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Listing 30 - 20 of 1965 results.

Ethnoarchaeological Survey of Obimo: A Fieldwork Report

Research Article
Author(s): Elochukwu Nwankwo
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
Iron smelting has been discovered to be amongst earliest technologies of Africans. It provided the earliest source of raw materials for blacksmithing in the African continent and at the same time formed a major part of the earliest economic base of the people. In the past many archaeological studies have concentrated on unearthing the earliest origin of this technology in the continent of Africa and its diversification or diffusion to other parts of the continent. Many of such studies have taken place in the Nsukka area of Enugu, Nigeria. Some of the communities in the Nsukka culture area have traces of this earliest technology in their environment with little or no significant answer to their origin. To this regard, this study is aimed at; studying one of the earliest technologies of Africans in this part of Nigeria, conduct a reconnaissance and ethnographic studies in Obimo community, excavate an iron smelting site in the community, determine the origin of the people and that of the iron smelting, and determine the cultural correlate of the extinct and extant societies of Obimo. Relevant research methods were adopted for efficient study of this kind. They include; reconnaissance survey, ethnography, excavation and documentary sources.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the few studies which have investigated the earliest indigenous technologies of Africans with emphasis on iron smelting technology and pottery production in Obimo, Nsukka area of Nigeria. Its findings point to the fact that Iron smelting and pottery making was amongst the earliest indigenous technologies of Obimo Community which have gone into extinction.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Igbu-Efi: Indigenous Practice and Politics of After-Death in Igbo Culture Area

Research Article
Author(s): Elochukwu A. Nwankwo, Okechukwu Anozie
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
Indigenous practice and culture are among the things that make the Igbo distinctive from their adjoining neighbours. Much value is attached to indigenous practice and most adults are expected to be true custodians. In the funeral process of the Igbo, some aspects are given peculiar attention and interpretation. This is mostly attached to the second burial ceremonies where some indigenous practices are sacrosanct for the bidding of final farewell to the departed and the celebration that follows afterwards. The implication is that the act is a necessary distraction and economic desecrate in those Igbo culture areas where it is practiced. This paper examines this indigenous practice in the Igbo culture area; origin, reasons, implications, challenges and prospects, with a relevant case study. The methodology is purely ethnographic with constructive interview sessions organized amongst randomly selected key informants from Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Abia and Ebonyi states of the Igbo culture area of Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the traditional burial practices of Igbos of Southeast Nigeria towards giving a more understanding to the Igbu-Efi which one of the indigenous practices of the people over the ages on issues concerning burial rites for their beloved ones. This would help in proper interpretation and promotion of this particular indigenous practice of the Igbos of Southeast Nigeria.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Developing a Mindset for Rapid Incremental Innovation

Research Article
Author(s): Robert W. Service, David L. Loudon, David Sonius
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
Why do so many complicated crises flourish in a world that has the capabilities to solve these significant challenges?   Why has it taken so long for the world’s developed economies to grow after a deep recession? What are the keys to solving major problems and to grow economies?  It seems the means are there, but not the will to understand how we must go about realizing more from the vast human and technical capacity available today.  We posit that the path to improvement is for more individuals and organizations to innovate; that is, to improve effectiveness and efficiency in all they do. This improvement starts and ends with individual mindsets. This paper addresses these issues in a novel and non-academic way.  We do this in large part to stress a point that must be made in order for academics to become and remain innovative. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper enhances readers’ ability to recognize and adapt personal and organizational mindsets toward clearer thinking in order to identify and realize more innovative opportunities.  The ideas presented are intended to provoke thinking so that readers learn to rapidly continuously and incrementally achieve the innovation imperative both individually and organizationally.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

School Inspection in Tanzania as a Motor for Education Quality: Challenges and Possible Way Forward

Research Article
Author(s): Yusuph Kambuga, Habibu Dadi
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
The quest for having quality education has always been the Tanzania dream and can be traced even soon after independence. After independence 1961, Tanzania passed different laws and a number of Acts as to regulate the education in the country, among the laws and Acts passed by the government, the most important one is education Act No 25 of 1978 which led to the establishment of School Inspectorate. Since then, the school inspection was recognized as the legal instrument to be undertaken by selecting education specialists as a strategy to monitor education quality in the country. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the Tanzanian experience on school inspection as an instrument for quality assurances in the overall process of teaching and learning. Efforts have been made to discuss how effective school inspectorate is supposed to be in order to improve the standards and quality of teaching and learning process in the educational institutions. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is expected to provide a better understanding to educational policy makers of the real situation in schools as well as reminding the government to allocate enough budget in the sector  towards the improvement  of the standard and quality of education provision in the country.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

The Emergence of Knowledge-Based Technologies in Promoting Knowledge Sharing Behavior

Research Article
Author(s): Hairol Adenan Kasim, Mohd Sazili Shahibi
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
This article addresses the emergence of knowledge-based technologies and its focus is on factors that stimulate the successful of knowledge sharing behavior. People nowadays are utilizing knowledge-based and web-based technology, such as Internet, Intranet, social media and other online technology for interaction and collaboration. These are the platforms through which knowledge can be extracted, shared and distributed around the globe and people are starting to communicate and socialize using the latest media and technology. Literature on knowledge sharing and virtual mode suggest the pre-existence of shared knowledge or a shared belief system as a condition for the knowledge-based technologies to emerge. The objective of this study is to analyze the role of these knowledge-based technologies to promote the knowledge sharing behavior. This research uses quantitative methodology for the collection and analysis of data by conducting surveys from the researchers in these organizations. Self-administered questionnaire were distributed to 510 researchers from selected Malaysian Government-Linked Companies (GLCs). The theoretical model developed in this paper is empirically tested on a sample of researchers of five organizations, and significant relationships among these constructs were found. Conclusions and directions for future research are also formulated.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that analyze gaps found in the previous literature by empirically examining how knowledge-based technologies could promote knowledge sharing behavior. The assumption is justified via the practical contribution of the study where this factor can serve as a planning tool for future knowledge sharing implementation.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Pedagogy Design in Responsible Tourism Vis-À-Vis Challenges of Sustainable Development- A Qualitative Study On Reports and Cases of Research and Advocacy Organisations

Research Article
Author(s): Anu Chandran, Kanthan M.
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Responsible tourism has become a buzzword in tourism industry in the 21st century and refers to conscious travel to natural areas with the core objective of preserving the environment resources, while both the promoters of tourism and the local communities are being utmost sensitive to the ecological and cultural aspects of the destinations. The quality of the environment is basic for tourism development. The environment has to be examined from various dimensions, mainly in terms of its physical characteristics. It is saddening that tourism activities are negatively impacting the environmental resources. The deterioration of a host area will defeat the purposes of tourism development. The concept of responsible tourism has indeed revolutionized the dynamics of tourism across the globe.  The core objective of responsible tourism, which has ushered in a paradigm shift in sustainable development approaches world over, is the motive to conserve the eco-cultural resources and increase the value of local culture and tradition. In consonance with the changing patterns, practices, and propositions of responsible tourism, the pedagogy has not been quite progressive. In this backdrop, the present article carries out a qualitative study on the case studies and reports of select research and advocacy organizations in south India which are striving to enhance the educational contents and structure as regards responsible tourism with a view to achieve sustainable development of tourism destinations. Moreover, the recommendations, dossiers, and study results published by the premier tourism consultancies are evaluated and the concrete points which surfaced so as to be included in the RT pedagogy have been confirmed by interviews with the experts.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the educational imperatives and perspectives of responsible tourism and is expected to enhance the pedagogy of an important area in tourism that redefines the paradigms. This study uses new estimation methodology by reviewing and analyzing the reports and dossiers of premier consultancies and NGO’s known for their comprehensive studies and surveys on responsible tourism and sustainable development in potential destinations. The outputs were codified in terms of pragmatic approaches and the officials and researchers of the consultancies were interviewed for formulating the inferences. This study originates new formula as a participatory approach in tourism research and also creates a base for setting the responsible education paradigm. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated educational aspects of responsible tourism. The paper contributes the first logical analysis in chalking out a definitive plan on how responsible tourism education should be. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that responsible tourism has a cultural dimension. This study documents the roadmap for responsible tourism education.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Agrochemicals and Personal Care Products: Occurrence, Effects, Analytical Determination and Treatment Processes

Research Article
Author(s): Olushola Sunday AYANDA
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
Pollution caused by agrochemicals and personal care products (PCPs) remains a severe problem worldwide. Runoff of agrochemicals from farms leads to contamination of the surface water and groundwater while PCPs are discharged through laundering, washing and bathing. PCPs enter the municipal wastewater treatment plants and are incompletely removed during wastewater treatment. To reduce or eliminate the negative impact of these pollutants to human beings, animals, organisms and the environment, water should be well treated and wastewater should be treated to zero release before discharge into the environment. In this study, the occurrence, toxic effects, analytical determination and treatment processes of agrochemicals and PCPs in water and wastewater will be presented. This review will serve as valuable literature for researchers, policy makers, and environmental pollution consultants. Moreover, it will open the door to significant discussion on agrochemicals and PCPs.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the occurrence, toxic effects, analysis and remediation of agrochemicals and personal care products (PCPs) in water and wastewater. The review contributes in the existing literature that the use of agrochemicals and PCPs contributes to organic pollution. Therefore, it is crucial to develop rapid and sensitive analytical techniques for the determination of agrochemicals and PCPs. Excellent treatment methods are also anticipated.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Simulations of Wind Energy Conversions Systems with Asymmetrically Rnsic

Research Article
Author(s): Irinel Valentin Pletea, Dimitrie Alexa, Dan Dorin Cepareanu
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
The electric energy losses as well as electromagnetic pollution of the environment by the modern electric or electronic apparatus running in a commutating regime may be reduced to minimum with the help of power electronics, field which will be well developed in the next century in order to modernize industry, transport, telecommunications, etc. The paper present a wind generator system based on a new converter configuration with a asymmetrical rectifier with near sinusoidal input currents (Asim-RNSIC), we propose a method to reduce by 15%-25% of the reactive elements (capacitors and inductances) of a asymmetrical rectifiers with near sinusoidal input currents (Asim-RNSIC). This method consists of the parallel connection of two RNSIC converters of the same type, dimensioned for half of the converted nominal power and whose entry currents are phase-shifted with an angle of 30°-40° by the correct choosing of the inductances on the AC part. Thus, it results a sufficient compensation of the type 5 current harmonics generated in the power grid when the capacitors and inductances of the two rectifiers are lowered accordingly. The converter, named Asim-RNSIC, is economically and technically more competitive compared to the three-phase six-pulse full-bridge diode rectifier with passive filters. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that reduced to minimum electromagnetic pollution of the environment with the help of power electronics by the modern electric or electronic converters running in a commutating regime.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Evaluating Treatment Process of Produced Water from Oil/Gas Production Platform with Scale Inhibitor

Research Article
Author(s): Ujile, Awajiogak A., Dagde, Kenneth, K.
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
Treatment of produced water from a crude oil production platform with a flow rate of 11,000 to 13,000 barrel per day (API 34o at 49 oC) was carried out to determine optimum concentration of the injection rate of scale inhibitor before discharge overboard. The physico-chemical properties of the produced water were determined. A GBC Scientific Avanta Programmable A6080 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) was used to determine the cations while Analytical Method was adopted to determine the concentration of anions, conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, suspended solids, and the pH of the produced water. Results showed that conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, suspended solids decrease with increase in the concentration of the scale inhibitor. At 0 ppm of scale inhibitor, hardness was 1100 mg (CaC03) per litre of produced water and at 8.6 ppm hardness reduced to 800 mg (CaC03) per litre of produced water indicating that increasing the dosage of the scale inhibitor prevents scale formation. However, optimum dosage value is required to minimize the cost of production processes.
Contribution/ Originality
This work applies the concept of kinetic equilibrium in converting anions and cations encountered in produced water from oil/gas wells which form scales causing corrosion to delineate pipeline problems associated with production platforms. Optimum scale inhibitor dosage was established in the evaluation. This perhaps could affect economic value of the production process.
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Cause, Magnitude and Contributing Factors for Maternal Death in Selected Hospitals in Snnpr between 2007/2008 and 2009/2010

Research Article
Author(s): Yemisrach Shiferaw Deneke, Mesganaw Fantahun Afework, Tesfalem Teshome Tessema, Chalachew Misganaw, Hawult Taye
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Introduction: Maternal mortality has high public health importance because of its magnitude in Ethiopia. Its reduction is possible. However, factors contributed to maternal mortality not sufficiently identified in Ethiopia. Objective: To identifying cause, magnitude and contributing factors for maternal death in selected hospitals in SNNPR between 2007/2008 and 2009/20010.Method: A retrospective register based study was conducted in SNNPR in purposively selected three hospitals. All maternal deaths recorded during the study period were included. Data were collected by reviewing records using pre-tested checklist. Data collectors were Midwives from health center. Training was given for data collectors and supervisor. Data was entered and cleaned using EPI version 3.5.2. The cleaned data was exported to SPSS version 16, for descriptive statistical analysis. Result:  Maternal deaths were 127 & maternal mortality ratio was 1360/100,000 live births. Direct obstetric causes of death accounted for 88%, out of which 31%, 23 % and 15% were obstructed labour, hemorrhage and eclampsia cases, respectively. Low (3.1%) of ANC follows up. Seventy percent of mothers were in labour for 2-3 days at home and 48.4% mothers died on the day of admission.  Patients who were potentially in need of blood transfusion, 90%, 84% and 79% of APH, PPH and ruptured uterus cases respectively, died without receiving it. Conclusion: Maternal mortality ratio was high. Obstructed labour was the leading cause of death. Delay in health seeking behavior as patient factor and delay at health facility as provider factor have contributed to maternal death. Based on this finding regional health office was suggested to make the comprehensive emergency obstetric care service accessible to the rural society in which the majority lives and birth preparedness emergency readiness should be enhanced in the community.
Contribution/ Originality
While the overall maternal death in Ethiopia is decreasing, there is still increased number of maternal death in selected regions in SNNP. Though it relies on review of registrations only, the study could reflect significant difference among regions in the country
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 12

Determinants of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Modeling Progression of Adherence Level: At Yirgalem Regional Hospital, Ethiopia; January, 2012

Research Article
Author(s): Zeray Abebe Irano, Ayele Taye, Tesfalem Teshome Tessema, Hawult Taye Adane, Chalachew Misganaw Alemayehu
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Non-adherence is a global problem and has been seen in all diseases. According to WHO, adherence to long-term therapies in chronic illnesses averages 50% in developed countries? Adherence to HAART is challenging, because patients need almost perfect adherence of at least 95 percent to keep viral load at undetectable levels as long as possible and maintain the functionality of the immune system. Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy increases the risk of incomplete viral suppression, disease progression and death. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and factors associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy. A random sample of 368 patients were taken from the ART clinic at Yirgalem Regional Hospital from September 2006 to July 2011.Adherence levels were measured using methods pill count, pill identification test, and self-report. Descriptive statistics and both Bivariate and multivariate Logistic Regression were used to analyzed the data. Homogeneous Semi-Markov Stochastic Model was used to reveal the conditional probability of staying in non-adherence. The Multivariate Logistic Regression Method showed that the gender (sex), family size, social support available to the patients, ART knowledge of the patients, time on ART in month, and baseline CD4 counts/mm3 were significant factors associated with non-adherence to ART medications. The conditional probability of staying in non-adherence, until a given time in month was higher than staying in adherence. Thus, it is suggested that health-care providers need to be watchful about adherence levels of patients. Specifically males, who have been on ART for several months, living in large family members, lack of social support, having high baseline CD4 counts/mm3, and having poor knowledge of ART. 
Contribution/ Originality
ZAI conceived and designed the study. He also wrote the paper. AT contributed in the design, conduct and write-up of the paper. He also approved the manuscript. TTT, HTA and CMA contributed in the conduct and analysis of the study. Also, they prepared the manuscript. All of the authors have read and approved the manuscript.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Generation and Genetic Analysis of Transgenic Maize (Zea Mays L.) Resistant to Herbicide Glyphosate

Research Article
Author(s): Liyan Yang, Yi Sun
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Two new glyphosate-resistant genes from different sources were introduced into a maize hybrid, Hi-II by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the transgenic T0 plants were identified by 2% glyphosate application and PCR detection. Their progeny inheriting stability was determined with Southern-blot hybridization and the transgene segregation ratios were recorded by glyphosate screening.Results showed that the glyphosate-resistant genes were integrated into maize genome which conferred the transgenic plants higher glyphosate tolerence. Transgenic gene in pAX1677 T1 plants followed Mendelian segregation model while it was not the case in pAX1676 T1 plants. Development of T1 plants showed construct pAX1677 excelled to pAX1676.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is that we have introduced two new glyphosate-resistant genes with two different transit peptides into maize, which conferred the transgenic plants higher glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, the transgene of pAX1677 in T1 plants followed Mendelian segregation model while it was not the case for the pAX1676. The growth and development performance of T1 plants showed that the transgene pAX1677 excelled to pAX1676.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 12

Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework

Research Article
Author(s): Ugochukwu E. Anigbogu, Eleanya K. Nduka
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
This study examines the long-run and causal relationship between stock market performance and economic growth in Nigeria for the period from 1987Q1 to 2012Q4 ¬inclusive. The study employs the Augmented-Dickey Fuller test for unit root, the Johansen (1995) Maximum Likelihood cointegration technique and Vector Error Correction Model framework to capture long-run and short-run relationships in the cointegrating vectors of Nigerian stock market and economic growth. The study further employs Granger (1969) Causality, Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) to capture shocks transmission and AR root graph for stability. The optimum lag length was selected based on the Schwartz and Hannan-Quin information criteria. The results of the cointegration test confirm that there exists a long-run relationship between stock market performance and economic growth, while the causality test results suggest that stock market performance causes economic growth with feedback. The Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) suggest that shocks from the stock market do not impede economic growth. Furthermore, the result of the AR root graph indicates that the Nigerian stock exchange market is not stable.  Hence, the current reforms and policies going on in the Nigerian stock exchange should be sustained to boost investors’ confidence and participation.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the Nigerian stock market is not stable.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 04-2014 Issue: 4

The Study of Inhibitory Effects of Satureja Khuzestanica Essence against Mexa and Mexr Efflux Genes Ofpseudomonas Aeruginosa by Rt-Pcr

Research Article
Author(s): Neda Jalalvandi, Abbas Bahador, Bahador Zahedi, Hossein Saghi, Davoud Esmaeili
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe hospital-acquired infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. P.aeruginosa for its resistance to antibiotics. Efflux pump is one of the several mechanisms involved in intrinsic resistance of these bacteria to antibiotics. It has been revealed that deletion of genes encoding the components of MexAB–OprM of efflux system, in wild-type P. aeruginosa, confers hypersusceptibility to a variety of antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of some herbal medicines were reported. Objectives: In this study the effect of Saturejakhuzestanica extract, an endemic plant of Iran, on the expression level of mexA, and mexR genes in P. aeruginosa   were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this study, MIC was determined for P. aeruginosa. Then, bacteria were treated with S. khuzistanica extract. MexA, mexR and gyrA genes expression in treated and non-treated bacteria, before and after treatment was evaluated using RT-PCR technique.  Results: Surprisingly, the expression level of mexA and mexR genes was decreased in the presence of S. Khuzestanica. However, the expression of gyrAgene that was used as an internal control was not altered before and after treatment with this herb. Based on the results, S. Khuzestanica could play a, major role in lowering the P. aeruginosa resistance to drugs, by reducing mexA genes expression. Conclusions: According to results of current research we hope in future be used it to the clinic with a wider range as a complementary therapy and also for surgery operation.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Hardness Studies on Solution Grown Lithium Potassium Sulphate Single Crystals – An Inorganic Nonlinear Optical Material

Research Article
Author(s): K. Murugadoss, G. Pasupathi
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
Single crystal of Lithium Potassium sulphate is grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal is characterized by Vickers   micro hardness test. It  is carried  out  by  over a load with a  range of 10 – 100 gm on  the  selected  smooth  plane  surface of the crystal.  Vickers’s hardness values (Hv) are calculated for selected applied load and it is found to be increasing with the   increasing applied load. The  Meyer’s  index  number (n) is .calculated  from  the  Vickers hardness  number and   it  confirms that the  grown material  belongs  to  soft material  category.  The Elastic stiffness constant (C11) is calculated using Wooster’s empirical relation. Further the Yield strength (σv), Brittleness index (B), and the Fracture toughness (Kc) are calculated to the grown LKS crystals.
Contribution/ Originality


Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

The Excited Electronic States and the Oscillator Strenght Calculated for Flattened Cylindrical Cd1-Xznxs Quantum Dots

Research Article
Author(s): S. Marzougui, N. Safta
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The present paper is aimed to investigate theoretically the quantum confinement in Cd1-xZnxS – related quantum dots with x the atomic fraction of Zn. For both electrons and holes, we have calculated the excited bound states with use of the flattened cylindrical geometry model and assuming a finite potential at the boundary. The confined sub bands have been calculated based on squared quantum well wave – functions. A theoretical analysis is also made to calculate the oscillator strength of inter sub band transitions as a function of zinc composition. The goal of the latter study is to investigate the optical behavior of flattened cylindrical Cd1-xZnxS quantum dots.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated theoretically the electronic and optical properties of Cd1-xZnxS quantum dots with a flattened cylindrical geometry. The excited sub bands have been calculated for electrons, heavy holes and light holes. The oscillator strength of inter sub band transitions has also been computed.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Factors Impacting on SMEs Internationalization: Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe

Research Article
Author(s): Tongesai Mpofu, Joyline Sauti
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The main thrust of the study was to identify and assess the factors that impact on Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) internationalization in the Zimbabwean dairy industry. The objectives of the research are to identify the factors that drive or motivate the internationalization of SMEs, analyze most significant barriers to SME internationalization, examine the strategies being adopted by SMEs in their internationalization process and identify and recommend strategies that will assist SMEs in dairy sector internationalization. Companies internationalize because of many factors that include profit motives, costs minimization, diversification of the markets, search for new opportunities and saturated domestic market. The factors considered in internationalization include the knowledge on the market, the availability of resources, the strategies to be used and the market environment. Despite the main motives of companies to internationalize and the advantages involved, there are obstacles that the company must overcome for successful internationalization. The sample for the study was eight SMEs in the dairy industry and simple random sampling was used for selecting respondents. Questionnaires and face to face interviews were used for data collection. The study found that the major drivers for internationalization in the Zimbabwean dairy industry included the drive to gain a large market share, maximize profits, expansion, managerial urge and competitive pressure. The dairy SMES face operational, informational, environmental and marketing challenges. The internationalization strategies used in the dairy sector include importing, exporting, foreign collaborations and subsidiaries. The study recommends that there has to be openness to internationalization, financial incentives and assistance should be given to internationalizing SMEs and there must be provision of business support service.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature on internationalization. This is one of the few studies that have been carried in Zimbabwean dairy sector. It’s of paramount importance to the Zimbabwean economy it agriculturally based.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

Decolouration of Dye in Wastewater by Selected Fungal and Bacterial Species: A Bioremediation Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Akpor O B, Aipoh C O, Olalekan A P
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
The objective of this investigation was to ascertain the dye decolouration ability of selected bacterial (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus) species in wastewater.  The study was carried out under shake flasks conditions. After inoculation with the respective isolates, aliquot wastewater samples were aseptically removed from each flask, prior inoculation and every 24 h for the next 96 h for the estimation of dye concentration, using standard procedures. The results revealed optimum temperature for dye decolouration in the presence of the test isolates to range from 25 °C to 35 °C. A pH of 6 and 10 was observed to enhance dye by the bacterial species while 8 and 10 were observed to be optimum for the fungal species. At the different concentrations of sodium acetate used for investigation, 5 g/L was observed to be optimum, a trend that was observed in the presence of all the isolates. Among the different external carbon sources used for investigation, the study revealed methanol as the ideal external carbon source that enhanced dye decolouration by the isolates. With respect to nitrogen source, maximum decolouration was observed with yeast extract source, in the presence of the Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. None of the concentrations of peptone used for investigation enhanced decolouration by the test isolates. This trend was also irrespective of the isolate used for investigation. The study was able to reveal the effect of temperature the optimum temperature, pH, sodium acetate and peptone concentrations and carbon and nitrogen sources in the declaration of decolouration of the test dye in wastewater by the microbial species used for the investigation.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

Relationship between Selected Total Quality Management Practices Employed By Public Secondary Schools Principals and Students’ Performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Kiambu County, Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): Margaret W. Ruinge, Gerald N. Kimani
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The Purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected total quality management (TQM) practices employed by principals and students’ performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) in public secondary schools in Kiambu County, Kenya.  The selected TQM practices were; school focus on meeting students’ needs, goal setting(establishing performance objectives) and communication of curricular issues.    Ex post facto research design was adopted for the  study. Target population consisted of 227 school principals from public secondary schools in Kiambu County and 3736 teachers in these schools. Kiambu County has 10 sub-counties.  Cochran’s sample size formula was used to determine the sample size of 143 principals and 343 teachers. In order to ensure equal representation of principals and teachers from all public secondary schools in the 10 sub-counties, 14 principals (143÷10 sub-counties = 14.3) from schools in each sub-county and 3 teachers [(348 ÷ 10 sub-counties) ÷14 schools = 2.5] from each sample school were selected using simple random sampling technique. A questionnaire developed by the researchers was administered to 140 principals from the sample schools and  420 teachers. Correlations were generated to establish the relationships between the three selected TQM practices employed by school principals and students’ performance. Linear regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis and identify predictor variable for the students’ performance in KCSE. The findings revealed that, school focus on meeting student’s needs, establishment of performance objectives (goal setting) on curricular activities and embracement of high level of communication on curricular issues especially from the students, enhance students’ performance in national examinations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between students’ performance in national examinations and total quality management practices employed by public secondary schools principals analyzing data using linear regression analysis to estimate the unknown effect of school management practices over students’ performance in examinations.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Promoting Local Acceptability of International Oil Companies (IOCS) Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The Case of Tullow Oil in Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Evangelia Fragouli, Aiden Yengbalang Danyi
Journal: Financial Risk and Management Reviews

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Abstract
Ghana discovered oil in commercial quantities in 2007 following intense exploration works by Tullow Oil Plc and Kosmos Energy. Ghanaians are expecting more benefits from government and the International Oil Companies (IOCs) in particular. This study is aimed at assessing the global integration and local responsiveness strategies of IOCs in Ghana and how that impacts on the acceptability of the operations of these IOCs by locals presenting Tullow as a case study. Main research questions refer to how these local expectations can be properly managed, how IOCs can design and properly implement their CSR obligations and the extent to which the pursuit of CSR activities by IOCs can help promote their local acceptability in Ghana. An empirical study with a qualitative analysis approach was applied to obtain primary information from Tullow Oil Plc, government agencies, Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), and local communities. The study established a positive relationship between good CSR practice and local acceptability. Even though some of the local people acknowledged the benefits of Tullow’s CSR activities, others do not, but express a continuous desire for IOCs and Tullow in particular to do more.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » Financial Risk and Management Reviews » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1