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Listing 20 - 20 of 2022 results.

Landau-Pekar Bipolaron in Singlet and Triplet States

Research Article
Author(s): Vladimir K. Mukhomorov
Journal: Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications

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Abstract
We give an overview of studies a bipolaron stability by variational method. For bipolaron formations, a relation is established between the variational principle and the virial theorem optimizing the electronic wave functions. We present a large number of qualitative and quantitative arguments, which indicate that the Landau-Pekar bipolaron is an axially-symmetrical formation. Much attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of the Coulomb electron-electron correlations on the stability of a large bipolaron. In detail we analyzed the criteria for determining the optimal wave functions. It is established that a step-by-step increase in the flexibility of the electronic wave function due to the electron correlations does not stabilize a one-center bipolaron. We show after into account of electron-electron correlations a singlet bipolaron retains spatial axially-symmetrical. At the same time, the electron-excited triplet states of Landau-Pekar bipolaron have spherical symmetry. The results of Kasirina and Lakhno are based on the one-center bipolaron model are incorrect. Presented evidence that the correct application of the variational method and correct account of electron-electron correlations only increase the binding energy of the bipolaron but symmetry of Hartree-Fock approximation can not change. We adduce proofs which point to methodological errors of one-center bipolaron model as well as arising from their calculations incorrect physical consequences. As illustrated in this review the axially symmetric Landau-Pekar bipolaron can correctly interpret the experimentally detected spectroscopic data. 
Contribution/ Originality
We have established mathematically that the spatial symmetry of the singlet bipolaron Landau-Pekar is axial-symmetric. At the same time, triplet states of the bipolaron are spherically symmetric formations. Increasing the flexibility of the wave function does not change the spatial symmetry of the bipolaron. Knowledge of the bipolaron symmetry allows to correctly interpret experiment.
Engineering » Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Transesterification of Caso With Low Amount of Free Fatty Acids and Its Optimization

Research Article
Author(s):
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
This study revealed the application of ANN as a tool for optimization of transesterification of Chrysophyllum albidium seed oil (CASO) to Chrysophyllum albidium oil biodiesel (CAOB). 30 experimental runs were generated and used to determine the effects of four reaction variables namely reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst amount and methanol/oil molar ratio on CAOB yield. It was noted that the highest observed yield obtained in this study was 89.30% (w/w) at the following variable conditions; reaction temperature 60 oC, catalyst amount of 0.7 (wt. %), reaction time of 50 (min) and methanol/oil molar ratio of 5. The coefficient of determination R2 and the adj. R2 were found to be 0.99919 and 0.998439, respectively. The root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.14261 was obtained. Meanwhile, the qualities and fuel properties of CAOB produced were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and DIN EN 14214 biodiesel standards. The fatty acid profile of the CAOB revealed that CAOB is highly unsaturated (78.505%). Hence, the study established that CASO is a good alternative seed oils for fuel production which are renewable, cheap and environmental friendly. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of CASO to produced biofuel.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Energy Trading and Congestion Management Using Real and Reactive Power Rescheduling and Load Curtailment

Research Article
Author(s): S.K. Gupta, R. Bansal, Partibha ., Mukesh Saini
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
Congestion is termed as the operating condition in which there is not enough transmission capacity to implement all the desired transactions. This paper deals with the power trading in electricity market to ensure regular supply at competitive rates with multi congestion case. Bidding process of 75 Indian bus systems is analyzed. It is shown that how can congestion cost can be addressed through active & reactive power rescheduling and load curtailment with transmission line constraints. With rescheduling of generation the congestion is removed with some congestion cost. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is to find MCP and LMP for Pool based transaction. The Congestion so addressed by the real and reactive power rescheduling bids of generators. The revised rates for MCP and LMP are calculated. It is obtained that the congestion is relieved in problem under study.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Religiosity, Paranormal Beliefs, and Psychopathological Symptoms in Two Ethnic Samples

Research Article
Author(s): Oluyemi Stephen Ilori, Sulaiman Olanrewaju Adebayo , Adedeji Julius Ogunleye
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study was carried out to determine the influence of religiosity and paranormal beliefs on the development of psychopathological symptoms among groups of people from two different ethnic origin. A survey research was adopted using a purposive sampling method to draw the sample from Igbo and Yoruba ethnic groups. The sample consisted of two hundred and four respondents with the age range of 14 and 65 years. 101 were females and 103 were males; 6 traditional, 66 Islamic and 132 Christian religious adherents. 98 Igbo and 106 Yoruba all with minimum educational qualification of Junior Secondary School Certificate responded to Religious Affiliation Scale (Omoluabi, 1995),  Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (Tobacyk, 1988) and  General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1978).  Analysis of Variance, Independent t-test, and Multiple Regression were used to analyse the data and results indicated that paranormal beliefs significantly influenced only anxiety dimension of psychopathology but do not influence other dimension. No significant effect of religiosity was discovered on any dimension of psychopathology. There was a significant difference between   Igbo and Yoruba  on Paranormal Beliefs, depression and  anxiety dimensions of psychopathology but no significant difference was discovered on religiosity. It was concluded that paranormal beliefs partially influence psychopathology but religious beliefs do not have any influence on psychopathology in this study.
Contribution/ Originality
It originates new formula which stipulates that therapeutic attempt on health should consider the beliefs and norms of the people since these variables are interwoven. 
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Teachers’ Perception on Laws and Education in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Patrick Oladunjoye, Nnenna Ngozi Benwari
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study sought to find out the perception of teachers on the applicability of the federal laws on education. 1,480 teachers were randomly selected from 3 geo-political zones in Nigeria. A 20 item questionnaire titled “Applicability of Federal Laws in Nigeria” (AFLEN) was designed by the researcher. This instrument was validated by experts in law as well as Test and Evaluation. The instrument was further subjected to a test of reliability using the test-retest method and the data were analysed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The questionnaire were administered by the researcher as well as 158 research assistants. They were collected on the spot. The data collected were analysed using simple descriptive statistics. The findings of the study include federal laws are made concerning education but not properly implemented by the various agencies as perceived by teachers. Laws on Examination malpractice, National Teachers Institute, Teachers Registration, free and compulsory education are not properly handled as expected by teachers. Recommendations were therefore made to ensure effectiveness and efficiency of the federal laws on education.  
Contribution/ Originality
This is an original work with equal contributions from the authors using authentic information gathered from the law reports and responses from teachers who are the respondents. 
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

Students’ Perception of Girlchild Affirmative Action in High Schools in Masvingo Urban, Zimbabwe

Research Article
Author(s): Maxwell Constantine Chando Musingafi, Rachael Mafumbate
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the girlchild affirmative action policy in secondary schools in Zimbabwe using Christian and Ndarama high schools as case studies. Both theoretical study and empirical research methods were used to ensure a balanced evaluation of the problem. Ninety nine of the 230 Form six students at the two schools were used as questionnaire respondents, and 2 focal point teachers of the 20 A level teachers at the schools were sampled for the interviews. Case study, descriptive survey and qualitative participatory approaches were used as the main research methodologies. The study established that male students are more than female students in all advanced level disciplines studied at the schools; both male and female students do not support the idea of affirmative action in their schools; authorities are not doing enough to conscientise both teachers and their students on the need for affirmative action in schools; the affirmative action policy is not being implemented in secondary schools in Zimbabwe and thus the policy is not yet effective in meeting the desired goals. The main challenge faced by secondary schools in the implementation of affirmative action was found to be mainly the issue of negative attitudes towards affirmative action. Entering school at lower points than boys reinforces the idea that women are academically weaker than men. The study recommends intensive awareness campaigns and advocacy to remove negative attitudes towards affirmative action; formal training sessions on affirmative action in the schools to help students contextualize the concept of affirmative action; government monitoring and follow-ups to ensure that the affirmative action policy is being implemented; among other recommendations.  
Contribution/ Originality
The overall aim of this study is to contribute a theoretical framework that will help towards the implementation of the affirmative action policy in Zimbabwean high schools. The study aims at enlarging considerably the knowledge base and understanding of the affirmative action policy in Zimbabwe.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Identifying Potential Zones of Crime Commitment against Tourists in a Park: Conceptual and Logical Spatial Data Modeling

Research Article
Author(s): Mozhdeh Shahbazi
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Location is considered as an important element in studying tourism security. Therefore, mapping crime hotspots has recently been an interesting research topic in tourism development. In order to identify crime patterns and hotspots, it is essential to create a database containing the required spatial data. It should also be integrated with additional qualitative/quantitative attributes affecting criminal actions. Designing a geographic information system (GIS) can be considered as the most efficient way to deal with this problem considering the complex nature of tourism security. This paper presents the theoretical scheme of spatial data modeling with the purpose of indentifying potential crime zones within a developed park. From the spatial point of view, the factors and the constraints, which make a location vulnerable, are defined. The entities are identified by their attributes and characterized by their relationships. Finally, the conceptual and the logical models to create the crime suitability maps are generated. The models provided in this paper are designed in an explicit way; therefore, they can be easily modified or generalized for any specific case study. The presented data modeling procedure can be applied to generate essential databases for crime mapping via any GIS software.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of few studies which have investigated spatial data modeling from theoretical point of view for the reduced case of managing the security of a park.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Evaluation of The Acute Toxicity of Three Locally Synthesized Dyes (3,5-Dimethoxypyrimidine Azo-6- Methyl Urazil, 5-Ethoxybenzothiazole Azobenzoloxyphenol and 4-Ethyl 5,2,3-Thiazole Azo-6-Methyl Uracil) Using Nitrosomonas Sp and Nitrobacter Sp

Research Article
Author(s): Akponah E., Otutu J.O., Akpomie O.O., Ubogu M
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
The acute toxicity of three dyes (3,5-dimethoxypyrimidine azo-6- methyl urazil, 5-ethoxybenzothiazole azobenzoloxyphenol and 4-ethyl 5,2,3-thiazole azo-6-methyl of uracil were evaluated using Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. Standardized inoculum ofeach test organism was introduced into various logarithmic concentrations (0.01 to 100 mg/L) of the dyes for a period of 96 hours and cell mortality was used as index for assessment. Results obtained Indicated that the three dyes were inhibitory to the survival of the organisms. An increase in cell mortality (toxic response) of each organism with increase in concentration of the dyes and the duration of exposure was observed. The 96h LC50 values of 3,5-dimethoxypyrimidine azo-6- methyl urazil, 5-ethoxybenzothiazole azobenzoloxyphenol and 4-ethyl 5,2,3-thiazole azo-6-methyluracil to Nitrosomonas were 2.89,2.80 and 5.30 (mg/L) respectively. Similarly, the96h LC50 values of 3,5-dimethoxypyrimidine azo-6- methyl urazil, 5-ethoxybenzothiazole azobenzoloxyphenol and 4-ethyl 5,2,3-thiazole azo-6-methyl of uracil to Nitrobacter were 0.001, 0.20 and 1.11 respective;ly. Anaysis of variance at p = 0.05 showed thatthere was no significant difference in the response of Nitrosomonas to the various dyes. However, there was a significant difference in the response of Nitrobacter to the three dyes in the order 3,5-Dimethoxypyrimidine azo-6 - methyl uracil >5-Ethoxybenzothazole azobenzoloxyphenol>4-Ethyl 5,2,3-thiazole azo-6-methyl uracil. T-test also revealed that there were significant differences in the response of NitrosomonasandNitrobacterto the toxicity of each of the dye. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the possible effect of locally synthesized dyes such as 3,5-dimethoxypyrimidine azo-6- methyl urazil, 5-ethoxybenzothiazole azobenzoloxyphenol and 4-ethyl 5,2,3-thiazole azo-6-methyl uracil on the environment. The increased mortality of the test organisms, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter with increased concentrations of the dyes indicate that they are toxic to the environment. 
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Microbial Quality of Dried Fishes

Research Article
Author(s): Sinduja Prakash, Immaculate Jeyasanta, K, J.K. Patterson Edward, Jamila Patterson
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
Sun dried fishes such as C. malabaricus, S. lysan, S. acutipinnis, L. dussumieri, L. platypterus, L. rubrioperculatus and A. thazard were irradiated using gamma radiation (5 kGy) and the microbial quality and shelf life were assessed in the irradiated and non-irradiated dry fish samples stored under ambient temperature for six months. Irradiation had significant effects on the reduction of microbial population. The total bacterial count in was in acceptable condition until the end of the sixth months of storage. Total fungal counts were below detectable level throughout the storage period. Growth of Salmonella and Vibrio were observed in the non- irradiated samples where as it was not observed in the irradiated dry fishes.  
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the microbial load in irradiated dry fishes. This study documents irradiation of dry fish with high moisture content provides safety, taste like fresh fish and extended shelf life due to the irradiations effectiveness in inactivating pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms.
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Cultivation of Lentinus Edodes on Teff Straw (Agricultural Residue) At Dilla University, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Fekadu Alemu
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
Shiitake mushroom is worldwide one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms. Edible fungi are natural recycler which converts lignocelluloses wastes into protein rich health food and medicinal value of food. Mushroom cultivation represents the current economically viable biotechnology process for the conversion of waste plant residues from agriculture. As the result, mushrooms are increasingly becoming an important component of diets worldwide and it is of paramount importance to choose appropriate substrates in a given place to grow them. Therefore, study was undertaken to find suitable abundantly waste such as Teff straw used as substrate for cultivation of mushroom. As the result revealed, this agricultural residue was the best for cultivation of Lentinus edodes which help to collect large amount of fruit body. As conclusion, Lentinus edodes fungi can be converted this solid waste in to delicious foods.   
Contribution/ Originality
This study will help for scale up of mushroom cultivation on other substrate. Moreover, this study will help to cultivate the edible of wild mushroom this waste or other waste products.
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Bio-Efficacy of Pupicidal Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils on Culex Quinquefasciatus and Anopheles Stephensi

Research Article
Author(s): M. Ramar, S. Ignacimuthu, M. Gabriel Paulraj
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Bio-efficacy of pupicidal potential of some essential oils from seven plants (Pimpinella anisum, Cinnamomum veerum, Myrtus caryophyllus, Citrus sinensis, Thymus vulgaris, Ocimum sanctum and Vetiveria  zizanioides) was tested against the pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. The pupal susceptibility test were carried out using WHO standard method. In the pupicidal assay at five different concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500ppm concentrations were used andthe mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. All the tested essential oils showed moderate to good pupicidal activity. However, the maximum pupal mortality was registered at 500 ppm concentration as 100 ± 0.00% for Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi respectively. The Pupal mortality was resigered as of aniseed (87.5 ± 062%), tulsi (85.0 ± 0.72%) and cinnamom (82.2 ± 0.42%) at 500 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively.  The efficacy results of pupal mortality of aniseed (85.2 ± 023%), tulsi (84.1 ± 0.23%) and cinnamom (80.1 ± 0.51%) at 500 ppm for An. stephensi respectively. The LC50 and LC90 of clove oil (106.3 and 313.3 ppm), tulsi (133.6 and 539.3 ppm) and cinnamon (141.0 and 575.5 ppm) against Cx. quinquefasciatus after 24 h  respectively, and LC50 values of 110.5, 144.2 and 150.1 ppm and LC90 values of 310.4, 502.3 and 603.0 ppm against An. stephensi after 24 h of treatment, respectively. The results suggest that the essential oils have potential to be used as a pupicidal activity an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of filarial and malaria vectors, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi as target species in vector borne diseases control programs.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

The Effect of Steaming Process on Fat Soluble Vitamins Content and Fatty Acid Profile in Bluefish and Rainbow Trout Fillets

Research Article
Author(s): Stancheva M, Merdzhanova A, Galunska B, Dobreva A.D
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Fatty acid composition and all-trans-retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and cholecalciferol content was determined and compared in raw and steamed Bluefish and Rainbow trout. Total lipids were extracted by Bligh and Dyer method followed by GC-MS. All-trans-retinol, cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC. In comparison with raw fish fillets, analyzed fat soluble vitamin’s content in steamed fish filletsfor the Trout and Bluefish decreased significantly to about 54.2% and 49.8% for retinol and 32.6% and 43.5% for alpha-tocopherol, respectively. After steaming, the cholecalciferol amounts in processed fillets decreased significantly only in Rainbow trout (23.5%), whereas in Bluefish the losses were non-significant. After cooking, the polyunsaturated fatty acid content changed significantly in the Rainbow trout (45.8%), whereas the variations in the Bluefish were minor. The major PUFA in all samples were linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PUFA/SFA ratios were between 1.01 and 1.68 for both species. Steaming increases PUFA/SFA ratio by 8.33% in Rainbow trout, but does not affect this ratio in Bluefish.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)

Research Article
Author(s): Z. Dauda, D. M. Mailafiya, L. D. Simon
Journal: International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Abstract
Protection of grains against infestation and damage by diverse storage insect pests is an age long practice, as it ensures availability of agricultural produce and guarantees food security. This study assessed the protective bioactivity of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed oil (MSO) against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Ten gram grains of three cowpea varieties (Borno brown, Gwalam and Banjara) were treated with four doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml) of MSO in three replicates, along with un-treated check. Data obtained on the number of eggs laid, adults emerged (F1) and severity of damage were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean separation at 5% probability level was performed using the Least Significant Difference (LSD). Results indicated statistical significance (P<0.05) in the mean number of eggs laid on un-treated grains compared to grains treated with higher doses from each of the varieties. Similarly, mean number of adults emerged and severity of damage from un-treated grains were statistically significant (P<0.05) relative to the treated grains with all doses of each variety. Statistical differences in the mean number of eggs laid, adult emergence and severity of damage indicated the good potential of MSO in conferring protection to stored cowpea grains. The protective effect of MSO against C. maculatus seemed to be achieved principally through oviposition suppression and reduced or complete inhibition of adult emergence, consequently reducing or eradicating infestation risk, damage and loss of cowpea grains in storage. While the use of plant essential oils against storage insect pests is being advocated, the availability, affordability and the tendency of tainting protected grains need to be considered.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, as the results of the study concur with reports of several authors, where plant essential oils was effective as a protectant against the cowpea bruchid infestation; consequently reducing or eradicating the damaging effect of the beetle.
Agricultural Sciences » International Research Journal of Insect Sciences » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Managing Change in Broadcast Organisations: BBC Producer Choice Twenty Years On

Research Article
Author(s): Tristan K. O Dwyer
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
In 1993, the BBC introduced Producer Choice, a radical organisational change initiative driven largely by external political factors and implemented in a climate of internal opposition and resistance to change. The primary criticisms of the initiative are that it eroded the BBC’s craft base and damaged its ability to compete with the private sector, but it is also credited with saving the BBC in its current form. This paper examines the political background to the introduction of Producer Choice and analyses the drivers for change within the paradigm of Porter’s Five Forces Model. The planning, implementation and the management of resistance to change are discussed within the theoretical framework of change management literature. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study draws on a wide variety of sources and represents a comprehensive synthesis of the available literature on BBC Producer Choice and the associated change management issues presented by the initiative. Its primary contribution is the drawing together of twenty years of literature from academic and contemporary news sources to arrive at a reevaluation of the outcomes arising from the program of change.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Verification Method of Complex Web-Services

Research Article
Author(s): Tkachova Elena, Issam Saad, Abdulghafoor Raed Yahya
Journal: Journal of Future Internet

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Abstract
In the article proposed formalisms for defining rules of Web-services orchestration and choreography that allows to combine elements of a distributed system in a single system. Proposed approach allows to perform formal association of individual system components into a single unit. Proposed verification method for distributed systems based on the model approach. E-networks are models for verification of distributed systems. Web-service’s safety check is performed by finding deadlock conditions or any deviation from the specification process. This method allows taking into account the asynchronous nature of complex services and also performing stateful inspection: check for different Web-service consistency, check orchestration and choreography compatibility requirements for each service. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new algebraic methods for the analysis of complex Web-services. The novelty is in the use of formal grammars, which solved the problem of validation and evaluation of the behavior of the resource allocation of info communication protocols.
Computer Sciences » Journal of Future Internet » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Radiography Monitoring of Osteoconduction and Osteoinduction of Orthotopic Allograft Autoclaved Covered With Propolis

Research Article
Author(s): Boudra Abdellatif, Hamdi Mohamed, Amara Karim, Bouknine Asma
Journal: International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology

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Abstract
The veterinarian orthopedic surgeon is often faced to the loss of bone substance in diaphyseal region of long bones. Our study is based on a biological approach to the filling of segmental bone loss by implanting an autoclaved orthotopic allograft of one centimeter length covered and uncovered with propolis in the femoral diaphysis under general anesthesia and sterile condition.  The experiment involved eight adult dogs, from local breed and different sex; split into two groups. An autoclaved allograft without propolis was implanted for the first animals group (control group ) then the same graft  has been implanted to the second animals group. The aim of our study is to determine the osteoinductive and osteoconductive allograft covered with propolis, to follow clinically and radiologically the incorporation of the autoclaved graft.The results showed that the use of a graft covered with propolis accelerated the osteoinductive and osteoconductive process, this is reflected by an early passage of the callus .The use of a thin layer of propolis on a autoclaved allograft, stimulated peripheral and spinal osteoinduction, and accelerated osseointegration at both proximal and distal interfaces, this phenomenon can be controlled depending on the amount used of propolis on the graft. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which has investigated the both phenomena osteoinduction and the osteconduction of autoclaved allograft and we have used in our study the extract propolis as purchased from France in vivo and highlight its advantages too.
Physical Sciences » International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

EuroFIR Project – A Key Role in Creation and Compiling of Bulgarian Food Composition Database

Research Article
Author(s): Desislava Krasteva Gyurova
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
The food chemical composition databases provide a detailed information on nutritional composition, derived from the specific needs of each country. Data sources and their quality should be documented for each nutrient and in accordance with international and regional standards. The  collaboration with leadership of the EuroFIR Project and contacts with various representatives of the participating countries contributed to capacity development in our country  in a following way: EuroFIR workshops, training courses, self training.Thus, only helped the professional growth of staff to learn the basic criteria for correct description, identification of foods and establishment and compiling of Bulgarian food chemical composition database.Bulgarian Food Composition Data Base includes 828 foods with 37 nutrients for each food:• English food names and Bulgarian food names• No Scientific names• 828 food codes • Original Food Group• Nitrogen to protein conversion factor (NCF) and the Fatty acid conversion factor (FACF) were provided for a number of foods • LanguaL food description -  for all foods
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the steps in the construction of a new, modern food chemical composition database of Bulgarian foods, relying on rules and requirements in the collection, identification and description of the foods according to European standard EuroFIR.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

Prevalence and Infection Patterns of Geo-Helminthiasis in a Rural Community along River Okumeshi, Delta State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Research Article
Author(s): Jephtha C. Nmor
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
 Background:  Information on geo-helminth infections in Akoku community has never been reported. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and pattern of geo-helminth infections among this population, and to evaluate the impact of water source and faecal disposal system on the prevalence of geo-helminth infection.Methods: Stool samples from 300 children aged between 0 and 15 year were screened for the presence of geo-helminth infections using direct smear method and kato-katz techniques.Results: 240(80.0%) children were infected and a triad pattern of Ascaris lumbricoides (156, 52.0 %), hookworm (48, 16.0%) and Trichuris trichiura (36, 12.0%) were observed. There was no sex disparity and no significant difference (p>0.5) in the prevalence of geo-heminthiasis. Prevalence was highest among age group of 0-5 years, infection rate decreasing with increasing age. Multiple helminth infection was highest for A. lumbricoides and Hookworms combination (24, 10.0%). There was significant difference in multiple parasitic infections (P < 0.05). Those subjects using stream water were more infected compared to those using well and pipe bone water (P < 0.05) and those using nearby bushes as source of disposal of faeces were more significantly affected (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The high prevalence of geo-helminth infections suggests that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, enhancing socioeconomic status, improving sanitation facilities, instilling health education and promoting ways of keeping personal hygiene can be good strategies to control these infections in the area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time the prevalence and infection patterns of geo-helminthiasis in this rural community. The findings showed that parasitic infections are public health problems among this population and that A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura are the common helminths that cause parasitic infection in the study area.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Mineral Exploration and Exploitation in South-Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Igarra in Edo State

Research Article
Author(s): G. C. C. Ndinwa , C. O. Ohwona
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
The act of quarrying/mining and the subsequent processing and transporting of these raw materials are greatly hampered by high environmental and health costs. This is observable at the quarry sites, processing factories and the surrounding environments. It is important to state that the environment of the northern part of Edo State has suffered in many areas where exploitation of earth resources by quarrying method and the subsequent processing are carried out. This was revealed from the fieldwork. The importance of these minerals to the nation’s economy cannot be undermined. There is no wisdom therefore to suggest that mining activities be eliminated in order to sustain the quality of the environment. What should be done is for the government, industrial prospectors and environmentalists to take precautionary and remedial measures that can minimize the ill-effects of mineral development. Emphasis should shift to sustainable exploitation of the resources, while the enforcement agency should ensure that quarrying and mining of rocks by the industrial prospectors are in line with the Quarry Act of Nigeria 1979.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to knowledge on the environmental impacts and processes of solid minerals exploration and exploitation in Nigeria. It also makes available materials for further research work on the subject matter.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Ultrasound Guided Axillary Node Sampling in Patients of Carcinoma Breast with Clinically Negative Axilla: A Pilot Study

Research Article
Author(s): Navneet Kaur, Akhil Garg, Anupama Tandon, Usha Rani Singh
Journal: Cancers Review

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Abstract
Background: The current recommendation for evaluation of axilla in patients with early breast cancers is Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection. Axilllary node sampling (ANS) has been validated as an alternative, but its reliance on palpation for localization of axillary nodes limits its precision. Pre-operative ultrasound guided localization can be combined with ANS to overcome this limitation. We conducted this study to find the accuracy of Ultrasound Guided Axillary Node Sampling (UGANS) in predicting the status of the axilla in patients with  breast cancer.Methods: Forty patients of carcinoma breast with clinically negative axilla underwent pre-operative ultrasonography to identify  axillary nodes with suspicion of metastatic involvement. Identified nodes were marked on the skin by a permanent marker and depth from the  surface was recorded. The patients underwent mastectomy/breast conservation surgery with axillary dissection. The pre-operatively marked  nodes were first dissected out under guidance of the skin markings and  subsequently complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was  performed. Based on histopathological correlation, accuracy of UGANS was calculated taking ALND as the gold standard.Results: Thirty eight (95%) patients had successful marking of axillary nodes by ultrasonography (USG) (Mean 3.89 nodes). Thirty four (85%) patients had successful sampling of marked nodes (Mean-3.76 nodes). There was a higher rate of sampling failure in patients with negative axilla ( 3/17, 17.6%) than those with axillary metastasis ( 1/21,  4 .76% ).  Patients in whom marked nodes could not be localized were mostly young (mean age 39 years), had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) score   ( mean 31.38 Kg/m2  versus 24.84 kg/m2 , p = 0.006), and smaller size of marked nodes ( mean 0.99 cm in failure group versus 1.03 cm in successful group). The nodes sampled with USG guidance reflected the status of axilla with accuracy of 100%Conclusion: The present study establishes the feasibility and accuracy of UGANS as a potential cost effective axillary staging modality in low resource settings. However, more studies with a larger sample size are required to validate these initial results.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Cancers Review » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1