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Animal Review

June 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 17-23

Supernumerary Teats in Kalahari Red Goats in the Humid Tropics

Famakinde, S.A.


Okwelum N.


Leigh, O.O.

Famakinde, S.A. 1 ,

Okwelum N. 1 Leigh, O.O. 3

  1. Institute of Food Security Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 3

Pages: 17-23

DOI: 10.18488/

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Article History:

Received: 10 June, 2019
Revised: 17 July, 2019
Accepted: 20 August, 2019
Published: 07 October, 2019


Supernumerary teats (SNT) are additional to the usual number of teats found on a cow (four), goat or sheep (two). Information has been provided on the occurrence of teat abnormalities in the indigenous goat breeds in Nigeria but there remains a dearth of information on the incidence of teat abnormalities in the Kalahari red goats (KRG). Fifty two female lactating KRG aged between 2-5 years were classified on the basis of the number of SNT by visual appraisal. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent sample T-test. 76.1% of the population possesses SNT, 10.9% had one, 43.5% had two, 10.9% had three while 10.9% had four SNT. 60% of the population of KRG with SNT had none of such teats functional/patent. 11.4% had one patent SNT, 25.7% had two patent SNT, 2.9% had four patent SNT. The location of the SNT in relation to the primary teat reveals that 86.3% of the SNT are cranial, 1.3% of the SNT are caudal, 10.0% of the SNT are medial while 2.5% of the SNT are lateral. 74.36% of KRG studied had symmetrical udders while 25.45% had asymmetrical udder. The study concluded that possible reproductive implications of high percentage of SNT in KRG may include neonatal death of kids especially in multiple births and higher risk of mastitis in does. Reproductive Veterinarians and breeders should watch out for goats with SNT when carrying out breeding soundness examination.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the occurrence of Supernumerary teats in the Kalahari red goats with its reproductive implications. The study also provides one of the earliest reports of Supernumerary teats that are positioned lateral and medial to the primary teat in the goat.


Supernumerary teat, Kalahari, Reproductive, Goats, Udder, Neonate, Mastitis.



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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Authors appreciate the staffs and management of the Kalahari red project of the Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research for providing the animals used for this study. Special thanks go to Mr. Joshua Akapo and Mr Idowu Dende for support and assistance rendered in the course of this work.

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