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Listing 34 - 20 of 2005 results.

Comparison of Reading Speed Using Malay Unrelated Word Reading Chart with Standardized English Reading Charts

Research Article
Author(s): Noor Halilah Buari, Mardiah Farhana Azizan, Ai-Hong Chen
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
 The objective of this study was to compare the reading speed of Malay language unrelated words reading chart named the Universiti Teknologi MARA unrelated words (UiTM-Muw) reading chart with Colenbrander reading chart and MNRead acuity chart. The participants were asked to read three different reading charts at random order, aloud and as quickly as possible. The time taken to read each chart was recorded and any error made while reading was noted. Reading speed was quantified as correct words read in a minute (cwpm). Comparison of reading speed showed a significant difference in reading speed between UiTM-Muw reading chart and Colenbrander reading chart [t(98)=-16.79, p=0.001] as well as MNread acuity chart [t(98)=-18.72, p=0.001]. However, weak agreement was found between reading speed of UiTM-Muw reading chart with MNRead acuity chart (mean difference = -83.6 cwpm) and Colenbrander reading chart (mean difference = -81.9 cwpm). Hence, UiTM-Muw reading chart in Malay language was incomparable with standardized English reading chart.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 3

Correlation between Her2/Neu and Histopatholoical Finding among Sudanese Female Breast Cancer Patients

Research Article
Author(s): Riyadh Hamed, Ahmed Abdelbadie, Ihsan Osman, El khazin Eltayeb, Husam Eldein Omer
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
 Background: This study is one of very few studies which have investigated HER-2/neu expression and its correlation with histopathological finding. A total of 328 breast cancer tissue samples had been analyzed using immunohistochemical techniques. Objective: To compare the expression of tumor markers (HER-2/neu) with other prognostic parameters for mammary carcinomas. Results: Stage I- III B breast cancer HER-2/neu negative are (62%), whereas positive are (22%). Stage IV breast cancer HER-/neu negative are (4%), whereas positive are (3%).  Recurrent breast cancer HER-2/neu negative are (3%) while positive are (5%).Stage I breast cancer HER-2/neu negative are (10%), whereas positive are (1%).  Referring to stage II A, II B breast cancer HER-/neu negative are (59%), whereas positive are (16%). Stage III A, III B breast cancer HER-2/neu negative are (10%), while positive are (4%). HER-2/neu negative breast cancer Tumor size [le] 2 cm are (11%), while positive are (2%). HER-2/neu negative breast cancer Tumor size2-5 cm are (23%), whereas positive are (9%).HER-2/neu negative, Tumor size >5 cm are (26%), while positive are (29%). HER-2/neu negative breast cancer Nodal metastasis 0 are (5%), while positive are (2%). HER-2/neu negative Nodal metastasis1-9 are (16%), whereas positive are (19%). HER-2/neu negative breast cancer Nodal metastasis [ge] 10 are (28%), while positive are (30%). HER-2/neu negative histological subtype NIDC are (2%), whereas positive are (1%).  HER-2/neu negative histological subtype IDC are (67%), while positive are (25%).  HER-2/neu negative histological subtype ILC are (1%), whereas positive are (1%).  Lastly, HER-2/neu negative with others histological subtype are (3%), whereas positive are (0%). HER-2/neu negative histological grade I are (6%), whereas positive are (2%). HER-2/neu negative histological grade II are (21%), while positive are (7%).  Lastly, HER-2/neu negative histological grade II are (40%), whereas positive are (24%). HER-2/neu negative lympho-vascular invasion- are (71%), positive are (29%). HER-2/neu negative with lympho positive or vascular positive are (80%), While among positive are (16%). Conclusion: In this study population, the HER-2/neu expression its relation with histopathological finding determined.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature in Radiation Isotopes Centre Khartoum (RICK) among Sudanese female breast cancer patients. This study uses new estimation methodology of immunohistochemical techniques to understand HER-2/neu expression and its correlation with histopathological finding.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Radiographic Assessment of Alveolar Bone Crest Levels in 9-12 Year Old Children in Davangere, India

Research Article
Author(s): Vandana KL, Saubhik Ghosh
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
 Background: Recent studies have indicated that aggressive periodontitis in the permanent dentition of adolescents often is preceded by bone loss in the primary and mixed dentition. Hence it is necessary to detect and treat these patients for preventing the transition of the disease from  primary to  permanent dentition. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to radiographically determine the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to alveolar bone crest (ABC) distance in the interproximal areas of permanent molars and central incisors during the mixed dentition period. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study spanned over a period of one year. Panoramic radiographs were taken for 410 children residing in Davangere, Karnataka aged between 9-12 years. CEJ-ABC distance was measured at the mesial and distal surfaces of permanent first molars and permanent central incisors. Statistical analysis: Independent t-test was applied to compare CEJ–ABC distances measured in males and females, in the two age groups, the maxillary permanent central incisors and maxillary permanent first molars, the maxillary permanent first molars and mandibular permanent first molars. Results: The CEJ-ABC distance was less than 2mm in more than 95% of the sites. In some of the sites the distance when it was more than 2mm could be suggestive of normal physiology during mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The radiographic distance between CEJ-ABC if more than 2mm could be physiologic and hence requires to be deciphered by clinical evaluation.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Phytoremediation Model System for Aquaculture Wastewater Using Glossostigma Elatinoides and Hemianthus Callitrichoides

Research Article
Author(s): Rashidi Othman, Farah Ayuni Mohd Hatta, Razanah Ramya, Nurul Azlen Hanifah
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
The aquaculture industry has made a great contribution towards economic development of Malaysia. However, the large volume of water consumption and the wastewater discharged into the water source caused a significant environmental problem that must be controlled properly. For instance, aquaculture waste may decrease dissolved oxygen level and load high nutrient and inorganic contaminants which subsequently would cause water deterioration. Thus, to ensure the effectiveness of aquaculture practices, the suitable wastewater management approach should be acquainted. Phytoremediation, which are the application of plant-based technologies, are beginning to be accepted to examine the problems and provide sustainable solutions for this issue. Therefore, this research aims to explore ecological approach by developing phytoremediation model system in order to remediate inorganic pollutants produced by aquaculture pond. In this paper, the efficiency of potential aquatic plants which are Glossostigma elatinoides and Hemianthus callitrichoides to sequester cadmium and copper were investigated. To achieve this, phytoremediation model system was developed using two selected species for three different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). This model system was run over three different periods of time, which are week 1, week 2, and week 3. The findings of this research suggested that the capability to sequester different concentration of heavy metals for certain periods of time were varied between different species. The results indicated that Glossostigma elatinoides was a good phytoremediator for Cd whereas Hemianthus callitrichoides was a good phytoremediator for Cu. The expected outcome of this research is to introduce cost- effective and eco-friendly technology to cater environmental pollution. Hence, having the thorough study on the effectiveness of this technology might contribute towards sustainable aquaculture practices in terms of ecological, economical, and social benefits.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the capability of plant to sequester various concentrations of heavy metals for certain periods of time was varied between different species. Thus, having the thorough study on the effectiveness of phytoremediation might contribute towards sustainable aquaculture practices in terms of ecological, economical, and social benefits.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

The Phenomenon of Money Politics and Nigeria’s Democratization: An Exploration of the Fourth Republic

Research Article
Author(s): Sakariyau, Rauf Tunde, Aliu, Fatima Lawal, Adamu, Muhammed
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
It is an established fact that money politics is a global phenomenon, its trend in Nigeria’s electoral system is worrisome. Buying and selling of votes has become an accepted norm in Nigeria’s political arrangement and which threatens her readiness to embrace democratic virtues. Vying for political posts is left for rich individuals due to the huge amount of money involved in preparation for elective offices. Though the electoral act regulates political finance, its application is not obtainable. The electoral body that is responsible for monitoring and regulating expenses of candidates has not been vibrant in such obligation. This makes it imperative in this study to explore the ugly phenomenon of money politics in Nigeria’s democracy via its implication for sustainable development. The paper infers that until Nigerians move from politics of money and adopt politics of ideology and creativity, advancement of the country’s democracy might be a mirage.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature and also enhances knowledge advancement to the understanding of money and politics.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Review on Preparation and Description of Some First Series Divalent Transition Metal Complexes with Novel Schiff’s Base Ligands

Research Article
Author(s): Ali Mohammed Yimer
Journal: Review of Catalysts

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Abstract
Schiff’s bases are flexible ligands which are synthesized from the condensation of primary amines with carbonyl groups such as aldehydes and ketones. These compounds are very important in medicinal and pharmaceutical fields because of their wide spectrum of biological activities. Most of them exhibit biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal as well as antitumor activity. Metal complexes of the Schiff’s base ligands are generally prepared by treating metal salts with Schiff’s base ligands under appropriate experimental circumstances. Transition metal complexes derived from the Schiff’s base ligands with biological activity have been widely studied. This review summarizes the synthesis, biological activities and catalytic activities of Schiff base ligands and their transition metal complexes.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Review of Catalysts » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Research Progress of Desulphurization Methods for Scrap Lead Paste

Research Article
Author(s): Chunxia Gong, Xiaofei Zhang, Qihui Hu, Yu Cheng, Mingxue Fang, Hui Zhang, Qun Chen, Lixu Lei
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
Different desulphurization methods for scrap lead paste have been introduced. At this stage, the major methods are pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy. The first one is the general used method to recovery scrap lead acid batteries. It shows faster reaction speed, great handing capacity, higher production efficiency and well adapt for raw material, but products secondary pollutants of lead dust and sulfur dioxide on these processes. The second one shows favorable environmental benefit for lower pollution, higher controllability, greater security and higher metal recovery rate, but it exists the problem of higher requirement for production equipment, higher energy consumption and longer technological processes. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is introducing the major desulphurization methods for scrap lead paste.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 3

An Estimate of the Tensile Strength Based On P-Wave Velocity and Schmidt Hardness Rebound Number

Research Article
Author(s): Mehdi Hosseini, Danial Shirin
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Tunnels, roads, bridges, dams, power plants, etc., are constructed in rock formation. Various rock parameters are important for the design of these structures such as compressive and tensile strengths of the embedded rocks. Preparation of samples and performing uniaxial and Brazilian tensile tests require a lot of time and money; and they are not operable in all samples. Therefore, much easier and less costly methods are used to determine tensile strength. Schmidt hammer and sound velocity tests are among these simple and inexpensive tests. Another advantage of these tests is that they are non-destructive and operable in the deserts. The main objective of this study was to obtain the relationship between the sound velocity, the Schmidt hammer rebound number and the tensile strength. This study was conducted on samples of sandstone, tuff, marble, limestone, red sandstone and marl. Simple and multivariate regression models were used to obtain this relationship. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and value account for (VAF) were determined to control the performance of provided equations. These two indices were equal to 2.20 and 46.5 in the relation between the sound velocity and the tensile strength; and they were equal to 0.09 and 81.49 in the relation between the Schmidt hardness rebound number and the tensile strength when the simple regression analysis was used, while they were equal to 0.24 and 80.91 when multivariate regression analysis.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between the sound velocity, the Schmidt hammer rebound number and the tensile strength. This study documents that tensile strength can be estimated with a high level of accuracy by using the proposed equations. 
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Investigating the Density Ratios of Geological Structure through Fractal Geometry Case Stady: (Dehno Region in Farss of Iran)

Research Article
Author(s): Shadi Asoodeh, Asghar Teymoorian Motlagh
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
One of the most important steps to obtain the specified density Bouguer anomaly corrections for the topography of the page Bouguer is the most commonly used way in which the relationship between topography and Bouguer anomaly in the method assumes that topography of the rigid shell instead Isostasy balance is maintained. The method to determine the density of Bouguer provided by fractal analyze these are the lowest density dependence the topography of the area is considered as the optimal density and the fractal relationship to the topography of the fractal dimension using the Bouguer anomaly. 
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Marketing Location as a Key Determinant for Inflow of Direct Investments into Bosnia and Herzegovina

Research Article
Author(s): Ermina Smajlovic, Alma Kamaric, Boro Ninic
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The analysis of realized investments of individual regions and sub-regions opens up a question of relevant factors upon which foreign investors make decisions about investments into a certain location. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the theoretical elaboration of starting factors and determinants of foreign capital attractions, as well as, the observation of effects of marketing location on investment realisation. Identification of key motives, as well as the determination of the level of their significance in realisation of foreign investments into Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter B&H), is necessary in order to define the effect of incentive measures for investment realisation. The results, presented in this paper, are gathered through primary research of companies formed by realisation of foreign investments into B&H (written structured survey). The data has been gathered on basis of a simple random sample made up of 30 surveyed, that is, 30 companies from B&H territory that occurred as a result of the realisation of foreign direct investments (hereinafter FDI) in our country. The research results show that B&H, regardless of its unstable political situation, poor investment climate, complex government structure, has an exceptional potential for the increase of FDI inflow, and that it is still attractive to foreign investors due to its technical-technological know-how, its natural resources, as well as is qualified and educated labour force. 
Contribution/ Originality
From the theoretical aspect, the contribution of this paper is seen in the apostrophization of the role of foreign investments in economic growth of a country, and in the influence of marketing location on process of attraction of foreign capital. From the applicative aspect, the key contribution is in the systematization of key motives of realization of foreign investments into B&H, and in emphasis of the role of the institutional network of promoters and their activities in the attraction of foreign direct investments into B&H.  
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Reliability of the Turning Point Core Trainer as a Measure of Shoulder Hip Separation Angle, Shoulder Angular Velocity, and Hip Angular Velocity During Volleyball Spiking Actions

Research Article
Author(s): Bader J. Alsarraf, Justin R. Brown, Mike Waller, Patricia Eisenman, Charlie A. Hicks-Little
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Separation of the shoulders and hips is an important contributor for rotational sports such as baseball and golf.  Most recent has utilized Motion Capture technology.  A new instrument has been developed as a tool to measure separation angle and can also be used to train the core musculature.  The primary aim of the current study was to examine the reliability of shoulder hip separation angle (SHSA), shoulder angular velocity (SAV), and hip angular velocity (HAV) as measured using the Turning Point Core Trainer (TP) during volleyball spiking actions. Voluntary participants included 14 collegiate, Division I, female volleyball players from the University of Utah, ranging from 18-30 years of age. Participants completed 10 volleyball spike actions will fastened to the TP.  SHSA was calculated at the height of the back swing. Participants were asked to provide maximal velocity during the forward phase thus providing SAV and HAV.  Analysis for reliability demonstrated high Cronbach’s alpha coefficients across the 10 SHSA, SAV, and HAV (a =.98; a =.91; a =.94), respectively, indicating excellent internal consistency reliability for the TP.  Follow-up research should examine whether or not training female outside hitters to increase SHSA at the top of the back swing, will increase SBV during either DL or DAC spikes. The TP measure of-axial rotation during spiking the internal consistency of the measures was high.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature regarding test re-test reliability using the Turning Point Core Trainer to assess torso rotation and the impact it has on sports performance.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

An Integrated Conceptual Model of Destination Branding – Touristmind

Research Article
Author(s): Pedro Domingos da Costa Carvalho
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
An assessment of the destination image which does not adopt a branding perspective is inevitably reductive, taking into account the competitive context of tourist destinations. Branding is perceived as fundamental to the conceptual development of destination branding, allowing the definition of a conceptual model to assess and monitor the destinations’ performance as brands and the behaviour of tourists as consumers. The aim of this study is to understand the process of formation of destination branding, its dimensions and its interrelationship proposing a new conceptual model, through an integrated perspective which examines brand identity (brand associations), brand image, perceived quality, satisfaction and loyalty, through the development of scales that allow a better understanding and measurement of these constructs. This article aims at contributing to the progress in the conceptualization of the destination branding which is identified as a concept critical to the success of the marketing of tourist destinations. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper`s primary contribution is the proposal for a new integrated conceptual model, with more consistent measuring scales, in order to contribute to the Destination Branding conceptual advance, and thus, making available an new assessment tool of the Tourist Destinations branding for the Destination Management Organisations. 
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Some Relations on Gegenbauer Matrix Polynomials

Research Article
Author(s): Ayman Shehata
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
The main aim of this paper is devoted to derive some relations of Gegenbauer matrix polynomials of two variables. Volterra integral equation and a new representation of these matrix polynomials are given here. We introduce new generalized various forms of Gegenbauer matrix polynomials of two and three matrices by using the method of integral transforms to Hermite matrix polynomials. Furthermore, families of generating matrix functions are obtained and their applications are presented. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have been investigated to new families of Gegenbauer matrix polynomials of two variables with two and three matrices is introduced using integral transform method and allow the derivation of a wealth of relations involving these matrix polynomials, and discuss its various special cases and their applications are presented. These results allow us to note that the use of the method of the integral representation is a fairly important tool of analysis and can be usefully extended to other families of Gegenbauer matrix polynomials which is a problem for further work.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Seed Extracts of Macrotyloma Uniflorum (Horse Gram)

Research Article
Author(s): Parvathiraj. P, Sudhakaran. M.R, Athinarayanan. G, Narayanan. K.R
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
The present study deals with preliminary phytochemical screening of seed extracts of Macrotyloma uniflorum (horse gram) and its antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogens. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Seeds of horse gram were evaluated for antibacterial using well diffusion method against some human bacterial pathogens. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of carbohydrate, steroid, tannins, phenol, protein and amino acid, and absence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins.  Antibacterial activity was tested against 9 human bacterial pathogens using alcoholic and aqueous extract. On comparing the antibacterial activity by alcoholic and aqueous extracts, they showed a moderate to high activity against 9 human pathogens. On considering the rate of antimicrobial activity against pathogens, alcoholic extract showed a better result in controlling the growth of bacteria than that of aqueous extract.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding the phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of the seed of horse gram plant M.uniflorum. The overall results showed promising baseline information for the potential therapeutic use of seeds M.uniflorum against human bacterial pathogens. 
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Microbial Degradation of Organic Waste through Vermicomposting

Research Article
Author(s): A. Ansari, A. Hanief
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Every habitation produces a considerable amount of biodegradable waste that is discarded via dumping at various sites, in landfills, being burnt or is dumped in the river systems. Guyana is no exception - the water ways are polluted with plants, grass is constantly mowed from lawns, huge amounts of market refuse on a daily basis – contributes to unsightly land pollution. Vermicomposting is the best solution to getting rid of these biodegradable waste materials. Composting of grass, water hyacinth and a combination of grass with water hyacinth were successful. Final compost yields were at least 30%. This represents a huge decrease in compost volume. Therefore, vermiculture is an efficient method to reduce biodegradable solid waste. By using earthworms, waste is rapidly turned into vermicompost. Vermicompost has higher microorganism content and the activities of microorganisms (Actinomycetes, Azotobacter, Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas and Aspergillus) is responsible for  enhanced plant productivity much more than would be possible from the mere conversion of mineral nutrients into more plant-available forms. Also, during this period, there is a reduction of Gram negative cocci bacteria and corresponding increase in Gram positive bacilli as time progresses towards the maturity of the vermicompost in all three compost samples. This would indicate a healthier finished product that is highly beneficial to plant growth. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the contribution of microbes in the process of large scale biodung mediated vermicomposting. The contribution is significant in the area of organic waste recycling that is necessitated towards clean environment.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Critical Review: Antioxidant Properties and Antibiotic Mechanism of Honey against Infectious Diseases

Research Article
Author(s): Thagriki Dluya
Journal: International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology

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Abstract
The advent of antibiotics in modern western medicine has made the use of honey in the treatment of infectious diseases abandoned. Hence this review exposes why honey remains the best antibiotic and its potency as an antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory. Honey possesses some vital components such as Methylgyloxal, Bee defensin-1, Hydrogen peroxide, osmotic effect and phenolic compounds. Honey also possesses properties that inhibit the formation of biofilms. These made honey more powerful because it prevents the formation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria while conventional antibiotic fail because they only target the essential growth processes of bacteria and this allows bacteria to build up resistance over time.
Contribution/ Originality


Physical Sciences » International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Identification of Cattle Persistently Infected With BVDV (PI) By Ear-Notch Testing In Southeast of Iran

Research Article
Author(s): Ali Asghar Mozaffari, Mohammad Khalili, Farzaneh Jahangosha
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection can induce a variety of economically important clinical manifestations in cattle herds. One potential outcome is the creation of calves that are viremic but immunotolerant to the virus. These persistently infected (PI) calves are the result of in utero exposure to BVDV prior to the development of a competent fetal immune system. The aim of this study was to detect of cattle persistently infected with BVDV by ear-notch testing in southeast of Iran. Ear-notch skin samples, 3 mm in diameter, were collected from a total of 127 cattle from 6 randomly selected herds (calves aged under 12 months ), using pliers usually used for ear tagging and skin notch sampling, as described by the manufacturer of the Herd check ELISA kit (IDEXX) for the detection of BVDV antigen in PI cattle. Overall, 0.78 per cent of the animals examined, were positive for BVDV antigen.This study identifies the cattle persistently infected with BVDV by ear-notch testing in southeast of Iran for the first time.
Contribution/ Originality
This study identifies the cattle persistently infected with BVDV by ear-notch testing in southeast of Iran for the first time.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Ingessana Goats Phenotype, Carcass and Wholesale Cuts Characteristics in Fadamia, Bao Locality, Blue Nile State, Sudan

Research Article
Author(s): Mohmed E. Elimam, Asma H.M. Hamed, Amer A. Y. Abdalla
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Two studies were conducted to characterize the phenotype, carcass and wholesale cuts in Ingessana goats in Fadamia, Bao Province, Blue Nile State, Sudan which is about 521km south east of Khartoum. In the first study 250 animals were used to study body weight and measurements and colours at different ages in villages in the area. In the second study 6 males at <1 and 1 year old (three in each age group) were used to study body components and carcass and wholesale characteristics. The data was statistically analyzed according to MSTAT. Body weight (BW) and measurements, except horns and tail length, were increased with age. The correlations between BW and measurements were calculated and different regression equations were used to predict BW from some body weight at different ages with no significant (P>0.05) differences between measured and predicted BW. Animals’ colours varied greatly and were mainly black and white (35%). All body components percentages, except skin and small intestines, were higher at <1 year old with no significant difference between the two age groups.  Slaughter weight, empty BW (EBW) and hot carcass weight were significantly (P <0.05) higher at1 year old. Dressing percentages were higher on EBW than LBW and were not significantly (P>0.05) different between the two age groups. Carcass muscle, bone, fat and muscle: fat were not significantly (P>0.05) different between the two age groups. Muscle: fat was significantly higher at 1 year old (P<0.05). There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in all wholesale cuts percentages between the two age groups. The percentages of leg and chump, single short forequarter and loin were higher at 1 year old and breast and neck percentages were higher at <1 year old.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of phenotype, carcass and wholesale cuts characteristics of Ingessana goats in Blue Nile State, Sudan. The study also predicted equation for measuring body weight which contributes to the existing literature.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks

Research Article
Author(s): Alaeldein M. Abudabos, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman, Gamaleldin M. Suliman, Ahmed A. Al-Sagan
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
This work aims to assess the potential of discarded date meal (DDM) as an alternative ingredient in broiler diets. The effect of substituting 5 or 10% of corn and soybean meal (SBM) with DDM on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 35 d of age was evaluated. A total of 150 chicks were randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (3x2) into six treatments. Three levels of DDM (0, 5 and 10%) and 2 levels of AAs (normal and high) were utilized. A significant interaction was detected for BWG (P<0.01) and FCR (P<0.001). Birds which had received 0% and 5% DDM and high AAs converted feed more efficiently when compared to those which had received low AAs.  When examining the main effects for FCR, both DDM and AAs showed a significant effects on FCR (P<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Birds received 5% DDM converted feed more efficiently as compared to 0 and 10%. Also, birds received the high AAs level converted feed more efficiently as compared to the normal level. On the other hand, breast muscle yield and abdominal fat were affected by DDM and AAs (P<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Birds on the 0% DDM had higher breast muscle yield as compared to 5 or 10% DDM. Also, high AAs increased breast yield by 1.5% as compared to normal AAs. The results revealed that birds received 5% DDM performed better than the control or 10%. Also, supplementing diets with higher AAs level improved the performance. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 5% of corn and SBM with DDM.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature regarding the utilization of dates as a potential ingredient that could partially replace corn in broiler diets. This study documents that DDM could be incorporated in poultry diets as a cheap untraditional ingredient to reduce feeding cost. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of amino acids supplementation to DDM as a method to improve the nutritive value.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Emergent Behavior of “Rational” Agents in Some Forgotten N-Person Games

Research Article
Author(s): Miklos N Szilagyi
Journal: Games Review

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Abstract
This paper investigates N-person games with linear payoff functions, which are defined by four parameters each for the case when some of these parameters are equal to each other. Such cases represent transitions between different games. The participating agents are all greedy simpletons who imitate the behavior of the neighbor in their Moore neighborhood - nine neighbors, including themselves - that received the highest reward in the previous iteration. The results show that the solutions are non-trivial and represent quite irregular emergent behavior when the payoff functions are equal or cross each other.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of borderline N-person games.
Economics » Games Review » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 1