Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
USA

Conference List

Exploring Social Opportunities for and Constraints to Primary Healthcare Seeking behavior in Urban Bangladesh: A Study on Rajshahi City

Bijoy Krishna Banik

Bijoy Krishna Banik 1

  1. Professor of Sociology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed

Pages: 15-27

DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2017.4.2/9.2.15.27

Share :

Article History:

Received: 17 December, 2016
Revised: 18 January, 2017
Accepted: 16 February, 2017
Published: 08 March, 2017


Abstract:

Most of the slum dwellers in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh, come here from rural areas either forcefully or willingly for various purposes. They naturally lead a miserable life here which causes various health problems. Different organizations therefore come forward to the establishment of primary healthcare centers for meeting their growing demands for healthcare services. The main objective of this paper was thus to explore how social issues created opportunities for and barriers to healthcare seeking behavior among the urban poor women. This study is of importance that findings of the study will help achieve the 3rd Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)—ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages—at the right time (2030). Two hundred females in Rajshahi city were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire interview method. Levels of monthly household income and of education are used as proxy determinants of class.  There has been an increase in the availability of and accessibility to primary healthcare services for the poor urban women due to making healthcare services available at people doorsteps and developing awareness though some social issues like the lack of knowledge about the nearest centers, their beliefs in and perception of illness and treatment, inappropriate time set-up and high costs associated with treatment and medicine sometimes dissuade them from availing the reachable healthcare services. More hygienic behavior among them found albeit they have few sanitary latrines which push their lives at greater risks. As suggested, if all these social issues are seriously taken into consideration in the formation and adaptation of the future policy, the Bangladesh Government can easily meet the 3rd SDG.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated effects of social issues in healthcare seeking behavior. The primary contribution of it is identifying the time-table of the health center unsuitable for the poor.  It documents an increase in the availability of and accessibility to primary healthcare services.

Keywords:

Rajshahi city, Primary healthcare, Urban, Poor women, Social class, Availability, Accessibility.

Video:

Reference:

  1. V. Navarro, The underdevelopment of health or the health of underdevelopment: An analysis of the distribution of human health resources in Latin America. In V. Navarro (Ed.), Imperialism, health and medicine. Great Britain: Pluto Press, 1982.
  2. F. A. Osman, Policy making in Bangladesh: A study of the health policy process. Dhaka: A.H. Development Publishing House, 2004.
  3. M. F. Shah, "Global biomedicine: Issues of biomedical power: Indigenization and capitalism," Social Science Journal, vol. 20, pp. 215-230, 2016.
  4. M. S. Akter, M. Upal, and U. Hani, "Service quality perception and satisfaction: A study over sub-urban public hospitals in Bangladesh," Journal of Services Research, vol. Special, pp. 125-146, 2008. View at Google Scholar 
  5. S. S. Andaleeb, "Public and private hospitals in Bangladesh: Service quality and predictors of hospital choice," Health Policy and Planning, vol. 15, pp. 95-102, 2000. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  6. S. S. Andaleeb, N. Siddiqui, and S. Khandakar, "Patient satisfaction with health services in Bangladesh," Health Policy and Planning, vol. 22, pp. 263-273, 2007. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  7. A. Mercer, M. H. Khan, M. Daulatuzzaman, and J. Reid, "Effectiveness of an NGO primary health care programme in rural Bangladesh: Evidence from the management information system," Health Policy and Planning, vol. 19, pp. 187-198, 2004. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher 
  8. S. A. Rahman, "Utilisation of primary health care services in rural Bangladesh: The population and provider perspectives," Doctoral Dissertation, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 2001.
  9. A. I. Anwar, J. Killewo, M. K. Chowdhury, and S. Dasgupta, Bangladesh: Inequalities in utilization of maternal health care services: Evidence from matlab: HNP discussion paper. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2004.
  10. S. Basu, J. Andrews, S. Kishore, R. Panjabi, and D. Stuckler, "Comparative performance of private and public healthcare systems in low-and middle-income countries: A systematic review," PLoS Medicine, vol. 9, pp. e1001244, 2012. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  11. K. Hanson, L. Gilson, C. Goodman, A. Mills, R. Smith, R. Feachem, and H. Kinlaw, "Is private health care the answer to the health problems of the world's poor?," PLoS Medicine, vol. 5, pp. e233, 2008. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  12. A. Mills, "Health care systems in low-and middle-income countries," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, pp. 552-557, 2014. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  13. D. H. Peters, A. Garg, G. Bloom, D. G. Walker, W. R. Brieger, and R. M. Hafizur, "Poverty and access to health care in developing countries," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1136, pp. 161-171, 2008.  View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  14.  S. Hossain, "Rapid urban growth and poverty in Dhaka City," Bangladesh E-Journal of Sociology, vol. 5, pp. 1-24, 2008. View at Google Scholar 
  15. NIPORT, M. A. Associates, and M. International, Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2007. Dhaka, Bangladesh and Calverton, Maryland, USA: National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates, and Macro International, 2009.
  16. K. M. Farhana, S. A. Rahman, and M. Rahman, "Factors of migration in urban Bangladesh: An empirical study of poor migrants in Rahshahi City," Bangladesh E-Journal of Sociology, vol. 9, pp. 105-117, 2012.
  17. S. Hossain, "Poverty, household strategies and coping with urban life: Examining 'livelihood framework' in Dhaka City, Bangladesh," Bangladesh E-Journal of Sociology, vol. 2, pp. 1-14, 2005. View at Google Scholar  
  18. M. M. Islam and K. M. A. K. Azad, "Rural–urban migration and child survival in urban Bangladesh: Are the urban migrants and poor disadvantaged?," Journal of Biosocial Science, vol. 40, pp. 83-96, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Kuhn, "Identities in motion: Social exchange networks and rural-urban migration in Bangladesh," Contributions to Indian Sociology, vol. 37, pp. 311-337, 2003. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  20. H. B. Perry, Quest for a healthy Bangladesh: A vision for the twenty-first century. Dhaka: The University Press Limited, 1999.
  21. T. Siddiqui, Migration as a livelihood strategy of the poor: The Bangladesh case. Bangladesh: Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit, Dhaka University, 2003.
  22. A. A. Ullah, "Bright city lights and slums of Dhaka city: Determinants of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh," Migration Letters, vol. 1, pp. 26-41, 2004. View at Google Scholar  
  23. F. C. Leal, J. Dayton, L. Demery, and K. Mehra, "Public spending on health care in Africa: Do the poor benefit?," Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, vol. 78, pp. 66-74, 2000.
  24. M. Makinen, H. Waters, M. Rauch, N. Almagambetova, R. Bitran, L. Gilson, and S. Ram, "Inequalities in health care use and expenditures: Empirical data from eight developing countries and countries in transition," Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, vol. 78, pp. 55-65, 2000. View at Google Scholar  
  25. B. Banik, "Exclusion of urban poor in the NGO-run urban primary helth care service delivery system in Bangladesh a case study," Man & Development, vol. 31, pp. 93-110, 2009.
  26. P. Claquin, "Private health care providers in rural Bangladesh," Social Science and Medicine. Part B: Medical Anthropology, vol. 15, pp. 153-157, 1981. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  27. M. Kabir, A. Rahman, S. Salway, and J. Pryer, "Sickness among the urban poor: A barrier to livelihood security," Journal of International Development, vol. 12, pp. 707-722, 2000. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  28. M. R. Khan, Sicknesses, diseases, treatments and medical costs by socioeconomic variables in Bangladesh. Research Monograph. No. 15. Dhaka: Bangladesh Unnayan Gobeshana Protishthan, 1994.
  29. A. M. Sarder and L. C. Chen, Are there barefoot doctors in Bangladesh: A survey of non-government rural health practitioners. Dhaka: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICCDR,B), 1981.
  30. D. Filmer, P. Lant, and H. Jeffrey, Health policy in poor countries: Weak links in the chain? Policy research working paper 1874. Washington, D.C: World Bank, Development Research Group, Poverty and Human Resources, 1998.
  31. B. Banik, Governance of the health sector: The case of the UPHCP, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Berlin: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co. KG, 2010a.
  32. B. Banik, Inclusion or exclusion of the urban poor?: The case of the UPHCP, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert  Academic Publishing, 2010b.
  33. B. K. Banik, Rural health services: Some observations. In K. T. Hossain, M. H. Imam & S. E. Habib (Eds.), Women, health and poverty. Rajshahi, Bangladesh: Department of Sociology. The Univesity of Rajshahi, 2003.
  34. EHP, "Improving the health of the urban poor learning from USAID experience: Strategic report 12. The Environmental Health Project (EHP)." Retievedfrom http://www.ehproject.org/PDF/Strategic_papers/SR12-UH%20ImproveHealth.pdf, 2004.
  35. S. Nahar and A. Costello, "The hidden cost of ‘free’maternity care in Dhaka, Bangladesh," Health Policy and Planning, vol. 13, pp. 417-422, 1999.

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgement:


Related Article

( 1 ) Exploring Social Opportunities for and Constraints to Primary Healthcare Seeking behavior in Urban Bangladesh: A Study on Rajshahi City
( 2 ) The Social Context of Street Culture in Substance Use; a Literature Review of Homeless Youth Perspectives
( 5 ) Gendered Perspectives of Men’s Health and Help Seeking: Implications for Public Health and Health Promotion
( 6 ) Access to HIV Prevention Services for Injecting Drug Users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: Qualitative Results
( 7 ) Interventions for Reducing Coercion in Mental Health for Adults: A Systematic Review and the Impact of Updating
( 8 ) Cause, Magnitude and Contributing Factors for Maternal Death in Selected Hospitals in Snnpr between 2007/2008 and 2009/2010
( 9 ) Prosthodontic Rehabilitatative Therapy through Surgical Obturator for Maxillectomy Patients: A Review
( 10 ) Contribution of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices for Sustainable Crop Productivity, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Nutrient Status in Maize Based Cropping Systems
( 11 ) Apoptotic Analysis of Cumulus Cells for the Selection of Competent Oocytes to Be Fertilized by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
( 12 ) Re-Irradiation for Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma after Primary Radical Therapy
( 13 ) Malaysian Translation and Psychometric Evaluation for Parent and Child Questionnaires of Children Health Survey for Asthma
( 14 ) Evaluation of Techniques for the Diagnosis of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Paediatric Patients
( 15 ) Reliability of the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (Lrinec) Score for Early Diagnosis of Necrotizing Fasciitis
( 16 ) Personalized Medicine: Futuristic Predictive Nanomedicines for Diagnosis and Therapeutics
( 17 ) Strategies for Addressing Poor Statistical Literacy among Health Scientists and Science Communicators
( 18 ) Common Health Concerns in African Immigrants in the Us- Implications for the Family Physician
( 19 ) Model for Absorption of Perfluoropropane Intraocular Gas after Retinal Surgeries
( 20 ) Empirical and Practical Implementation Methodology for Clinical Integration of E-Health Iot Technology
( 21 ) Profile of Patients Visiting a Tertiary Eye Hospital and their Perception Regarding Barrier for Eye Care Services in the Western Saudi Arabia
( 22 ) Multifactorial Analysis of the Parameters for Immunity in Preterm Infants
( 24 ) Evaluation of the Relative Viability of Anthropometric Parameters, Aerobic Capacity, Spinal Mobility, Abdominal Muscular Endurance, Back and Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Predicting the Balance Performance of Young Adult Males
( 25 ) Nano Formulations of Natural Compounds for Enhanced Delivery
( 26 ) Domiciliary Care Providers Views on Provision of Palliative Care for their Cancer Patients
( 27 ) Preparing Nurses for Community Health Care: A Comparative Study of the ADN and BSN Programs
( 28 ) Development and Quality Evaluation of Complementary Food Formulated from Sorghum, Soybean and Sesame Flour Blends
( 29 ) Mortalities Profile among Dubai Population 2017, Utilizing Breakdown Fractions for Intervention and Forecasting of Future Epidemiologic Transition - Dubai, UAE 2019
( 31 ) Antibody Titers Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Health Care Workers in Khartoum State, Sudan
( 32 ) Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude and Associated Factors of Food Handlers Working in Substandard Food Establishments in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013/14
( 34 ) Management of Difficult Airway Due To Chop Wound In Posterior Neck
( 35 ) A Systematic Review to Explore the Scope of Global Interventions to Reduce the Incidence of Gastric Cancer
( 36 ) Prognostic Factors in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue Treated With Adjuvant Therapy Following Surgery
( 37 ) Nutritive Value of Some Agro–Industrial By–Products as Supplement to Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) By Sokoto Gudali Calf
( 38 ) Prevalence and Factors Associated With Refractive Error among Primary School Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
( 39 ) The Level and Associated Factors Of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Health Science Students of Addis Ababa University
( 40 ) Anthropometric Parameters as Predictors of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Central Indian Children 5-15 Years
( 41 ) Serum Rankl/Osteoprotegerin Complex and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Chronic Heart Failure
( 42 ) Protective Effect of L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) On Mercury Detoxication and Physiological Aspects of Albino Rats
( 43 ) Effect of Different Chronotype on Comorbidity and Resistance to Psycho-Emotional Stress in Hypertension Associated With Hepato-Biliary Pathology in the North
( 45 ) Determinants of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Modeling Progression of Adherence Level: At Yirgalem Regional Hospital, Ethiopia; January, 2012
( 46 ) Ethanolic Extract of Ginger on the Histology of the Pancrease in Adult Wistar Rats
( 48 ) Prevalence of Stunting and Associated Factors among Under Five Children in Wondo Genet Woreda, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia
( 49 ) Xerostomia in Geriatric Population: An Insight into Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management
( 50 ) Vitamin D Supplementation Practices in Pregnancy and During Infancy and Other Behaviors Related To Vitamin D Status among a Sample of Muslim Women in Ireland and Saudi Arabia
( 51 ) Acute Renal Failure, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Changes in Three Cases with Ileostomy
( 52 ) Correlation between Her2/Neu and Histopatholoical Finding among Sudanese Female Breast Cancer Patients
( 53 ) Evidence of A Pharmacological Dissociation Between The Robust Effects of Methylphenidate on Adhd Symptoms and Weaker Effects on Working Memory
( 54 ) Suicides and Factors Associated With Suicides-A Study in a Rural Setup of Pondicherry in South India
( 55 ) The Effect of Regular Hazelnut Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Acceptance in Māori and European
( 57 ) The Successful Treatment of Obstructive Uropathy Caused By Retroperitoneal Fibrosis with Steroids in the Latent Tuberculosis Case
( 59 ) The Importance of Clinical Genotype in Patients with Klinefelter Syndrome. A Genetic Disorder Asociated to Taurodontism
( 60 ) Pleural Effusion in Gorham-Stout Syndrome: A Case Report and a Literature Review
( 61 ) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Egyptian Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single Center Study
( 62 ) Investigation of Kidney Stone Using a Microstrip Patch Antenna Scanning System
( 63 ) A Sample Survey on Reproductive Women to Assess Level of Stress in Sub-Urban Population, South Chennai, India
( 64 ) The Role of Demography in Moderation the Influence of Nonverbal Communication to Patient’s Satisfaction
( 66 ) Ontology with SVM Based Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Statistical Analysis
( 67 ) How to Treat Diastasis Recti Abdominis with Physical Therapy: A Case Report
( 68 ) Profile of Physiotherapist Educators in Anglophone West African Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study
( 69 ) A Rare Histological Entity- Oral Fibrolipoma
( 70 ) The Right to Dignity and Consensus in the Psychiatric Health Treatment
( 71 ) Tumors of the Gnathic System with Multiple Histogenetic Characteristics
( 72 ) Risk-Based Disease Management in the Fight Against to Bovine Tuberculosis; Area Prioritization
( 75 ) Contribution of Meat towards Nutritional Security - An Analysis through Consumption of Different Food Items among Meat and Non-Meat Consumers in Karnataka
( 76 ) Hypersensitivity to Natural Rubber Latex Gloves among Albanian Dental Students: The Role of Exposure Duration
( 77 ) A Rare Clinical Presentation of Lipoma- Palmar Lipomatosis
( 78 ) Staff Nurses and Physicians Attitudes toward the Use of Electronic Patient Record
( 79 ) Influence of Parity and Index Child Factors on Adoption of Exclusive Breastfeeding by Nursing-Mothers in Imo State Nigeria
( 80 ) Development and Evaluation of the Readability, Stability and Internal Consistency of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess Physiotherapists Knowledge and Attributes of Professionalism
( 81 ) Contribution of Planting Space and Harvesting Period on the Nutrient Compositions of Some OFSP Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Southeast Nigeria Ultisol
( 82 ) Ethnobotanic Study of Use of Medicinal Plants Utilized in the Quilombola Community of Chapada Da Natividade, Tocantins, Brazil