F. Xu, M. R. Stemberg, S. L. Gottlieb, S. M. Bermen, and L. E. Markowitz, "Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14-49 years------- United States, 2005-2008," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, vol. 59, pp. 456-459, 2010.
E. I. Kalu, K. Akubuo, F. E. Agwu, E. O. Yusuf, C. K. Ojide, and V. U. Nwadike, "Seroprevalence of herpes virus-2 among antenatal clinic attendees in Benin, Nigeria," International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health, vol. 4, pp. 330-334, 2014.
Y. A. Agabi, E. B. Banwat, J. D. Mawak, P. M. Lar, N. Dashe, M. M. Dashen, M. P. Adoga, F. Y. Agabi, and H. Zakari, "Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among patients attending the sexually transmitted infections clinic in Jos, Nigeria," Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, pp. 527-575, 2010.
R. Varo, W. C. Buck, P. N. Kazembe, S. Phiri, D. Adriarinamana, and R. Weigel, "Seroprevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and HBV among HIV infected Malawian children: A cross-sectional survey," Journal Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 63, pp. 220-226, 2016.
N. Soumyabrata, S. Soma, C. Debprasad, S. Bhattacharrya, B. Rahul, and S. Manideepa, "Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus infection in HIV coinfected individuals in Eastern India with risk factor analysis," Advances in Virology, vol. 1, pp. 7-10, 2015.
N. Sherwani, R. Khadse, and D. Bhawani, "A study on herpes simplex virus type-2 specific seroprevalence among HIV positive patients of a tertiary care hospital in central India," Research Paper, vol. 5, pp. 37-41, 2015.
O. Lupi, "Prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex infection among patients at high risk for HIV infection in Brazil," International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 50, pp. 709-713, 2011.
J. A. Cohen, A. Sellers, T. S. Sunil, P. E. Mattews, and J. F. Okulicz, "Herpes simplex virus seroprevalence and seroconversion among active duty US air force members with HIV infection," Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 74, pp. 4-7, 2016.
A. Munawwar and S. Singh, "Human herpes virus as copathogens of HIV infection, their role in HIV transmission, and disease progression," Journal of Laboratory Physicians, vol. 8, pp. 5-16, 2016.
V. L. Akwa, N. L. Bimbol, K. L. Samaila, and N. D. Markus, Geographical perspective of Nasarawa state. Keffi: Onaivi Printing and Publishing Company, 2007.
R. M. Coleman, L. Perirera, D. Bailey, C. Dondero, and N. A. J. Wickliffe, "Determination of herpes simplex virus-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 18, pp. 287-291, 1983.
J. D. Mawak, N. Dashe, A. B. Nyese, Agabi, and H. Zakari, "Seroprevalence and coinfection of herpes simplex virus type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus in Nigeria," Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, pp. 1152-2311, 2012.
A. A. Oni, F. D. Adu, and C. C. Ekweozor, "Isolation of herpes simplex virus from sexually transmitted disease patients in Ibadan, Nigeria," Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 21, pp. 187-190, 1994.
B. Romanovski, "Seroprevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus infection in a population of HIV-infected patients in Canada," Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 36, pp. 165-169, 2009.
J. Wang, D. Y. Hrvang, H. Yu, S. S. Kim, J. K. Lee, and M. Kee, "Hospital based HIV/HSV-2 seroprevalence among male patients with anal disease in Korea: Cross-sectional study," BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, pp. 1-34, 2014.
K. E. Iche, "Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Benin Nigeria," International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health, vol. 4, pp. 70-81, 2014.
H. Weis, "Epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in the developing world," Herpes, vol. 11, pp. 24 - 35, 2004.
C. Isichei, P. Brown, M. Isichei, J. Njab, T. Oyebode, and P. Okonkwo, "HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among rural pregnant women in North central Nigeria," American Journal of Health Research, vol. 3, pp. 18-23, 2015.
V. P. Amudha, G. Sucilathangan, B. Cinthuja, and C. Revalthy, "Serologic profile of HSV-2 in STD patients: Evaluation of diagnostic utility of HSV-2 IgM and IgG detection," Journal of Clinical Diagnosis Research, vol. 8, pp. 16 -19, 2014.
C. M. Posavad, A. Wald, S. Kuntz, M. L. Huang, S. Selke, E. Krantz, and L. Corey, "Frequent reactivation of HSV-2 among HIV-1 infected patients treated with highly active retreoviral therapy," Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 190, pp. 693 - 696, 2004.
Pennap, G. R. I. , Oti, V. B. (2016). Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Infection Among HIV Patients Accessing Healthcare at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria. Journal of Diagnostics, 3(2): 31-37. DOI: 10.18488/journal.98/2016.3.2/18.104.22.168
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections is a sexually transmitted
infection worldwide, which has a public health implications especially
as a driving force behind the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
epidemic. It is known to cause genital ulcer as well as lesions. It is a
lifelong recurrent disease with no cure. Due to the lack of documented
HSV-2 studies among HIV patients in this study area with an estimated
HIV prevalence of 38.7%, there was a need for estimating the
seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection in the study population. The sera of
223 consenting HIV positive patients were screened for HSV-2 specific
IgG using an ELISA test kit (Cortez Diagnostic, Inc, USA). The
chi-square test was performed to identify possible risk factors
associated with the viral seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of
the viral infection was 77.6%. Females recorded a prevalence of 84.5%
and males 51.0% (p > 0.05). Participants aged ≤ 20 and ≥ 61 years
recorded a prevalence of 100%, while the lowest prevalence (66.7%) was
observed in those aged 51-60 years (p > 0.05). There was a
statistically significant association between the seroprevalence of
HSV-2 in HIV patients in relation to locality. Patients from the rural
setting had a higher prevalence (85.2%) of the infection than those from
the urban setting (72.6%) (p ≤ 0.05). However, in this study, marital
status, occupation, level of education, antiretroviral therapy (ART)
status and CD4 counts, had no statistically significant association with
HSV-2 infection (p > 0.05). Awareness campaigns that will promote
behavioral change might be the most important strategy to mitigate
transmission as most of the infected persons usually show no clinical
symptoms. The role of vaccination and condom use among high risk groups
may help in combating the transmission.
This study has contributed in documenting the prevalence of the
infection in Keffi using the ELISA test kit and has used the Chi square
statistical test. This study is one of the very few studies which have
investigated the prevalence of HSV-2 infection in North central,
Nigeria. The paper has contributed in logical analysis and in estimating
the prevalence and risk factors of the infection in Keffi. The study
documented a very high overall prevalence of the infection. It is
associated with gender, age and locality and not associated with marital
status, occupation, level of education, ART and CD4 counts.
Dyspnea as an Unusual Presentation of Rickets in A 3-Month-Old Infant: A Case Report
C. R. Patterson and D. Ayoub, "Congenital rickets due to vitamin D deficiency in the mothers," Clin. Nutr., vol. 34, pp. 793-798, 2015.
J. V. Zurlo and S. R. Wagner, "Incidental rickets in the emergency department setting," Case Reports in Medicine, 2012.
K. Thandrayen and J. M. Pettifor, "Maternal vitamin D status: Implications for the development of infantile nutritional rickets," Endocrinol Metab. Clin. North Am., vol. 39, pp. 303-320, 2010.
A. Soliman, H. Salama, E. Alomar, E. Shatla, K. Ellithy, and E. Bedair, "Clinical, biochemical and radiological manifestations of vitamin D deficiency in newborns presented with hypocalcemia," Indian J. Endocrinol Metab., vol. 17, pp. 697-703, 2013.
F. R. Perez-Lopez, V. Pasupuleti, E. Mezones-Holguin, V. A. Benites-Zapata, P. Thota, and A. Deshpande, "Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials," Fertil Steril, vol. 103, pp. 1278-1288, 2015.
M. L. Mulligan, S. K. Felton, A. E. Riek, and I. C. Bernal-Mizrach, "Implications of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and lactation," Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol., vol. 202, pp. 429 e1-9, 2010.
W. I. Cho, H. W. Yu, H. R. Chung, C. H. Shin, C. W. Choi, and B. I. Kim, "Clinical and laboratory characteristics of neonatal hypocalcemia," Ann. Ped. Endocrinol Metab., vol. 20, pp. 86-91, 2015.
C. S. Kovacs, "Maternal vitamin D deficiency: Fetal and neonatal complications," Semin Fetal Neonatal Med., vol. 18, pp. 129-135, 2013.
W. Hogler, "Complications of vitamin D deficiency from the fetus to the infant: One cause, one prevention but whose responsibility?," Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol Metab., vol. 29, pp. 385-398, 2015.
C. P. Rodda, J. E. Bneson, A. J. Vincent, C. L. Whitehead, and A. Polykov, "Vollenhoven B. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy prevents vitamin D deficiency in the newborn: An open label randomized controlled trial," Clin Endocrinol, vol. 83, pp. 363-368, 2015.
R. Vakili, P. Eshraghi, A. A. Nakhaei, S. Vakili, A. Khakshour, and M. Saeidi, "Congenital rickets: Report of four cases," Internat J. Pediatr., vol. 2, pp. 101-105, 2014.
Jerome Okudo (2016). Dyspnea as an Unusual Presentation of Rickets in A 3-Month-Old Infant: A Case Report. Journal of Diagnostics, 3(2): 27-30. DOI: 10.18488/journal.98/2016.3.2/22.214.171.124
Rickets, a condition caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, has a myriad of presentations and affects children all over the world. Infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who are vitamin D deficient are affected, particularly in the absence of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. While breast feeding is encouraged, breast milk is deficient in vitamin D thus; exclusively breastfed infants require vitamin D supplementation. This case describes a three-week-old male infant with a continuum of rickets, which went undiagnosed from the initial presentation of noisy, difficult breathing and snoring at the pediatric emergency department. This case emphasizes that rickets may not always have a classical presentation.