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Listing 99 - 20 of 2272 results.

Bathymetry of the Makoye Reservoir and its Implications on Water Security for Livestock within the Catchment

Research Article
Author(s): Manoah Muchanga, Henry M. Sichingabula, Joy Obando, Innocent Chomba, Happy Sikazwe, Moses Chisola
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The objectives of the study were to: determine bathymetry of the reservoir; understand seasonal hydrological regimes of the reservoir; determine factors influencing reservoir bathymetry and, examine the implications of the reservoir's bathymetry on livestock water demand and policy decision making. The determined reservoir bathymetries and capacities at low, medium and full levels confirmed drastic changes in water volumes and eventually, a threat to water security for livestock. This unsteady equilibrium in reservoir's bathymetry and water volumes was mainly due to high mean annual siltation rates (>5,000 tyr-1). Using 3D spatial analysts tools in ArcGIS 10.3 and spreadsheet Microsoft Excel to analyze the data based on the study, hypsometric curves showed strong non-linear relationships among water depth and water surface; water depths and water volume, as well as water surface area and water volume. Generally, through inter-seasonal comparisons of reservoir's bathymetries and water volumes between 2015 and 2017, this study illustrates the significance of bathymetric study of small reservoirs as a plinth to provide policy context and guidelines on water resource management for livestock, as a missing component in general studies of bathymetry, which are usually predominated by understanding the physical processes, but with little or no emphasis on their meaning towards addressing societal needs. Hence, a community engaged strategy to addressing upstream sediment-generating activities would help in stabilizing the bathymetry of the reservoir and eventually enhance water security for livestock.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated implications of bathymetric surveying on sustainable water resource management for livestock. The study documents how bathymetric surveying can be used to understand seasonal hydrological regimes and storage capacity loss of small reservoirs so as to prepare for water security.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Substrate Serving for Culture Optimization and Protease Productivity by Penicillium Notatum Strain on Deproteinised Foliage Extract from Lucerne and Beet

Research Article
Author(s): Rajesh K. Jadhav
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
When Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus niger grown on Lucerne DPJ by serving 1 % and 2 % of the substrates, viz., casein, starch and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), it showed the promising results of mycelial biomass and hydrolytic enzyme activities. Present attempt was on growth of species Penicilium notatum and Aspergillus niger on beet and lucerne foliage DPJ broth medium as compared with control glucose nitrate (GN) medium. Aspergillus niger not showed its growth on DPJ when enriched with casein and starch but there was growth on DPJ alone when substrates were not added. Therefore DPJ itself has the efficacy in initiating fungal growth. Beet DPJ inhibited the growth of Penicillium notatum when substrates were added, and only 1% of CMC was found responsible to initiate its growth by addition in DPJ. Penicillium notatum thrieved well on lucerne DPJ. Increasing concentration of casein in Lucerne DPJ enhanced rate of enzyme protease. Beet DPJ found having its antimicrobial influence. The objective of research was optimization of enzyme productivity by DPJ for industrial use.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of few studies performed by the influence of deproteinised leaf extract from lucerne and beet leaves by adding the substrates in it and subjecting it for the estimation of enzymes. The secondary metabolites can be having the quality of specific herbal influence along with the fungal effects like antibiotics or the vitamins.
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Incidence of Short Term Private Capital Outflow: Empirical Analysis in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Raji, Rahman Olanrewaju
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Over the years, the rising uncertainty in macroeconomic policy environment coupled with the prevailing uncertain non-economic factors like political instability, corruption, poor governance, civic conflicts and property right is perceived to be having contributing factors on short term private capital outflow in Nigeria. The study investigated the incidence of short term private capital outflow in Nigeria where a combination of the push factors and portfolio risk theories were adopted in the study for the period 2013/March – 2018/May using the fully modified OLS technique. The long-run and short-run results show that uncertainty of macroeconomic policy environment such as inflation-price instability, real exchange rate volatility and lack of confidence on domestic stock market enhanced the increasing level of short term private capital outflow in Nigeria. The study recommends that authority should adopt more pro-growth policies that can ensure and maintain sound domestic macroeconomic policies to stem short term private capital outflow and that stock market authority should ensure accountability and transparency to strengthen the interest of domestic investors if they want to reduce the outflow of domestic capital.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by distinguishing itself identifying the dimensions of the domestic uncertainty at the macroeconomic level on short term private capital outflow.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis of Forestry Industry Structure and Competitiveness in Heilongjiang Province

Research Article
Author(s): Pingxia Wu, Yunliang Jiang
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
Since 2014, commercial natural forest cutting is prohibited in state-owned forest areas in Heilongjiang Province, which has affected the traditional forestry economy in Heilongjiang Province. The restructuring and optimization of the forestry industry in Heilongjiang is imminent. Based on the data of forestry output value of Heilongjiang Province from 2002 to 2016, this paper explores the law of forestry economic growth and industrial structure evolution in Heilongjiang Province through the dynamic shift-share analysis method (DSSA).The results show that the economic growth rate of forestry industry in Heilongjiang Province is higher than the national average. The primary industry is still a basic leading industry, the secondary and tertiary industries of forestry are highly dependent on the primary industry. The secondary industry lacks sufficient competitiveness, the technical content of processed products is low, lacking deep processing and fine processing, and the industry needs to be optimized. The tertiary industry accounts for a low proportion, the forest tourism service in Heilongjiang is relatively backward in the country, and it is necessary to further explore the leisure tourism service suitable for Heilongjiang. In order to optimize the industrial structure and promote the economic development of Heilongjiang Province, this paper proposes concrete countermeasures such as extending the industrial chain, developing non-wood forest products, and developing forest tourism and leisure services.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the structural evolution and structural optimization of three industries in Heilongjiang Province in recent years and the relationship between Heilongjiang's economic development and forestry's three industrial structures.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Managements and Tourists Knowledge and Appreciation of Eco-Labeling and Eco-Certification at Selected Coastal Tourist Destinations in Lagos, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Ajani, F., Omobuwa, B.T., Ajayi, O.O.
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Eco-labels and eco-certification are environmental tools that help tourism providers to adopt environmentally sustainable practices. Although widely adopted in developed countries, there is little information available in developing countries. This study therefore assessed both management’s and tourists’ knowledge and appreciation of eco-labeling and eco-certification at Santa Cruz and Suntan Beach Resorts in Lagos State, Nigeria. Key informant interviews were conducted with the managers of both sites to determine their level of knowledge about the concept and the type of eco-label awarded. A total of 372 structured questionnaires totaling 372 were administered, proportionately, among tourists at both sites, based on convenience sampling. The data collected was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, the t-test, and Pearson product–moment correlation. The results revealed that the Director of Santa Cruz Beach did know about eco-labels and eco-certification, but not the Manager of Suntan Beach; however, neither beach resort have completed eco-certification and acquired an eco-label. With respect to tourists, no significant difference between Santa Cruz and Suntan Beaches exists (p>0.05) in either their knowledge and appreciation of the value of eco-labels (p > 0.05) or their interest in and response to eco-labeled products (p > 0.05). Tourists at Santa Cruz Beach, however, have a more favorable response (56.7%) to eco-labeled products than at Suntan Beach (48.5%). Finally, a positive correlation (p < 0.05) exists between tourists’ knowledge of and responsiveness to eco-labels and eco-certification. This study thus concludes that the eco-labels and eco-certification for tourist destinations should be promoted in the Nigerian tourism sector.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few to investigate the adoption of eco-labels and eco-certification for water-based tourist destinations in developing countries. In particular, it analyzes the knowledge and appreciation of the value of environmentally sustainable practices among stakeholders in the tourism sector.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Investigating Attitude towards Role Play and its Subjective Value in Predicting Arabic Language Proficiency among UiTM Students

Research Article
Author(s): Azman Che Mat, Azarudin Awang, Ahmad Zulfadhli Nokman, Nor Shaifura Musilehat, Ahmad FakrulaziziAbu Bakar, Muhammad Saiful Anuar Yusoff
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Role play activities contribute to learners’ performance if they actively participate in a group. Learners may gain confidence when given a proper and clear role in role play which enhances their motivation levels. This study adopts Byram (2004) resultative and motivational hypothesis and Eccles et al. (1983) Expectancy-Value theory as underlying theories to investigate the relationship between attitude toward role play and subjective role play value to account for Arabic language proficiency. The data were analyzed using more recent confirmatory analysis which is now available in SmartPLS 3.2.6 called consistent PLS (PLSc). Using a sample of 331 students from UiTM campuses at Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang, the analysis showed that these theories support a sound framework for predicting Arabic language proficiency. Additionally, Arabic language proficiency was significantly influenced by attitude towards role play and subjective role play value. Attitude toward role play and subjective role play value are found to be positively influencing Arabic language proficiency. The R2 was measured as 0.308 for Arabic language proficiency. Therefore, it is believed that these findings will be considered as a useful source of information to lecturers, teachers, institutions, and management in supporting role play practices and thus enhancing Arabic language proficiency among UiTM students.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few that have investigated motivational factors regarding Arabic language proficiency through active participation in role play activities. The application of recent confirmatory analysis in SmartPLS 3.2.6 provides more reliable results, contributing to the existing body of literature with empirical evidence on language proficiency.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

Customs Administration Students Usage of Metacognitive Knowledge in their Internships

Research Article
Author(s): Romer C. Castillo, Marie Faye D. Cabatay, Ronnelyn F. Ronquillo, Mary Suzene B. Seva
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Educators have the responsibility of assessing their students’ metacognitive knowledge and identifying students who may need support in developing effective metacognitive skills and providing them with necessary learning intervention. This study assessed the customs administration students’ metacognitive knowledge and its usage in their internships. The dimensions, declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and conditional knowledge were correlated to academic performance. Differences in metacognitive knowledge and its dimensions and their usage were also ascertained. The study used the descriptive-survey method, using a questionnaire for data gathering. The respondents were 99 randomly selected final year BS in Customs Administration students. The results showed that the majority of students were female, had a capital city based internship and had an average academic performance. The majority of high performers had an internship in a capital city while the majority of low performers had an internship in their home city. Male and female students had similar performance while capital city internship students had better performance than home city internship students. The declarative, procedural and total metacognitive knowledge and their usage were high while conditional knowledge and its usage were very high. The dimensions of metacognitive knowledge and usage, except procedural knowledge had significant relationships with academic performance. Statistical differences in the responses of students when they were grouped according to sex were found only with procedural knowledge and its usage but when they were grouped by internship location – on declarative, procedural and total metacognitive knowledge usage; and when grouped by academic performance – on declarative knowledge, total metacognitive knowledge, conditional knowledge usage and total metacognitive knowledge usage.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated metacognitive knowledge as used in internship programs and thereby provides a unique contribution to the existing literature on metacognition.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

Physiological Energy and Body Composition Reaction After 6 Weeks of Training at 2500m Hypoxia Chamber of Male Sprint

Research Article
Author(s): Luong Thi Anh Ngoc, Nguyen Khanh Duy, Nguyen Tien Tien
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
The study was to verify the influence of environment assumed elevation (FiO = 15.72% with the altitude 2500m) intermittently to change certain physiological functions, biochemical and body composition of male sprinters in this study. For 6 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the (H) group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500m, while the group (C) performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 5 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (VO2max-hyp) for the (H) group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group (C). (The speed was increased linearly by 1 km/h per 1min until volitional exhaustion in a run of ?5 minutes). The results showed that both groups had significant changes (p <0.05), but the analysis showed that group (H) in the training in hypoxia caused changes significant (p <0.05), better than group (C) (HRmin reduce -9.17bpm, vital capacity (VC) to 0.42 liters, increase in 3000m run (0.94%), VO2max (3.98%), hemoglobin (1.3%), hematocrit (3:47 %), EPO decreased -2.07%).
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to existing literature by verifying the influence of environment assumed elevation (FiO = 15.72% with the altitude 2500m) intermittently to change certain physiological functions, biochemical and body composition of male sprinters in this study.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Stability Analysis of Type-2 Fuzzy Process Control Using LMI

Research Article
Author(s): Manivasagam Rajendran, Prabhu Aruchunan
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
This paper exhibits a type of fuzzy robust plan designed for nonlinear time-delay system based on the fuzzy Lyapunov method. In addition, the obtainable delay-self-governing state is changed into linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) consequently the fuzzy state response gain and regular solutions are numerically possible by nature inspired optimization algorithm. LMI approach for determining robust stability of non-linear system such as to an exothermic continuous-time stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by parametric uncertainties. Essential and satisfactory circumstances intended for stabilization of a linear continuous-time uncertain system through static output feedback are specified at earliest. After that the difficulty of robust static output feedback control plan is transformed to resolution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and two LMI based algorithms, iterative and non-iterative ones are used. The design process guarantee by satisfactory circumstances the healthy quadratic stability and assured price. The opportunity to utilize a healthy static output response for control of CSTRs with suspicions is verified via simulation results.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated about T-S Fuzzy Technique. Here two techniques are used to control, nonlinear plant CSTR model. LMI approach for determining robust stability of non-linear system such as to an exothermic continuous-time stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by parametric uncertainties.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

A Review of Machine Learning Models for Software Cost Estimation

Research Article
Author(s): Farrukh Arslan
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Software cost estimation is a critical task in software projects development. It assists project managers and software engineers to plan and manage their resources. However, developing an accurate cost estimation model for a software project is a challenging process. The aim of such a process is to have a better future sight of the project progress and its phases. Another main objective is to have clear project details and specifications to assist stakeholders in managing the project in terms of human resources, assets, software, data and even in the feasibility study. Accurate estimation results with definitely helps the project manager to do better estimation for the project cost, the time required for various project phases and resources or assets. This paper builds a software cost estimation model using machine learning approach. Different machine learning algorithms are applied to two public datasets to predict the software cost in the early stages. Results show that machine learning methods can be used to predict software cost with a high accuracy rate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by enhancing the results of thirteen Machine Learning algorithms on two datasets. The evaluation criteria used in this work are R², MAE, RMAE, RAE, and RRSE. The aim of the proposed model is to predict the effort using dataset attributes and compare them with the actual effort in order to measure the error using different criteria.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation

Research Article
Author(s): Kan Tao, Yiying Chao
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
As a modern port, its roles have been endowed with many new functions. Extant literatures in transportation industry view port as an individual economic entity to improve its competition or evaluate its performance. By focusing on port original concept as node in transportation, its critical role as providing service to related industry shouldn't be largely change or forget. Under this perspective, port is not as commercial organization, is transport corridor to contribute to public welfare. Hence, creating synergistic effects in a research system which can be regard as symbiotic. Our case study on the China-Railway Express (CR Express) hub-port construction in the background of China-Europe trade transportation address research question as how to construct China-Europe transport corridor. In order to achieve a complete and comprehensive understanding of the under-explored topic, we use a mixed methods, including semi-structured interview and establish symbiotic model as symbiotic transport capacity growth model and clock model. Generally, we conclude that trade and each transportation pattern can be regard as a symbiotic system and more importantly, port as public infrastructure, its service providing and transport corridor are significant contribute to the symbiotic system. Contributions and managerial implications are provided at the final section of our research which not only have guidance value on China, but also the ports whose located country is one of ‘One Belt and One Road’ countries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by using new estimation methodology as symbiont transport growth model and clock model to provide appropriate estimation when an innovation implication in transport, especially a new pattern in practice. Also, as an interdiscipline subject, the symbiosis theory that mention in the study can be apply in transportation and provide theoretical guidance.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Determinants of Exchange Rate in Nigeria: A Comparison of the Official and Parallel Market Rates

Research Article
Author(s): Yusuf Wasiu Akintunde, Oyegoke Ebunoluwa O, Gylych Jelilov, Haruna Timipre Mary
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
The need to understand what drives exchange rates is now very crucial, an understanding of its determinants particularly in a developing nation like Nigeria would indeed aid in policy decisions of the sovereign monetary authorities. The study examines the determinants of exchange rate in Nigeria comparing the official exchange rates and the parallel market rates from the post SAP era of 1986 to 2017 using quarterly time series data. The potential determinants of the exchange rate was identified resting on existing literature viz ; GDP, inflation, interest rates, imports, oil exports, non-oil exports, and reserves. The time series properties were tested utilizing the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit roots test of stationarity, the variables were tested for co-integration and the Auto-regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) was applied. The result suggests that GDP, inflation, interest rates non- oil exports, oil exports and reserves are the major determinants of official exchange rates in Nigeria, while inflation, Non-oil exports and GDP are the major determinants of alternate or parallel exchange rates.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the literature by examining the determinants of exchange rate in Nigeria comparing the official exchange rates and the parallel market rates from the post SAP era of 1986 to 2017 using quarterly time series data.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

After Sales Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Retention among Game Store Customer's in Kano State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammed Sani Abdullahi, Ummi Rahma Shehu, Bashir Mikail Usman, Yusuf Suleiman Muhammad, Aisha Hamisu Kano
Journal: International Journal of Business Strategy and Social Sciences

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Abstract
This research examines the effect of after sales service quality (ASSQ) on customer satisfaction (CS) and customer retention (CR) among Game store customers in Kano State, Nigeria. The population was 870 Game store after-sales service (ASS) customers who received after-sales service (ASS) multiple times. Simple random technique was used that allow the researchers to assess their studys centered participants, and the main tools used for this study were questionnaires. The questionnaire was intended to a Likert scale of 10 points, with the assistance of 3 ASS technician and 3 foremen at Game Store Kano, the information were gathered from 255 ASS customers. The studys hypothesized model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The research outcomes show that ASSQ has a substantial and positive effect on CS and CR. The outcome also shows that CS has substantial and positive effect on CR. It is suggested that businesses or organizations should explore the most significant dimensions of ASSQ to match the preferences of their customers with that the organizations will pays a lot of attention to their esteem customers, and it will assist businesses achieve their mission and vision.
Contribution/ Originality
This research is one of the very few studies that have studied how the quality of after-sales service that resulted in customer retention has pleased the consumer, and this study filled the exiting gap and contributes to the established body of knowledge as well.
Social Sciences » International Journal of Business Strategy and Social Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 1

Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania

Research Article
Author(s): Adelajda Matuka
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study estimates exchange rate pass-through to prices in Albania using a Vector Autoregressive model from 2000Q1 to 2017 Q1 following Cholesky decomposition. We perform an Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and Phillips-Pherron test to ensure the stationarity of the variables and we estimate the impulse-response functions and the variance decomposition of import, producer, consumer prices and interest rate to oil price /exchange rate shocks. Impulse-response functions indicate an incomplete pass-through of exchange rate to prices and the highest response is of consumer prices and interest rates. Variance decomposition indicates that the variance of import prices is explained by growth rate, its shocks and oil prices shocks. The variance of producer prices is explained by its own shocks, real GDP rate and interest rate whilst consumer prices are explained by its innovations, GDP rate and exchange rate. In order to confirm our results, we order the interest rate before the exchange rate and the findings do not change from the previous results. We perform diagnostic tests for the presence of autocorrelation and the stability of our model and the results show that we fail to reject the null hypothesis for serial autocorrelation and all the roots lie within the companion matrix. However, there is evidence on non-normality in our VAR residuals, but this does not violate our analysis.
Contribution/ Originality
We estimate the pass-through using recent data and we add producer prices in our VAR model, which to our best knowledge has not been captured in the existing pass-through literature for Albania.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 5

Determinant Factors and Spatial Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis in North Gondar in Selected Hospitals

Research Article
Author(s): Berhanehiwot Melesse, Salie Ayalew, Mandefro Abere
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
Introduction: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmaniasis protozoa, and transmitted by a sand fly vector. Leishmaniasis is distributed in worldwide and affects millions of peoples. Objective: The objective was to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of VL in North Gondar. Methodology: 369 patients were selected from records or medical charts retrospectively using stratified and systematic sampling techniques. The study used spatial autocorrelation measures and auto logistic regression model. Result: From 369 patients, 313 (84.8%) were infected by VL. The proportion of VL incidence for those who traveled to endemic areas was (70.2%). Male patients accounted a larger proportion (93.2%) compared to female patients (6.8%). Moran’s scatter plot test revealed there is regional clustering on the VL incidence. Local Moron’s Index value of Gondar Zuria, Dembeya, Quara, Metemma, Tach Armachiho, Gondar Town, West Belesa and Adarakay was positive, this showed places that shared boundaries have similar VL incidence (i.e high-high or low-low). From result of local Getis and Ord statistic, positive standardized Z-values of Adarkay, Gondar Town, Metema, Quara, West Belesa and Dembiya showed the places were hot spot. Similarly negative standardized Z values of Gondar Zuria and Tach Armachiho revealed that places were cold spot. The spatial auto logistic regression result revealed that sex, travel history, BMI, rainfall and elevation were the significant factors of VL at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: The prevalence of VL is still very high (84.8%) in North Gondar Zone. VL clustered on endemic districts that shared common boundaries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, spatial distribution and determinant factors of visceral leishmaniasis in North Gondar. Spatial auto logistic regression model is the new approach which helps to determine the prevalence and correlates of visceral leishmaniasis on the study area. VL is clustered on shared boundaries.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?

Research Article
Author(s): Higelin Brel HAPPI
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
The Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMF) persist that active management is useless and that investors should rather adopt a passive investment strategy that is less expensive and less risky. However, several previous pieces of literature in the small-cap industry contrast this point of view. This paper investigates the risk and performance of small-cap equity funds in the USA markets over a ten-year period of 2009-2018. The study period is segmented into sub-investment horizons and the funds sampled are split by group of investment style. Our findings are twofold. Firstly, in contrary to the Efficiency Market Hypothesis (EMF) the size effect in small-stock markets could indeed be a proxy of outperformance for active managers. Given that, top performers are observed among active growth funds. Secondly, surprisingly the great majority of funds selected have managed to gradually generate a positive alpha meaning that active management is not always pointless. Therefore, 56.67% of the whole sample has delivered consecutive excess returns over the three investment horizons and each fund within each investment style has outperformed the market at least once. The two last observations support partially the Efficiency Market Hypothesis (EMF) in the way that not all active funds were able to generate a persistent abnormal return over the long term and that some active portfolio managers could be just lucky in picking up stocks.
Contribution/ Originality
The existing study explores the performance of small-cap funds either against their benchmark or between them but this study uses different investment horizons. This study contributes to the existing literature in the sense of findings that Long-term investors should prioritize value/growth funds, while short-investors should invest in value funds.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Assessment of the Nutritional Qualities of a Locally-Produced Weaning Blend of Sorghum Ogi Flour Fortified with Bambara Groundnut Flour

Research Article
Author(s): Adeyemo Stella. M., Abimbola Olufemi. G.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study investigated the nutritional quality of a locally-produced weaning blend of sorghum ogi flour fortified with Bambara groundnut (BGN) flours and the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter in the reduction of anti-nutrients in the pre-treated BGN flours. LAB were isolated from fermented sorghum ogi, processed into flour. BGN were processed into flours using three pre-treatment methods and used to fortify the sorghum ogi flour in ratio 60:40. Proximate composition and the breakdown of anti-nutritional factors by LAB were monitored in the pre-treated BGN flours using standard procedures. Sensory, organoleptic attributes and shelf-life of the weaning blends were determined. Sorghum ogi flour fortified with roasted BGN flour had improved nutritional value; protein, ether extract, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, ?-carotene, calcium, and phosphate (mg/100g) 20.16, 6.43, 21.00, 0.13, 90.00, 145.00 and 280.00 respectively compared to boiled and soaked BGN flours. There was a reduction in the anti-nutritional factors of the pre-treated BGN flours when fermented with selected starter. Tannin, phytate, protease and trypsin inhibitors reduced significantly (p< 0.05) from 0.074 - 0.048; 5.901- 5.001; 0.052 - 0.043 and 0.137 -0.110 respectively. The shelf-life monitoring and organoleptic assessment showed that sorghum Ogi flour fortified with roasted BGN flour had a prolonged shelf life and was generally accepted when compared to other weaning blends. The study concluded that the weaning blend had improved nutritional composition required for a growing infant. LAB could be used as starters to reduce anti-nutritional factors and extend the shelf-life of pre-treated Bambara groundnut-sorghum ogi blends.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that adequate weaning food can be prepared locally with minimal funds. The blend is able to meet the daily nutritional requirement of a growing infant. It also advances the contribution of women especially in low economic groups in reducing malnutrition and infant mortality rate.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Response of Intraspecific Crosses in F1 and their Deterioration in F2 Generation of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Research Article
Author(s): Soomro Z.A., M. Khalid, T.F. Abro, G.S. Mangrio, S.A. Channa, U.A. Kasi, P.A. Shar, M.D. Hassni, R.A. Shah
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The experimental trail was conducted at Wheat and barley Research Institute, Tandojam. The seed of nine parents along with their six F1 and F2 generations were sown in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The varieties used in the experiment were Sassui, Abadgar, Maxipak, Soghat, Marvi, Noori, Moomal, Anmol-91 and Mehran. The mean squares regarding the grains spike-1, grain yield plant-1, and seed index exhibited that parents, crosses, F1 and F2 hybrids were highly significant at 0.01 level of probability. Among the parents, Mehran gave highest value for grain yield plant-1, while F1 hybrid Moomal × Anmol-91 displayed maximum grain yield plant-1. The results for grain yield plant-1, displayed that highest heterosis (87.22%) and heterobeltiosis (86.80%) was exhibited by the cross Maxipak × Soghat. The maximum inbreeding depression (16.23%) for the said trait was shown by the cross Sassui × Abadgar. The cross Maxipak × Soghat could be selected for further evaluation in advanced segregating generations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature regarding the plant breeding especially in the field of hybrid vigour in bread wheat. The material selected observed for performance in F1 and its percentage of deterioration in F2 generation.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2019 Issue: 4

Socioeconomic Impact of Bagging Technology for Value Addition in Mango in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): M. Jamal Uddin, Md. Sami Ur Rashid
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The study was conducted in eight selected villages in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh aiming to perceive the socio-economic impact of bagging technology on farmer’s income and livelihood and to know the factors affecting adaption of pre-harvest mango bagging technology. Findings of the study revealed that a few varieties in particular BARI Mango 4, BARI Mango 8, BARI Mango 3, Mallika and Arshina were reported to be the most preferred varieties for bagging because of less pest attacks, attractive color and higher market prices. The average market price received from bagged mango was 74% higher than non-bagged mango. The difference of average gross margin of bagged and non-bagged mango was recorded Tk.22790 per ton which implies that bagged mango was more profitable than non-bagged mango. According to the survey report on an average 15.7% of the annual gross income was increased due to adoption of bagging technology whereas this technology contributed 25.13% increment in income from mango selling. About 96% of the respondents admitted that they were able to control fruit flies and 92% of them confirmed that they were able to produce safe and toxicity free fruits utilizing pre-harvest bagging technology. The price of bagged mangos, training, research contacts, extension contacts, risk taking behavior and willingness of farmers influenced the adoption process significantly. This technology should be disseminated for the welfare of the hilly areas with maintaining proper time and methods.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the socioeconomic impact of pre-harvest bagging technology on livelihoods of CHT mango growers of Bangladesh through value addition and the factors influencing the rate of adoption of bagging. As a new concept in the CHT, this study is original.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2019 Issue: 4

Do Demographic Variables Affect the Organizational Cynicism Levels in Tourism?

Research Article
Author(s): Akin Aksu, Irem Deveci
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
This study aimed to determine whether organizational cynicism levels of Generation X and Generation Y employees in tourism sector differed. In this context, the effects of demographic variables on organizational cynicism levels of generation X and generation Y employees were investigated. Quantitative research methods were employed in the study. The population of the study consists of 192 employees of 5-star hotel enterprises that are located and in business in Belek, Antalya region. A significant difference was found between the responses of Generation Y employees and those of Generation X employees. The cognitive, affective and behavioural sub-dimensional and overall organizational cynicism scores of Generation Y employees were determined to be higher than those of Generation X. Generation X employees who want to be part of the organization they work for, and who are strictly committed to their jobs, hardworking, more traditionalist, respectful to authority, diligent and obedient can generally accept the policies of the organization without questioning, employees of Generation Y who do not like bureaucracy and seriousness, who want to manage themselves and take responsibility for themselves, and see the organization as a means and question everything, and who are more individualist can criticise them easily when they are not satisfied, and reflect this on their attitude and behaviour. It is seen that studies that examine the relationship between personal characteristics and organizational cynicism are limited in the relevant literature.
Contribution/ Originality
It is seen that studies that examine the relationship between personal characteristics and organizational cynicism are limited in the relevant literature. The population of the study consists of 192 employees of 5-star hotel enterprises that are located and in business in Belek, Antalya region.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2