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Listing 40 - 20 of 1962 results.

Influence of Seed Location in the Fruit Pod of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook. F.) and Poultry Wastes on Plant Sex Ratio

Research Article
Author(s): N. L. Aniekwe, M.C. Mbah
Journal: Review of Catalysts

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Abstract
The influence of seed location in the fruit pod of fluted pumpkin and inorganic fertilizers and poultry wastes on the plant sex ratio was investigated in 2009 and 2010 in a randomized complete block design in three replications. In 2009, a mean of 25:75 male: female plants per pod resulted from seeds in the head region producing a ratio of 38:62 male: female plants, the middle, 24:76 and in the tail region, 14:86. In 2010, a mean of 30:70 male: female plants per pod were obtained, 33:67 male: female plants from seeds in the head, 24:76 in the middle and 34:66 in the tail. A total plant sex ratio of 1: 3  per fruit pod occurred in the two trials, while more female plants occurred in middle and tail regions (1:3 or 24:76) than in the head region (1:2 or 35.5: 64.5). Fertilizer sources showed no significant influence on the male: female plant ratio, but on the leaf area. Poultry wastes influenced the highest (78.8 cm2), NPK (15:15:15) 57.3 cm2 and the least 48.4 cm2 from control. Plants in the middle region had the highest leaf area (65.8 cm2), Coefficient of variation for male plants was wide in 2009 (52.3) and in the mean of the years (25.4). Smallholder female farmers can increase their business and income by selecting seeds from the middle and tail locations and by augmenting soil fertility with cheap and affordable poultry wastes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated answers to the worrisome sights of preponderance of male plants characterized by tiny vines and leaves and no pods from a pod of fluted pumpkin. The farmer wants to know what to do to raise her income and livelihood. 
Medical Sciences » Review of Catalysts » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Effect of Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants on Sclerotiumrolfsii, Causal Agent of Postharvest Rot of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.)

Research Article
Author(s): Nweke, F. U.
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
Ethanol and Petroleum ether of leaves of Azadirachtaindica A. Juss, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.)Swingle, Jatrophacurcas L., Anacardiumoccidentale L., seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel and peels of Citrus sinensisOsbek were studied for in vitro activity against mycelial growth and sclerotium germination of Sclerotiumrolfsii, Sacc., the causal agent of postharvest yam rot. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of the medicinal plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The ethanol and petroleum ether extracts showed varying levels of fungitoxicity activity with the ethanol extracts being more effective. Mycelial growth of S. rolfsii was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by ethanol extracts of C. sinesis (89.63 – 100%), C. aurantifolia (67.04 – 83.28%) and A. indica (53.70 – 69.38%) during the period of incubation. Sclerotium germination was also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by ethanol extracts of C. sinesis (87.50%), C. aurantifolia (62.50%) and A. indica (50%). This study showed the potentials of extracts of some plant products to control S. rolfsii in yam.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

In-Vitro Effect of Lawsonia Inermis L. (Henna) Leave Extract on Lycopersicon Esculentum Var. (Tomato) Phytopathogenic Bacteria Ralstonia Solanacearum (Smith)

Research Article
Author(s): Abubakar, S., Dawakiji, A. Y., Bala, I.
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes), is one of the most important vegetable fruits worldwide which constitute commercially and nutritionally indispensible food commodity. Ralstonia solanacearum is a relevant and widespread Phytopathogenic bacterium that causes a wilt disease which deadly affects this economically important crop. Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis leaves were evaluated using three fractions of extract namely; methanolic, chloroform and aqueous against this plant pathogenic bacterium (R. solanacearum) in-vitro. Prior to antibacterial assay, the extract fractions were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, which revealed the present of alkaloids, terpenoides and saponins in all, while methanolic extract shows the additional  flavonoids, tannins, amino acid, triterpenoids and reducing sugar, the chloroform extract showed additional anthraquinone. Nevertheless, the aqueous extract shows the additional triterpenoids, steroids and reducing sugar. Among the three fractions the methanolic extract proved to be the promising extract for management/treatment of tomato wilt caused by R. solanacearum. All the methanolic extract concentrations (1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 μg/ml respectively) showed effects on the test organism. The (SPSS) software was used to analyse the significant differences between each concentrations, using one way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at critical value (p≥0.05). 
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature. The study also is one of very few studies which have investigated the phytochemical constituents of different fractions of Lawsonia inermis leaves extracts and its effect against phytopathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum.
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Modeling and Optimization of Transesterification of Beniseed Oil to Beniseed Methylester: A Case of Artificial Neural Network versus Response Surface Methodology

Research Article
Author(s): Adepoju T. F., Okunola A. A.
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
In this research work, statistical approach (ANN and RSM) were used to optimize the transesterification of beniseed oil to beniseed methyl ester (BME). Analyses of an heterogeneous catalyst (Mangifera indica powdered) obtained from unripe Mangifera indica peels showed that the powder consist  macro elements such as K (59.85%), Si (30.53%), Cl (4.58%), Al (3.05%) and Ca (1.05%) and micro elements such as P (0.196%), S (0.593%), Mn (0.043%), Fe (0.037%), Zn (0.008%), Rb (0.042%) and Sr (0.032%). ANN predicted optimal condition for Beniseed methyl ester produced was X1= 60.0 min, X2 = 1.0 wt.%, X3= 57 0C and X4 = 6.0. The predicted BME (94.40% (w/w)) under this condition was validated to be of 93.80 % (w/w). Meanwhile, RSM predicted 94.20% (w/w) at the following condition X1= 62.0 min, X2 = 0.9 wt. %, X3= 60 0C and X4 = 6.5 was validated as 92.80 % (w/w). The results obtained showed the superiority of ANN over RSM owing to its higher values of predicted value, RMSE, AAD, R2 and R2Adj. The fatty acid profile and the physicochemical properties of the BME indicated that, BME can serve as alternative fuel for conventional diesel.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to the process conversion of oil to diesel.This study uses new estimation methodology in the use of heterogeneous catalyst obtained from agricultural waste. This study originates new way of using statistical software (ANN and RSM) to improve the yield of biodiesel. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of heterogeneous catalyst to produced biodiesel. The paper contributes the first use of Mangifera indica (Mango) peels as heterogeneous base catalyst.The paper’s primary contribution is finding that biodiesel can be obtained by the use of biomass waste. This study documents economic impact of using Mangifera indica (Mango) peels as heterogeneous base catalyst to produce biodiesel.
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 3

Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf

Research Article
Author(s): Oguntoyinbo O.O, Abdus-Salaam R.B, Bello W.A, Ifesan B.O.T.
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of n-butanol, petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of the leaf of Chrysophyllumalbidum were investigated. Antioxidant activity was carried out using various tests which include; 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total flavonoid content and the total phenolic content. The antimicrobial test was conducted on the following micro-organisms; Salmonella dysenteriae, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Penicillum spp., Aspergillusflavus, Fusariumverticoides, Aspergillus tamari and Aspergillusparasiticus  using the agar well diffusion method. Results revealed that petroleum ether gave the highest extract yield (16.8%) while butanolic extract had the least yield (4.6%). At 250 µg/ml extract concentration, petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest (73.57%) DPPH scavenging activity followed by ethanol extract (59.32%) while butanolic extract had the least scavenging activity of 32.02%, and these were significantly different (P<0.05). Total antioxidant activity (ascorbic acid equivalent) of C. albidum ranged from 42.33AAE in butanol extract  to 50.6AAE in ethanol extract. Furthermore, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the leaf extracts revealed that at 250 µg/ml extract concentration, ethanol extract had the highest (0.39µmolFe(ii)/g)  reduction potential, followed by petroleum ether extract (0.33µmolFe(ii)/g) and butanol extract (0.29 µmolFe(ii)/g). The total phenol content of the extracts ranged from 0.02µg/mlTAE–0.09µg/mlTAE at 1000µg/ml extract concentration. The total flavonoid content ranged from 0.47mg/gQE in petroleum ether extract to 12.74mg/gQE in butanol extract . The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of the leaf of C. albidum showed zone of inhibition ranging from 9.7mm to 31.0mm. The result showed that butanolic extract demonstrated a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity by inhibiting all the microorganisms tested while petroleum ether extract possessed no antimicrobial property. This result may be an indication that C. albidumleaf extracts could be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the phytochemical, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial potential of the extracts of the leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum using different organic solvents (Petroleum ether, ethanol and butanol). This comparative evaluation in a single research work is scarce and was therefore investigated in this paper. 
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

A Brief Report on Scale Independent Quantum Cosmology

Research Article
Author(s): U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana
Journal: Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications

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Abstract
In the evolving universe, cosmic thermal energy density is always directly proportional to the critical mass-energy density. At any time, the product of cosmic ‘critical density’ and ‘critical Hubble volume’ can be called as the ‘critical mass’ of the evolving universe. With reference to Mach’s principle, cosmic ‘critical density’, ‘critical volume’ and ‘critical mass’ can be considered as the quantified back ground dynamic properties of the evolving universe. With reference to Planck mass, Hubble constant connected with big bang and critical density connected with big bang- both can be defined. With ‘cosmologically reinforcing hydrogen atom’ concept, observed cosmic redshift and super novae dimming both can be reinterpreted in a new approach.  To understand the ground reality of cosmic rate of expansion, accuracy of the current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current Hubble’s constant and current CMBR temperature must be improved. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is finding the applications of quantum gravity connected with high energy as well as low energy in the domain of observable cosmology.
Engineering » Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics

Research Article
Author(s): Takashi Sagara
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in Japan on 11th March 2011 was unimaginably scary for the Japanese people and it was easily expected that Japan was going to abandon nuclear power with anti-nuclear political parties. Contrarily, Japan decided to maintain nuclear power with pro-nuclear political parties. This decision of Japan was influenced by the negative impacts brought by the Tomorrow Party of Japan (TPJ), the largest political party in the history of Japan which was established primarily to abandon nuclear power. The purpose of this paper is to look at the life-time of TPJ from 28th November to 27th December in 2012 and examine the negative impacts by TPJ on the anti-nuclear movements in Japan’s politics. The paper then discovers that the Japanese people came to lose trust in anti-nuclear political parties because they recognized, due to TPJ, that ‘anti-nuclear’ can be abused by politicians for elections, the characteristics of the ‘anti-nuclear’ village are not so different from those of the nuclear power village and the anti-nuclear party is an amateur without leaders. The paper finally concludes that it will take much time and efforts to regain a lost trust in anti-nuclear political parties. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the negative impacts on the anti nuclear movements in Japan’s politics, made by the largest anti-nuclear political party in the history of Japan, the Tomorrow Party of Japan (TPJ), which has prevented Japan from moving towards deneutralization.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Synthesis and Characterisation of Schiff Base Co (Ii) And Cu (Ii)` Complexes Derived From Ciprofloxacin and P-Nitroaniline

Research Article
Author(s): Abubakar F.M., Aliyu H.N., Chindo I.Y.
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The complexes of Co(II) and Cu(II) with Schiff base derived from ciprofloxacin and p-nitroaniline have been synthesized. The ligand and the complexes were characterized on the basis of physical properties conductance measurement and infrared spectroscopic analysis. The ligand melting point and decomposition temperatures for the complexes are high. The molar conductance values of the complexes are low. The I.R data of the complexes showed absorption bands ranging from (500-800) cm-1 indicating coordination of the ligand to the metal ions. 
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that ciprofloxacin and p-nitroaniline can be used to synthesize a new Schiff base and its metal complexes by, characterizing the complexes according to their physical properties, conductance measurement and infrared spectroscopy. The results of which were found to be in conformity to the literature. 
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Combined Microbial Inoculation as a Promising Approach to Enhance Promiscuous Soybean Nodulation and Nitrogen Content in Sudan Savanna

Research Article
Author(s): Clement O. Ncho, Didier Lesueur, Adamu A. Yusuf
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Applications of microbial inoculants and reduced amount of inorganic fertilizers could lead to low-input agriculture and sustain smallholders’ crops production. In this study, the effect of promiscuous soybean inoculation with combined microbial inoculants was evaluated during harmattan season under furrow irrigation. Rhizobial inoculants and urea on one hand, and fungal inoculants and triple superphosphate (TSP) on the other hand, were considered as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources, respectively. The soil was sandy loam and slightly alkaline. Significant effect from rhizobial inoculants was observed on nodule dry weight. As well, the interaction between N and P source had significant effect on %Ndfa. The interaction between 1495MAR and TSP induced the highest %Ndfa. The dual inoculation of 1495MAR and Rhizatech induced relatively high shoot N content. This study showed TGx soybean responded to rhizobial inoculation in Nigeria Sudan savanna. It showed that biofertilizers could effectively increase soybean yield under furrow irrigation. It also suggested that microbial inoculants could perform during harmattan season. Furthermore, the study showed that selective interactions occur between rhizobial strains and fungal inoculants for soybean development.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effects of commercial rhizobial and fungal inoculants on promiscuous soybean during harmattan dry season in Sudan savanna.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania

Research Article
Author(s): J.G. William, J. Hella, E. Lars, J. Offenberg, M. Mwatawala, G. Rwegasira
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Before changing from one production method to another, farmers need to consider costs and incomes resulting from the change. This study estimated the effects on net benefit of switching from conventional Tanzanian growing practices (spraying of chemical pesticides and non-pest control) to the use of African weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) to control pests in cashew and mango. Yield data from one cashew and one mango plantation covering two cropping seasons was used in an economic analysis. The use of chemical pesticides and the use of weaver ants resulted in higher yields compared to the non-control treatment. Lower input costs in weaver ant treatments, though, resulted in higher economic returns than the use of chemical insecticides in both seasons and crops. In all cases weaver ant treatments also produced higher returns than non-control treatments, despite their higher costs. Switching to African weaver ants without feeding was feasible due to positive net change in benefits in both crops. In cashew the average net benefit for the two seasons was 94% higher when using ants compared to non-control and 112% higher than in the chemical treatment. The corresponding values in mango were 117% and 63%, respectively. Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) was highest for African weaver ants without feeding in cashew at 235% in 2012/13 and 405% in 2013/14 seasons. Similarly, MRR was highest for weaver ant without feeding in mango at 509% in 2012/13 and 743% in 2013/14 seasons. In conclusion, the use of African weaver ants without feeding was consistently the most economically feasible management strategy to be used in Tanzanian cashew and mango pest management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the effects on net benefit when switching from conventional agricultural practices to African weaver ants against insect pests in cashew and mango orchards in Tanzania
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2015 Issue: 4

Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammed, U., Olaleye, R.S., Umar, I.S., Ndanitsa, M.A., Jibrin, S.
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The Training and visit (T&V) extension has been criticized for being top-down, top heavy, inefficient and ineffective. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess the effectiveness of the T&V extension in Mokwa local government area of Niger state Nigeria. Three specific objectives guided the study. A total of 450,000 farmers who had been in active production between 2004 and 2013 evidence from (FADAMAII & III) in the LGA constituted the population for the study. A four percent sample (1,800) was randomly selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data, data were descriptively analysis. Demographically majority of the respondents were male aged 41-50 years, and married. slightly less than 5 percent (5.0%) were literate. Majority had been in the farming system for at least 11 years (53%) and had land holding almost exclusively by inheritance (96.0%). Other results indicate that majority of respondents has contact with Extension agents occasionally, most dependents on other source of agricultural information. Respondents reported that frequent level of Extension contact is unsatisfactory. But found information given by the Extension Agents useful. Majority of the respondents were aware of recommended agricultural technologies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State This study uses new estimation methodology of questionnaires. This study originates new formula of ways to improve training of farmers in Niger State as well as others. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State. The paper contributes the first logical analysis in Agricultural Extension The paper’s primary contribution is finding the problem of poor organization dilution of efforts This study documents the approach of reaching with extension information and for the purpose of teaching farmers improved farm methods should be overhauled.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2015 Issue: 4

Studies on Potential of Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana Gaertn. L.) Amylases for Industrial Applications

Research Article
Author(s): Anita Pande, Sobha Singh, Jyoti Samad, Kumar Saurabh, Z.A. Haider
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Amylases are of great significance especially in the food, brewing and detergent industry. An attempt has been made to study the characteristics of amylases produced during germination of finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn. L.). Of the 25 genotypes studied RAU8 showed the maximum activity at pH 5 and temperature 60oC. This is the first report of optimum amylase activity at 60°C in finger millet. The best activity was observed in seeds geminated for 96 hours. The enzyme extract showed maximal activity till 90 minutes and 82.24% activity was retained even after 120 minutes. The thermostable character of the enzyme and retention of activity of the unprotected enzyme for 2 hours makes it suitable for industrial purposes. Further characterization of the different forms of the amylases may help in isolation of the most robust form which could then be cloned and expressed in microbes to enable large scale production for industrial purposes.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that amylases derived from finger millet can be effectively used in the brewing, baking and detergent industries. This study documents the activity of amylases of different genotypes of finger millet and the optimal parameters for activity of amylases derived from RAU 8 genotype.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Information and Communication Technology challenges and Strategies among Office Technology and Management Educators in Nigerian Polytechnics

Research Article
Author(s): Amiaya, Anita Ogheneovo
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The changes in work processes and business organizations as well as the model of transmission and exchange of information in the globalized economy call for transformation in the teaching and learning process in Office Technology and Management (OTM) to reflect the emphasis in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The major purpose of the study was, therefore, to assess the extent of utilization, challenges and strategies of ICT for repositioning OTM programme in Nigerian Polytechnics. Three research questions were generated and three null hypotheses were also formulated to guide the study. A survey design was adopted and the study was carried out in all Polytechnics offering OTM in South-South Nigeria. The population for the study comprised 85 OTM Educators. The entire population was studied hence no sampling techniques. A 45-item questionnaire was used for data collection. A reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained from Cronbach Alpha reliability test used. Seventy-eight (78) copies out of the eighty-five (85) copies of the questionnaire administered were collected and analysed. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested using t-test statistic at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that ICT was not effectively utilized in the institutions studied because of many challenges. However, many strategies for improving the utilization of ICT were identified. It was, therefore, recommended that government and the management of the institutions should endeavour to ameliorate the challenges with the identified strategies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated information and communication technology challenges and strategies among Office Technology Management Educators in Nigeria Polytechnics. This study is important because it has thrown some light on the subject and the way forward. The recommendations in the study are pertinent.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 3

Assessing School Leadership Challenges in Ghana Using Leadership Practices Inventory

Research Article
Author(s): Alexander Kyei Edwards, Samuel Kwadwo Aboagye
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The Ghana Education Service (GES) is facing challenges in school leadership and hence a lot of criticisms on basic school performances. The issue is whether school leadership relates to school performances and that there is the need for transformation leadership. The purpose of this study was to discuss self-reported leadership practices inventories (LPI) of graduate students to highlight their transformational school leadership potentials. The study participants were conveniently sampled from two Ghanaian public universities. Data from the self-reported LPI scores indicated a strong sense of self belief and the leadership potentials (M=48.93, sd=6.47). Gender differences in transformational abilities showed no statistical significance (t=-0.93, df=198, p=0.07), and the same with institutions (t=-0.99, df=198, p=0.38). However, the only statistical differences came from gender groups’ report on “Enable Others to Act” (t=-1.72, df=198, p=0.01).Discussions focused on the need for a more futuristic thinking, people-focused skills, the practices of enablement, and the avoidance of discrimination against women in school leadership within GES. Five recommendations were made for transformational leadership in GES including INSET leadership contents, a research and development of school leadership mode, and a national certification policy.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of Leadership Practices Inventories in assessing leadership potentials among educators, in this case school leadership, in Ghana. The study relates empirical research to actual practice in schools for further development.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Han-Ping Fung
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
Many organizations are using project teams to achieve their organizational goals because they believe the importance and benefits of project teams.  Project managers are advised to learn and demonstrate the leadership roles as proposed by Quinn (1988) because these roles can improve the project team effectiveness.  Moreover, it is important to select an experienced project manager leading an effective team at the same time negotiating for ample time to execute the project.  The current study developed a research model underpinned on models related to Quinn (1988) leadership roles and Hoevemeyer (1993) five criteria of project team effectiveness as well as four demographic moderators i.e. project management experience, project team size, project duration and project value size.  Based on a sample of 201 project managers, this empirical study had confirmed that a project manager’s leadership roles are positively influencing project team effectiveness.  At the same time, only project management experience and project duration are positively moderating the relationship between leadership roles and project team effectiveness.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of project management in Malaysia whereby longer the project duration as well as the more experience a project manager is, the relationship between his or her leadership roles and project team effectiveness will grow stronger.
Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Liability of the Insurance Company in International Insurance of Carriage of Goods

Research Article
Author(s): Nashat Mahmoud Abdalla Jaradat
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The paper deals with complete analysis of the liability of insurer in the international carriage of goods. The paper lays down the international instruments that govern the field and the extent to which they affect the liability of the insurer. The paper also analyzes the conflict of laws issues related to the international insurance. The paper further does a study of the concepts related to the international insurance of carriage of goods and liability of the insurer. The focus has been on the common law principles. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The paper analyzes the extent of liability of the insurance company. SCOPE: Due to the paucity of time and space the researchers have limited the scope of the paper to the liability of insurance company in general sense. There is also a lacuna in International Law on this particular aspect of insurer’s liability thus more attention is paid to common law principles and the Marine Insurance Act, 1906. The author has referred to case laws from different jurisdictions to give a wider prospective but has not done a comparative study of different legal regimes. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the importance of International Insurance? What are the instruments governing the International Insurance? What is the extent of liability of the insurer? PROBLEM STATEMENT: The existing legal setup is not in itself equipped to deal with the issue like liability of the insurer in international insurance and thus codification is required. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: A descriptive style of writing has been used throughout the paper. Doctrinal method of research has been adopted.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 4

Reliability of the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (Lrinec) Score for Early Diagnosis of Necrotizing Fasciitis

Research Article
Author(s): Martis Manohar H. M., Prathvi Shetty, Hegde B. R.
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
Objective: Necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency often requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Delay in surgical intervention can have catastrophic results including death. The laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score uses laboratory parameters to assess the severity of infection and helps in early recognition of necrotizing fasciitis.  In this study, we collected the data of 40 patients diagnosed and treated as necrotizing fasciitis to validate the reliability of this score in early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study. Data of 40 patients admitted to Fr. Muller Medical College Hospital, Mangalore from August, 2012 to August, 2014 with a clinical diagnosis of Necrotizing fasciitis was analyzed and relevant statistical tests were applied to evaluate the reliability of the LRINEC score. Results: A total of 40 patients were included in the study. A LRINEC score of > 6 had a sensitivity of   93.10 %, specificity of 90.91%, positive predictive value of 96.43%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. The most common organism isolated on culture was Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The LRINEC score is an impressive diagnostic tool to differentiate between necrotizing fasciitis and other less severe soft tissue infections. It aids in early recognition of necrotizing fasciitis enabling prompt and appropriate treatment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the reliability of the LRINEC score in early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. It establishes the conclusion of previous studies that a universally reproducible scoring system like the LRINEC score is essential for the early and accurate management of necrotizing fasciitis. 
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Localized Amyloidosis of the Neck: A Rare Case and Literature Review

Research Article
Author(s): Rana K Sherwani, Kafil Akhtar, Ruqaiya Afrose, Anjum Ara
Journal: Genes Review

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Abstract
Amyloidosis is the term used for a group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposition of fibrillar proteinaceous substance called amyloid, in a β- pleated sheet conformation. Amyloidoma or amyloid tumor is a tumor-like localized deposit of amyloid encountered occasionally in association with multiple myeloma, various chronic inflammatory diseases and primary amyloidosis. Soft tissue amyloidoma is rare, and soft tissue amyloidoma without evidence of systemic amyloidosis is even rarer. We report a rare case of primary AL type localized amyloidoma with a clinicopathological review and particular attention to its head and neck manifestation.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Genes Review » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 1

A Comparative Study on Circumference of Selected Body Parts of 13 Years Old Boys of Four Different Altitudes of Darjeeling District

Research Article
Author(s): Jyan Chandra Gurung
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to find out the difference in circumference of different Body parts of 13 years old boys of Darjeeling. The samples are school students. Researcher had taken 100 male students each from Sukhia Pokhari Higher Secondary School (Alt.-7200 ft.), Trunbull higher Secondary school (Alt.-6700 ft.), Jnanpith High school (Alt.-3000 ft.) and Kadamtala High School(Alt.-430 ft.). Researcher had measured height and weight as personal data measured circumference of head, neck, arm relax, flex arm, waist, gluteal, calf and ankle.It has been observed that there were significant differences in neck, wrist and calf circumference.
Contribution/ Originality
This research paper will contribute in the few existing literature of anthropometry especially conducted in the hilly area of Darjeeling. This study uses new estimation methodology and tried to provide the unbiased and exact findings. It is a thrust area of research as there are differences in circumference of different body parts due to altitude variation. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that how difference in circumference of selected body parts occurs with increases or decreases in altitude and to set the physical education programme according to the health status of the child.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 12-2015 Issue: 4

An Analysis of the Impact of Investment on Economic Growth in Zimbabwe

Research Article
Author(s): Clainos Chidoko, Innocent Sachirarwe
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
The study seeks to find out the impact of investment on economic growth from 1980 to 2013. The model used is a linear function. It has been discovered that investment positively affect economic growth in Zimbabwe. It is recommended that the investment authorities should check and monitor the magnitude of the contribution made by investment in Zimbabwe to adequately provide investment incentives to those with the resources to do so.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the impact of investment on economic growth in Zimbabwe spanning a longer period from 1980 to 2013. The study utilised private investment, government investment and foreign direct investment as the main components of investment in the study.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2