Mostafa Taleshi , Hassan Afrakhteh , Mohammad Ali Rahimipour Sheikhani Nejad (2017). Analysis of the Factors Affecting Changes in Land Cover Patterns in Rural Districts in East of Guilan Province (Iran) for Foresight. Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 4(2): 51-65. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2017.42.51.65
Foresight is among the key topics in natural resource protection for sustainability of rural settlement system. In foresight of land cover evolutions, identification of factors affecting the evolutions is of paramount importance. In the present research, in order to undertake foresight and sustainable land planning in rural districts in East of Guilan as a special ecologic zone encompassing 744 villages, principle variables were collected via a questionnaire using Delphi method with the help pf experts, followed by calculation of significance factors. A total of 93 variables were found to affect the changes in land cover within the study area at local, regional and national scales. Among these, key variables were identified utilizing MIC-MAC Software. In order to develop scenarios by a 20-member expert panel, 19 key drivers of the changes in land cover were homogenized and 9 primary descriptor were defined. For each descriptor, three variant qualitative component were prepared, which described all possible cases from the most critical case to the most desired one. In the next stage, with the help of cross-impact balance matrix and Monte Carlo simulations in Scenario Wizard Software, a total of three scenarios with 15-year horizons were obtained based on maximum consistency. Finally, based on the maximal effectiveness on protection of natural land cover and continuation of sustainability, the obtained scenarios were designated as balanced ecologic changes, relatively balanced ecologic changes, and imbalanced ecologic changes.
Spatial Appraisal of Problems and Prospects of Fertilizer Use for Agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area, Imo State Nigeria
Chikwendu, L. , Jenkwe, E. D. , Eleazu, E. I. , Ogbonna, C. G. (2017). Spatial Appraisal of Problems and Prospects of Fertilizer Use for Agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area, Imo State Nigeria. Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 4(2): 42-50. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2017.42.42.50
This study appraises the spatial problems and prospects of fertilizer use in agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area of Imo State. Structured questionnaires were sampled in each villages randomly selected from the seven autonomous communities of Amaike-Mbieri, Awo Mbieri, Ezi-Mbieri, Ihitte Isi-Mbieri, Obazu Mbieri, Obi-Mbieri and Umueze-Mbieri for collection of data. The data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools of tables, charts and graphs. The outcome showed that 71.2% of the farmers do not have University Education. All the kinds of fertilizer in use in the study area contain Nitrogen with NPK 20-10-10 the most sought-after. Findings show that 54% of the farmers prefer the application of fertilizer NPK for replenishing lost soil nutrients while, 60% of the Farmers in the study area use surface broadcast method in application of fertilizer NPK on their farms. However, it was observed from this research that majority of this nitrogen compounds are washed down through surface runoffs causing pollution and eutrophication of the Ecosystems and water bodies. Government should set up research centre for Fertilizer use in Agriculture where farmers can be equipped with adequate knowledge of the best way to use fertilizer NPK while sustaining the environment
This study contributes in the existing literature on the improper use of fertilizer. The study uses new estimation methodology of sampling questionnaire to villages observed to be most involved in Agriculture. This originates new formula that there is unbalanced use of fertilizer for agriculture.