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Listing 70 - 20 of 1932 results.

Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization for Imprecise Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch Problem

Research Article
Author(s): M.A. El-Shorbagy, A.A. Mousa
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Most of researchers presented a model to solve combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem in a precise formulation, but in reality data cannot be reported or collected preciously due to several reasons. The impreciseness of the mathematical model is occurring due to environmental fluctuations or instabilities in the global market which leads to the rapid fluctuations of prices. Therefore, in many cases, the various parameters of CEED model cannot be considered in a precise manner.  So, in this paper, a new methodology is presented to solve imprecise CEED problem. In this methodology, we propose a chaos based enriched swarm optimization algorithm that relies on chaos in order to enhance its global search ability. The enriched swarm optimization algorithm combining two heuristic optimization techniques, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) to integrate the merits of both them. Also, to improve the search engine visibility of the proposed approach, PSO has been enriched with a new evolution scheme; where a chaotic constriction factor is used to control the velocity of each particle in the swarm. Furthermore, local search (LS) technique is applied to improve the results quality; where it intends to scan the less-crowded region and obtain more nondominated solutions. Finally, the new methodology is carried out on the standard IEEE 30-bus 6-generator test system. From the results it is quite evident that our approach gives comparable minimum fuel cost and comparable minimum emission or better than those generated by other evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Also using the imprecise model enables us to predict the best cost and emission for any price fluctuation without solving the problem again.
Contribution/ Originality
This study presents a new methodology for solving imprecise combined economic emission dispatch using a chaos based enriched swarm optimization algorithm; where it integrates the main features of particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm. The tests demonstrated that the proposed approach has a satisfactory performance compared to previous studies.

Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

National Security and Democratization in Nigeria: The Case of Insurgence

Research Article
Author(s): Ozurumba Cyril Okechukwu, Onyeaghala Obioma Hyginus
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
The consciousness and philosophy of the security of a nation assumed a different dimension after World War 11. Defense of a nation has been employed to justify military incursion into politics by many African States. In Nigeria, the emergence of military regimes is always seen as measure to guard or defend National Security which is panacea for sustaining dictate of law, justice and democracy. In the years gone by, national security have been threatened and traumatized with internal crisis like the civil war, ethnic rivalry, religious uprisings, and currently, activities of other sect such as Boko Haram. The unprecedented rise of insurgence in many parts of Nigeria has constituted a challenge to sustainable democracy. The unconventional methods of warfare, adopted by these sect, in addition with the seeming inability of the Nigeria security drives to incapacitate their operational tactics, questions the willingness of our national defense to sustain democracy. This ugly development portrays negative signal on the security of our nation and democratization with its consequences on political stability. Against this backdrop, this paper looks at the challenges insurgence has posed on the security of Nigeria and its democracy. It argues that if the Nigeria State does not decisively debilitate the sects that are posing security challenges, the possibility of achieving sustainable democracy will be a mirage. This is because, by then the Bush - fire - effects of the killer groups may have done great damage to the democratic structure in the country.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the relationship between national security and sustainenace of democracy in Nigeria. It is hoped to sensitize the public on national security issues and inculcates in them that democracy and national development does not thrive in an atmosphere of chaos and insecurity.

Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Comparative Analysis of Osmotic Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables: Using Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and Carrot (Daucus Carota L) in a Semi-Continuous Process

Research Article
Author(s): Duduyemi Oladejo, Ngoddy P.O., Ade-omowaye B.I.O, Abioye A.O.
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
Fruits and vegetables are important part of human diet but are prone to rapid deterioration. Osmotic dehydration (OD) is a method capable of retaining nutrient and organoleptic qualities of preserved food and aid drying at reduced energy requirement for minimally processed food. The study is aimed at analysing and comparing OD of fruits and vegetables using mango (Mangifera indica L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L) as case samples. The effects of sucrose concentration, residence time and temperature of OD media were investigated for water loss (WL) and solute gain (SG) regression. Optimal transport models established for maximum WL and minimum SG at 40-60 oBx, 30-50 oC and 0-180min using Modified Distance Design of the response surface methodology Design Expert 6.0 achieved 46.87% WL and 7.33% SG for mango and 36% WL and 5% SG for carrot. At the optimized conditions of in a semi-continuous process it was observed that high SC did not favour WL in mango while in carrot, increased SC resulted in a consistent increase in WL. The analysis of variance revealed R2 of 72.95% for carrot and 98.44% for mango at (P<0.05) thus showing the effects of the plant morphology on OD process effectiveness in determining the order of processing fruits and vegetables in a semi-continuous process.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 1

Effects of Mentoring and Gender on the Achievement of Low-Performing Students in Biology

Research Article
Author(s): Jegede S.A, Olu-Ajayi F.E
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study investigated the effect of mentoring and gender on the achievement of low- performing students in Biology. Its main purpose was to measure the response rate of each gender to mentoring approach of science teaching.  It is believed that this will assist in developing individual potentials to becoming better science learners. The study employed the non-randomized pre-test, post-test, control quasi-experimental design. The population of the study was all senior secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The sample comprised 180 Biology students (consisting of 70 males and 110 females) selected from six secondary schools through random and purposive sampling techniques. The instruments used to collect the relevant data for the study was a Biology Concept Test (BCT) which was administered as both pre-test and post-test. The instrument was validated by experts in science education and tests and measurement respectively. Its reliability was ascertained using test-retest method and a reliability coefficient of 0.72 was obtained. The experimental group was treated with a mentoring package involving Classroom Adjunct Instruction Learning Model (CAILM). Data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA). It was discovered from the study that mentoring enhanced the achievement of low-performing students and that female students performed better than their male counterparts in mentoring relationship. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended (among others) that mentoring should be used by teachers as an adjunct to normal classroom teaching for bringing up slow and poor students to improved level of performance.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is that, low-performing students can improve their achievement in Biology if they can be well mentored. 

Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 07-2017 Issue: 7

Microfacies and Morphotectonic of the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (North of Chenaran)

Editorial Note
Author(s): Hoda Yavarmanesh, Seyed Hamid Vaziri, Ali Asghar Aryaei, Davood Jahani, Mohsen Pourkermani
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
In this research, the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (north of Chenaran) with the thickness of 412 m in north flank and 251 m in south flank is studied. The Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh sectionsis included limestones, marlylimestones, shales and sandstones in lower parts of the formation. In these sections, there are impressions of echinoderms toxasteridae family, many of foraminifera from orbitolinidae family and also lots of calcareous algae that create facies variation along with other nonskeletal allochems. The study of sediment facies led to the recognition of four facies belts and six microscopic standard facies in the Tirgan Formation and shows the oscillation of sea level but totally it can be concluded that the basin was shallow and formed in the ramp platform. According to the evidence, the oolithic limestones and intercalated shales of the Tirgan Formation in south flank, Ghorogh Syncline are slided on the red sandstone of Shurijeh Formation as transition slides because of lubrication. These landslides are distinguished and formed (7times) because of the stresses which are done from the northern syncline to the south of Ghorogh valley and formed the current morphotectonic for the area. This phenomenon could name as decollement.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding real thickness of  Tirgan Formation in south flank Ghorogh Syncline. Morphotectonic studies show transitional slides of Tirgan Formation in Chenaran map (1:100000) wrongly named Shurijeh Formation while this research led to the corrected and these transitional slides named Tirgan Formation.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4

The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Salami Dada Kareem, Atoyebi Kehinde Olusegun, Lawal Samad Arogundade
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study investigates the nexus between Agricultural budgetary allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria by employing simple regression analysis and a further test of cointegration and vector error correction model to determine short run dynamic behaviour of the variable. The result of the study revealed that there is positive relationship between Agricultural budgetary allocation and Economic Growth in the long run. It was also observed that since the Agricultural budgetary allocation and Economic Growth are positively related. This relationship is significant over the two years lagged value of budgetary allocation to Agriculture. And by implication, the government has to stand aloof by increasing expenditure on agriculture because agricultural sector plays a vital role towards the National Transformation in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes to the existing literature on the relationship between budgetary allocation and economic growth. The paper shows its uniqueness by adopting Keynesian macroeconomic approach in specifying growth as a function of agricultural expenditure. The use of vector error correction in our model enables us to capture both short run and long run dynamic behavior of the variables in our model which is an innovation.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province

Research Article
Author(s): Mercedes Aguilar Castaneda, C. Jose Antonio Bravo Iglesias, Jose Angel Chang Porto, Kellys Cecilia Naranjo Acosta
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
The monitoring of the criteria and indicators carried out in Cuba to a municipal level and management areas are limited to a valuation according to the established methodology, making an inadequate evaluation of the same ones, what does not allow to obtain results on scientific bases that guarantee a correct valuation to define if the Forest Management is sustainable. This work carries out an evaluation of the criteria and indicators in the municipality "Palma Soriano" Santiago de Cuba province. The indicators were valued by means of a scale that allows judging their behavior using the approved and implemented methodology in Cuba. With these valuations there were carried out the graphs of sustainability, as tools to evaluate the performance of the criteria and indicators during 10 years.  It concludes that the evaluation of the acting for each criteria was of " weak", "Excellent", "Extremely weak", "Weak" and "Favorable", for the criteria Forest Covering, Health and vitality of the Forest Ecosystems, Contribution of the Forest Ecosystems to the environmental Services, Productive functions of the Forest Ecosystems and Multiple Socio-economic benefits to cover the necessities of the society respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
The contribution of the work is to provide information, used as a tool by the local Government in the formulation of effective policies for forest management, the evaluation of development projects and the investigations of the Universidad de Oriente in methodological proposals to measure local development in the municipalities.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Effects of Distortion on Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing Straight Walls

Research Article
Author(s): A. Adebayo, J.T Stephen
Journal: Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research

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Abstract
Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is a developing rapid prototyping and manufacturing technology which allows the production of large custom made metal parts with high deposition rates, a major concern of the aircraft industry. Despite this, there is few researches on the design method and application of WAAM technology in the aircraft industry. The overall aim of this paper is to study the machinability of the part manufactured through is process especially when a base plate is require. The results showed that removing the best plate prior or after machining can have a significant effect on the overall effective wall width of the samples.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the machinability of Wire and Arc Additive Manufactured thin walls using mild steel. The study shows the effects of machining of WAAM thin walls in relation to the base plate in order to produce useable WAAM parts.

Engineering » Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Using ICT Policy Framework as a Panacea for Economic Recession and Instability in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Otuonye Anthony I., Emeka Chinedu
Journal: Journal of Future Internet

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Abstract
In this research article, we have developed an ICT-based strategic model for Nigeria as a panacea for her current fight against economic recession. Research has shown that Nigeria is currently in a recession with her GDP growth rate for the first quarter of 2016 at -1.5% and that of the second quarter of 2016 at -0.36%. The reduced economic activities in Nigeria clearly show in lower gross domestic product (GDP), and high inflation rate. The model developed in this work shows the correlation among the various elements of the framework including Integration, Incentives, Challenges, and Direct Positive Effects, to ensure economic benefits to Nigeria as a nation via the following channels: ICT policy, an entrepreneurial roadmap, a broadband policy, and an deployment of ICT component policy in all educational disciplines across the nation.  This paper recommends a full implementation of the model for a quick recovery of the Nigerian economy and for her economic growth. The government of Nigeria should encourage the dispersal of ICT into the socio-economic life of the people by an adoption and implementation of ICT policies, including adequate investment in IT infrastructure.  We have equally proved that ICT plays a complementary role in industrial development, trade, farming, education, housing, health and financial institutions. We strongly recommend that government should link ICT planning to her national economic and social planning, and the best time to do that is now.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature having highlighted the important role that Information and Communication Technology will play in addressing the problem of economic recession in Nigeria. This study uses new estimation methodology known as the Decision Process Theory. This study also originates new models for sustainable economic growth. It is one of the very few studies which have investigated the solution to economic recession in Nigeria. 

Computer Sciences » Journal of Future Internet » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Evaluation of the Current Procurement Planning Process in a District Municipality

Research Article
Author(s): Nokwazi Nzimande, Prunella Padayachee
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
Procurement planning represents an important tool within municipal budget activities. Without an effective procurement planning process, municipalities often experience huge challenges towards determining what to buy, when, where and how. South African municipalities often experience procurement planning related challenges with the blame leveled against a procurement planning process. The purpose of this study is to explore a district municipality’s current procurement planning process following indications that the municipality was experiencing serious procurement planning challenges. The population for the study consisted of all employees who work in the municipality from which 10 participants were purposively selected for the sample. The study findings revealed that the municipality does make efforts to draw procurement plans which are not formally implemented. Failure to formally implement the procurement plans can lead to non-compliance, and unauthorised, irregular, wasteful expenditure. A similar study in other district municipalities is recommended, and further, there is need to conduct a repeat of the same study after five years to assess improvements or deteriorations of the procurement planning process.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change

Research Article
Author(s): Anthony M. Rodriguez, G. Solomon Osho, Lalita Sen
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
The urban forest holds several important positions within the built and unbuilt environments. Those positions include economic, health, sustainability, quality of life measures, and overall protection of the environment, including air, water, and soil. The points are highlighted by Wolf (2005;2007); McPherson (2005) and Rowntree and Nowak (1991). This research references the four socio-economic sectors; the public or government sector, for profit or market sector, philanthropic or nonprofit sector, and the household or private sector (Biggs and Helms, 2007). The common purposes and role of each sector with respect to the urban tree cover takes on importance as they interrelate with concerns for public health, economic viability, tree coverage, tree placement, ecological relationships, and public policy. Harris County and its 52 heterogeneous sub-governmental units serve as the study area and the base for the administration of a random internet-based survey. Additionally, the research used urban tree canopy data to relate socio-economics, household preferences, sustainability measures, and overall environmental consciousness to gauge the sectors’ connection to the urban forest. The research used multiple correlation analysis and regression modeling with secondary data. The research incorporated the results of the primary data collected, employed hierarchal linear modeling to address the perceived problem of a lack of concern for the urban forest and sustainability in respect to sectoral frame of reference in answering the survey questions. The element of willingness and receptivity serves as independent variables and overall environmental sustainability. The results can help policy makers promote sustainable initiatives that enhance the urban forest and protect the overall natural environment for the benefit of all, now and in the future.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that examined the urban forest resource as a critical element of our overall ecosystem with values and benefits that far outweigh the cost of maintainance and or expansion. The study also demonstrated that awareness and knowledge precipitates action. How we act though, may require clarity of understanding of the various roles of all the sectors and how each sector, may or may not, take, or be willing to take responsibility for our urban tree canopy’s future. There is a need for a balance within the ecosystem in order to enhance as well as retain our natural heritage of our homes, communities, and regions, by protection of the urban forest, both its resources and benefits. The public in general may not perceive the urban forest as an economic good, but often as an abstraction and not accounted as real property. 

Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Anaeto F.C, Okereke- Ejiogu . N, Uke P.C, Korie O.C, Ohajianya D.O
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This study analyzed farmers’ propensity to discontinue adoption of yam minisett technology in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data were collected in 2015 with validated questionnaire from 134 proportionately and randomly selected yam farmers. Data collected were analyzed using the Tobit model. Results of the estimation showed that significant variables leading to discontinuance of adopted yam minisett technology were extension visit, participation in extension related workshops, feedback provision, input availability, and  perception of yield.  Foremost among these factors were extension visits and participated in extension related workshops which therefore should be sustained after farmers have adopted a technology.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated propensity to discontinue adoption of yam minisett technology among farmers, using Tobit analysis. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that determinants of discontinuance of adopted yam minisett technology were extension, participation in workshops, feedback, input availability and yield perception.

Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2017 Issue: 3

Traveling Wave Solutions for the Nonlinear Fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever Equation

Research Article
Author(s): Dianchen Lu, Mengyang Ye
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
In this paper, the generalized exp(-Φ(ξ))-expansion method along with the Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivatives is proposed to solve the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever (STO) equation. Consequently, the exact solutions are obtained in terms of the trigonometric, exponential, hyperbolic, and rational functions, which confirm the proposed technique is very effectual and easily applicable.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the use of the exp(-Φ(ξ))-expansion method. The method is applied to find the exact solutions to the fractional STO equation for the first time. Consequently, we get some new forms of exact solutions.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

Technological Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: What’s the Contribution of Innovation Policy?

Research Article
Author(s): Kamilia Loukil
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
If European Union member states are technologically lagging behind other member countries, especially Eastern European countries, it is important to analyze whether or not public policies contribute to the reduction of this gap. In this respect, our study examines the effect of public innovation policy on technological innovation in Central and Eastern European countries. The estimation of panel data model for 10 countries over the 1998-2013 period show that innovation policy in these countries is not efficient.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by showing in another manner the inefficiency of innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries. It assesses public efforts by considering two periods: before policy implementation and after policy implementation.

Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Efficiency Measurement of R&D Spending in Emerging Countries

Research Article
Author(s): Kamilia Loukil
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
This paper aims to measure efficiency of R&D spending in ten emerging countries. We estimate two stochastic frontier models where human and physical resources of R&D are the inputs employed to produce an output: patents in the first model and scientific publications in the second model. Empirical evidence shows that scores are higher for publication oriented efficiency than patent oriented efficiency. Moreover, our findings suggest that innovative countries, those with high R&D intensity, are not necessarily efficient in the use of their resources and vice versa.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Nano Formulations of Natural Compounds for Enhanced Delivery

Research Article
Author(s): Zahangir Alam
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
Natural products were always the key elements in ancient history that are promising to treat various diseases including cancer and prevent any health disorders. They have seen a breakthrough since they were used in cancer chemotherapy and prevention with selective phytochemicals. Fruits and vegetables contain nutrient constituents that are bioactive in disease states. Extensive in vitro and in vivo research data is available to prove their efficacy. While few compounds have successfully transitioned to the clinical trials, few of them are still facing problems due to their poor bioavailability and lack of targeting. The lack of efficacy in human studies can be attributed to the complexity of the biological system and complexity of food. In recent years, identification of molecular targets made it necessary to develop efficient formulations for delivery. Nano formulations such emulsions, nanoparticles and nano vesicles are few of the advancements that showed promising faith in natural product chemotherapy. This paper reviews few of the techniques employed for natural compound delivery which can be applied to various compounds.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

Reducing Surgical Site Infection by Placing Subcutaneous Drain in the Obese Patients

Research Article
Author(s): Dehkhoda S., N. Arian Pour, R. Roozegar
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
In this study the effect of placing subcutaneous drain in the incision site of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, on the rate of incision site infection was evaluated. 200 obese patients of both sexes included in the study on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were divided into two groups on the basis of their accessibility. For patients belonging to group II (study cases), subcutaneous drain was placed at the incision site. Follow up of the patients shows subcutaneous drain placed at the incision site reduces the rate  of  infection up to 2% which is significantly lower than the infection rate among patients for whom drain was not placed (P<.05). In spite of emphasis to use sutures, drains and foreign bodies only with adequate indications to avoid surgical site infection and based on the merits of employing drain in evacuating the collected material to prevent infection, we recommend the use of subcutaneous drains in obese patients as incision infection may lead to longer hospitalization or readmission. As higher treatment expenditures and higher mortality rate are the consequences of infection, every effort to reduce the consequences rates following bariatric surgery in obese patients is valuable and advisable.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

Experimental Study on Overtopping Performance of a Circular Ramp Wave Energy Converter

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, Eisa Ahmadi
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
One of the most important debates on energy is planning for the best carriers in each region and determined based on each country's energy basket. The importance of preserving fossil resources becomes evident when we made the prediction. Iran's oil and gas resources will finish up to 136 years to 79 years. Since the clean energy production is a new source in interested field of researchers. Here we study the performance of overtopping with a circular ramp which can be used as a model of wave energy converter.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Identification of Soybean Genotypes (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) Through Genetic Variability Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): M. M. Mahbub, B. J. Shirazy, M. M. Mir Kabir, M. Mamunur Rahman
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The physiomorphological divergence was assessed in twenty eight soybean genotypes by using principal component analysis, cluster mean analysis and mean analysis to recognize parental genotypes for potential breeding plan in order to build up new high compliant varieties for the period of rabi season, 2011 at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh in RCB design with three replications. The results of analysis revealed that all the characters like days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, days of maturity, plant height (cm), branches number per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length (cm), number of seeds per pod, seeds per plant, hundred seed weight (g) and seed yield per plant (g) were significantly pretentious due to diverse soybean genotypes. The maximum intra cluster distance was establish in cluster V and while cluster IV showed lowest intra-cluster distance values which revealed homogenous nature of the genotype within the cluster. The uppermost inter cluster distance was watch involving cluster II and IV followed by II and V. The first flowering days ranged from 51.67 to 76.33, 50% flowering from 55.33 to 79.00, maturity days from 105.33 to 132.00, plant tallness from 21.90 to 79.87 cm, branches per plant from 1.80 to 5.87, pods per plant from 24.62 to 59.57, pod length from 2.53 to 4.19 cm, seeds per pod from 2.37 to 2.66, seeds per plant 60.70 to 158.37, hundred seed weight from 6.27 to 16.57 g and per plant seed yield ranges from 5.73 to 17.40 g. The genotypes F-85-11347, MTD-451, CHINA-1, PI-4174-75 and YESOY-4 remained the best among twenty eight genotypes studied in terms of studied traits. It was recommended that these advanced lines may be focused and involved in future breeding program for the development of new high acquiescent soybean variety.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper`s primary contribution is finding that to evaluation of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) genotypes for morphological, growth and yield associated characters through multivariate analysis. So as to it provides substantial information and addresses the issues of best adaptable genotypes for soybean breeders.

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 09-2017 Issue: 3

Pollution Tax Under Imperfect Competition and Air Transport in a Domestic Economy

Research Article
Author(s): Salami Dada Kareem, Odubunmi Ayoola Sunkanmi, Atoyebi Kehinde, Lawal A. Samad
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This paper empirically demonstrates the possibility of setting up an optimal pollution tax under imperfect markets and international trade in a domestic economy. The model illustrates a situation of partial equilibrium characterized by imperfect competition among domestic producers, where the domestic good is used as an alternative for an imported polluting commodity. In this paper, we bring in the possibility that the domestic firms can introduce innovative ideas through investment in R&D. The result shows that the optimal pollution tax under domestic economic distortions is a function of a ‘domestic production effect’ and a ‘pollution effect’. The paper concludes that when the firms execute R&D expenditures, the optimal policy adds an ‘innovative effect’, which captures the change in welfare coming from a reduction in total costs and this lead our results to a win-win situation.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes in the existing literature by illustrating the case of partial equilibrium characterized by imperfect market among domestic producers. It introduces innovative ideas through   the incorporation of investment in research and development. The paper concludes that under a win – win situation optimal environmental policy represent a policy tax.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3