameters explain the effect of doping elements on the thermodynamic behviours of nano zinc oxide in solvation process. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper uses the thermodynamic parameters for discussing the solubility behaviour because few studies is finding for nano particles solvation explanation.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Dry Matter and Nutrient Accumulation of Selected Green Manure Species at Different Ages on Alisols at Areka, Southern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Mulugeta Habte
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Continuous loss and net removal of soil nutrients from cultivated land causes a serious threat to the overall agricultural productivity. This decline in soil fertility is major constraint to agricultural production and food security in Ethiopian highland farming systems. Since farmers have limited capacity to invest in fertilizers, potential solution to the problem is to use green manure (GM) for their multiple advantages. Thus, the study was conducted to evaluate dry matter production and nutrient concentration from GM at different ages. The treatments were three levels of age (3, 4 and 5) months after planting (MAP), three GM species (Tithoniadiversifolia, Tephrosiavogelii and Crotalaria juncea) and laid out in factorial arrangement in RCBD design with three replications. T. diversifolia produced significantly (p<0.05) higher total above ground biomass (TAGB) at all ages. The TAGB yields of Tephrosiavogelii and Crotalaria juncea were lower by 35.85 and 68.82%, 32.96 and 27.12%, and 28.22 and 31.52% than the TAGB of Tithoniadiversifolia at three, four and five months after planting respectively. Nitrogen and K concentrations of all the GM species were relatively higher whereas P, Ca and Mg were low at all ages.  In general, the study found appreciable dry matter yield and nutrient concentration from all species of different ages.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing information in organic fertilizers. The study provides options for poor farmers who have limited capacity to invest for commercial fertilizers and for those investors primarily engaged in organic farming. The paper provides initial information for researchers and students in further investigations. 
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

G-Force Exposure in a Contact Sport: The Use of Accelerometers to Quantify Physical Stress

Research Article
Author(s): M.P. McHugh, S.Y. Kwiecien, M.P. Hannon, R.J. Stewart
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
GPS-based analyses of movement patterns are inadequate for quantifying the physical stress imposed on athletes in contact sports. Accelerometers may be useful for monitoring such athletes. The purpose of this study was to use triaxial accelerometers to record G-force exposure in Gaelic football players to examine differences in G-force exposure between games and practices and between playing positions. A small triaxial accelerometer with a flash memory chip data logger was fitted to the waistband of players’ shorts. Game and practice data were acquired at 100 Hz (scale ±16G) from 19 club level players (age 25±7 yr). Resultant G-force was: calculated for each data point from the raw accelerometer data collected in all three planes of motion and analyzed by quantifying the time spent above different G-force thresholds.  Player positions were categorized as central (half backs/half forwards/midfield) and peripheral (full back/full forward) with central players typically more involved in continuous running. ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections was used to compare G-force exposure between games vs. practices, and between central vs. peripheral players (practice not position dependent). Differences between games and practices were apparent for time >3G, >4G, and >5G with more time at these thresholds in practices versus games (P=0.003), indicating higher G-force exposure in practices versus games. In games central players had greater time at >2G and >3G (P<0.001). Accelerometry analysis was effective in distinguishing player position-dependent differences in G-force exposure, and differences between games and practices. These differences indicate that the method of analysis of G-force exposure used here may be of utility for quantifying the physical stresses imposed on athletes in contact sports. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have investigated physical stresses imposed on athletes in contact sports. Triaxial accelerometers can provide important information regarding the physical stress of an athletic exposure. These data may be important for monitoring playing intensity in a game or accumulated stress over a season.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1