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Listing 26 - 20 of 2021 results.

The Importance of Computers with Matlab Software in the Teaching and Learning of Geometry in Space

Research Article
Author(s): Lupu Costica
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of using computers with MATLAB software in the teaching-learning of Geometry in middle-school, by the students from the specialization of Mathematics, “Vasile Alecsandri” University of Bacau. During the pedagogical practice stage, the students in the 3rd year, although better trained in Mathematics than the students from other departments,  face various problems related to their practical skills in using the computer in teaching, as well as to their lack of teaching experience.The research was conducted at the National Pedagogical College “Ştefan cel Mare” from Bacau and consisted in assisting and observing 28 lessons of Mathematics and 28 lessons of Information and Communication Technologies, involving a group of 200 students from grades 1-4, 180 middle-school students and 40 teachers of various specializations. The applied tests and questionnaires have shown the efficacy of using the computer in building active thought and competences in the graphical representation of geometrical figures and shapes, as well as in solving problems of plane collinearity. In relation to these problems, we are looking for a solution to comprise the best teaching-learning strategies using the calculus technique. With nearly 5000 functions, the MATLAB software menu provides techniques for acquiring knowledge in an electronic format, calculus techniques, explanatory mathematical texts, graphs, sounds and diagrams, e-learning solutions, including online testing and evaluation, as well as web-based learning tools designed for Mathematics (www.maplesoft.com).
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature mathematics teaching. This study uses new estimation the statistical methodology. This study originates new formula for solving the problems. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the importance MATLAB.  The paper contributes the first logical analysis to optimize teaching activity. 
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that modern methods. This study contains original modern documents.


Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 1

A Steady MHD Boundary-Layer Flow of Water-Based Nanofluids over a Moving Permeable Flat Plate

Research Article
Author(s): Eshetu Haile, B. Shankar
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
A steady boundary-layer flow of water based nanofluids over a moving permeable surface were analyzed. The plate was assumed to move in the same or opposite direction to the free stream. The model describing the flow regime characterizes the Sakiadis and Blasius flow scenarios. The PDEs in the governing equations were transformed into ODEs with the help of similarity transformations. The transformed equations were solved numerically by the shooting method with Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Effects of the governing parameters were thoroughly studied and explicitly explained graphically and in tabular form. Numerical results of the velocity field, temperature distribution, skin friction and Nusselt number were obtained. The results were compared with previous works and they are found in excellent agreement.
Contribution/ Originality
For further applications, new improvements of the models of Motsumi and Makinde [15] were made by including uniform magnetic field and Ohmic effects. Accordingly, the paper briefly explains effects of the various governing parameters on velocity and temperature profiles, skin friction and wall heat transfer rate for both Blasius and Sakiadis flow situations. 
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 1

Upgraded Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem

Research Article
Author(s): K. Lenin, B. Ravindhranath Reddy, M. Suryakalavathi
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
In this paper, a new-fangled Improved harmony search algorithm (IHS) is projected to solve optimal reactive power dispatch problem. Harmony search (HS) is a derivative-free tangible parameter optimization algorithm. It draws encouragement from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. The projected opposition-based HS of the present work employs opposition-based learning for harmony memory initialization and also for generation jumping. The perception of opposite number is employed in IHS to improve the convergence rate of the HS algorithm.   The proposed IHS has been tested on standard IEEE 57 bus test systems and simulation results show clearly the better performance of the proposed algorithm in reducing the real power loss.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology-Opposition based Harmony search algorithm to solve the Reactive power dispatch problem. The main aim is to reduce the Real Power loss and also to maintain the voltage profiles within the specified limits.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 1

Synthesis and Characterization of Polystyrene Coated Functionalized γ -Fe2O3 Nanoparticles

Research Article
Author(s): Tayyab Ali, A. Venkataraman
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles showing supermagnetic behaviour have been widely studied in recent years for various applications. Polymer coated functionalized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have wide applications which attracted many researchers to study their different nature when they are supported with polymers. Functionalized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has many applications in medical field such as MRI contrast, drug delivery, hyperthermia, magnetic gels, in cancer treatment  and   also used  in memory devices, supermagnetic materials etc. In the present study we synthesized the polystyrene coated functionalized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (PSCFNPs) in the weight ratio through grafting onto method. These nanoparticles were characterized and studied its magnetic property employing B-H loop tracer, molecular structure through FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal study employing TGA, DSC and morphology through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) & transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Through the mentioned characterization techniques we obtained the formation of fine polystyrene coated functionalized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The medical applications of the nanoparticles with tailored surfaces by biocompatible polymers are envisioned.
Contribution/ Originality
The present studies contribute for the investigation of cancerous cells, MRI and drug delivery system in the field of medical science and also for the low cost methodology for cancer treatments.  
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

Determination of Elastic Modulus Using Plate Load Test In Calabar, South-Eastern Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): T. Warmate, H.O Nwankwoala
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
This  study  evaluates   the  use  of  plate  load  test   in ascertaining elastic modulus, Es  of a site  in  Calabar, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The area depicts a coastal plain environment with typical    sandy and clayey formation. Four plate load test was carried out within  the area of  investigation , with  load    settlement  curve   which indicates  a  firm to  stiff partial  cohesive  soil. The   result shows geotechnical properties of the soil which depicts values above the A line plot on the plasticity chart. The  average  liquid  limit   and   the plastic  limits  values  of  30.65%  and  15.9%    respectively    shows   that    the  soil under  consideration is low  in  compressibility. The average moisture content   of   soil is low.  An average  elastic  modulus  value  of  4302.289 KN/m2  was  obtained  in  the  elastic  range (initial  tangent  modulus), which  is  indicative  of  a  firm  clay .  This  value   conform reasonably   with  those  obtained   by   method proposed  using  Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) with an  average   cone  value of  17Kg/cm2 with  Es= 4165 KN/m2.  Generally,  geotechnical   parameters  of  the  soil   reflects   the  nature   of   the  load  settlement  curve  obtained  from  the  test  points. Immediate settlement analysis with Es carried out showed low magnitude of compressibility in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the determination of elastic modulus using plate load test and the deformation properties of soils in Calabar, southeastern Nigeria.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

Application of Fractal Geometry to Study the Geological Structure of the Zarin Plain (Plain Razak)

Research Article
Author(s): Khadijeh Faridi Nia, Asghar Teymoorian, Mojtaba Babaei
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
One of the most important steps to obtain the specified density Bouguer  anomaly  corrections for the topography of the page Bouguer is the most commonly used way in which the relationship between topography and Bouguer anomaly in the method assumes that topography of the rigid shell instead Isoztasi  balance is maintained. The method to determine the density of Bouguer provided by fractal analyze these are the lowest density dependence the topography of the area is considered as the optimal density and the fractal relationship to the topography of the fractal dimension using the Bouguer anomaly.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

A Model of Strategic Thinking: Islamic and Iranian Perspective

Research Article
Author(s): Abbas Monavvarian
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Purpose - This research is trying to explore elements of strategic thinking from Islamic – Iranian point of views. Design/Methodology/Approach -The research method is qualitative. The main instruments of data and information collection are planned interview and library method. There was no sampling in this research. The researcher selected 17 elites (experts) familiar with the strategic management and strategic thinking.Findings - The study has found elements of strategic thinking are: Insight and foresight (Proactive), Analytical ability, Systems thinking, Creativity, Learning, Goal oriented Vision and Familiarity with modern science.Research limitations/implications -There are some limitations evident in this research. First, the researcher is from academic institute, so is not so familiar with Islamic literature. It means, if there is any deficiency in the literature is due to the low knowledge of the researcher. Second, although the sample size was sufficient, a larger sample may have provided better results. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the elements and model of strategic thinking from Islamic and Iranian points of view. So, it paves the road for other researches to investigate the equivalent factors in other cultures and other religions.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Information and Communication Technology (Ict) As a Necessity for Libraries and Librarians of Nigerian Universities in the 21st Century

Research Article
Author(s): Michael E. Okon, Catherine I. Ogbodo
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
ICTS have transformed all services in all sectors of the global economy. Library services have not been exception. In deed ICTS have revolutionized the manner information is processed, stored, retrieved and transferred to the  would be users. This paper examines ICT as a necessity for libraries and Librarians in Nigerian Universities in the 21st century.  Information and Communication Technology may be seen as the hardware and software that enables the society to create, collect, consolidate and communicate information in multi-media formats for variety of purpose. The paper examines the impact of ICT in libraries to include creation of On-line Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), creation of virtual libraries and Institutional Repository, resource sharing, networking and for electronic theft detector system. The efforts of government at developing ICT infrastructure through the National Virtual (Digital) library project and the Nigerian Research Education Network(Ngren) which resulted in promoting  the low ICT skills of Nigerian librarians is commendable. The paper suggested an intensive in- house training by individual university library management for librarians as a means of increasing their ICT skills.
Contribution/ Originality


Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Suitability of Temperate and Tropical Crossbred Dairy Cattle under Peri-Urban Production System in Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): NU Siddiquee, M.A. Wadud, MSA Bhuiyan, AKMA Rahman, M.R. Amin, AKFH Bhuiyan
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Suitability of temperate and tropical crossbred dairy cattle under peri-urban production system was investigated.The  study was conducted during a period from April, 2010 to March, 2013 in peri-urban dairy production system of Mymensingh district. The available dairy crossbred genotypes were 50% Holstein Friesian(HF)  , 62.5% HF (5/8HF), 75% HF (3/4HF).A total of 103 households, possessing 358 lactating cows were selected where two different management environments were applied:  (i) Intervention (E1) group and (ii) Non-intervention (E2) group. There were a total of 158 cows registered from 58 households in E1 and a total of 200 non-registered cows from 145 households in E2.  Average daily milk yield was 8.11±0.24 kg, it is higher in 62.5% HF genotype (8.60±0.41 kg) compared to 50% HF(8.32±0.42 kg) and 75% HF (7.42±0.42 kg). However, the intervention group (E1) was more efficient with an average of 9.85 ±0.39 than non intervention group (E2) with6.38±0.28 kg. The highest milk yield in 180 days was found (1550±74 kg) at 62.5 % HF and lowest (1339±76) at 75% HF genotype.  Against, G×E interaction effects were not significant on total milk yield (TMY) and daily milk yield though effect of environment was highly significant (P<0.001). The shortest dry period was found in 50% (89±2.53 days) and highest in 75% HF cross cows (102±2.72 days). The shortest age at first heat was found in 50 % (28±0.28) and highest in 75% (36±0.29) months. The shortest age at fist calving was found in 50% HF (37±0.30) and highest was in 75% HF (45±0.32) month. The shortest calving interval was found in 50% HF (378±8.63) and highest was in 75% HF (438±10.53) days. The shortest post-partum heat period found in 62.5% (91±3.31) days and highest in 75% HF (109±3.72) days. The lowest number of services per conception found in 62.5% (1.42±0.07) and highest in75% (1.64±0.08) HF cross genotype. Conception rate was found shortest in 50% (71±2.66) and highest in 75% 80±2.52Holstein Friesian cross cows. In case of reproductive performances (number of services per conception, conception rate, age at first heat, age at first calving, dry period, calving interval), genotype,  environment  and  G x E  interaction had highly significant effects (P<0.001). Therefore, it can be concluded that for reproduction 50% HF crossbred cows and for production both 50% and 62.5% HF crossbred cows are suitable in small holder peri-urban dairying system.  
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to inventive estimates of genotype by environment interactions to recommend appropriate crossbred cattle genotype to help Bangladeshi farmer for higher milk yield in the peri-urban area. This study uses new estimation of methodology to use  herd book keeping,  following breeding policy properly, Feeding management, Farmers training, proper recording system, etc .
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Development of Competence Balance-Oriented Integrative Thematic Learning Tools to Foster Critical Thinking Skill and Positive Character of Elementary School Students

Research Article
Author(s): Waspodo Tjipto Subroto, Nasution ., Wahyu Sukartiningsih
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The balance of critical thinking ability and positive character traits in children is a major base in the growing potential for children to be fully Indonesian people as expected in the national education goals. To meet the needs of learning orientation necessary to balance competence, which in turn is expected to foster critical thinking ability and positive character of elementary school students.The purposes of this study were : (a) developing a competency balance oriented integrative thematic learning to foster critical thinking ability and positive character of students, (b) develop learning tools in Elementary School to foster critical thinking ability and positive attitudes of elementary school students The results of this study have been developed : (1) thematic integrative learning tools in Elementary Schools to empower positive behavior and thinking ability students through research involving students, consisting of syllabus, and learning plan, (2) a material description, student worksheet, media , and thematic learning assessment tools in elementary school.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates new formula to increase quality of learning model in elementary school, for  development critical thinking and positive character with balances of student.  This model learning can be increase care and activities of student in the classroom.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 12

Overcoming Domestic Labour among Secondary School Students in Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): Benard Omenge Nyatuka
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study was set to establish the impact of domestic labour on students’ academic achievement in mixed day secondary schools in Kisii Central District, Kenya and formulate appropriate policy recommendations. A total of 119 boys and 100 girls were randomly selected from 14 mixed day secondary schools to participate in the study. Additionally, 14 parents and 14 teachers were purposively included. Interview schedules and questionnaires were used to gather relevant data. Holmes (1965) problem-solving approach, a scientific method of inquiry in comparative education, was used as a benchmark while formulating the relevant policy recommendations to mitigate against the involvement of students in domestic labour. The findings associated boys’ and girls’ engagement in domestic labour to weak  academic achievement. In a bid to address the negative impact of domestic labour on students in mixed day secondary schools, the study provides the following policy recommendations: reducing the domestic workload, educating parents and the community on the need to attend and participate in civic affairs, offering tuition in the morning and evening, conducting guidance and counseling to the affected students, equipping mixed day secondary schools with the appropriate teaching and learning resources, providing lunch to students in schools and combining efforts to fight poverty.
Contribution/ Originality
This study adds knowledge to the existing literature on the impact of domestic labour on students’ education, particularly at the secondary school cycle of learning. More importantly, it provides relevant policy recommendations to help enhance academic achievement among the affected students in mixed day secondary schools.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

A Critical Review of the School-Based Assessment in Brunei Darussalam

Research Article
Author(s): Haji Mohammad Redzuan Haji Botty, Masitah Shahrill
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
School-Based Assessment for Learning (SBAfL) was developed by the Ministry of Education in Brunei Darussalam to assess how well the students have achieved the objectives and learning outcomes as mentioned in the mathematics syllabus. Under the SBAfL, the Brunei Common Assessment Tasks (BCATs) was introduced where teachers develop and adapt standard-based criteria and rubrics to help students assess their developing knowledge and skills. In this study, random samples of the fourth assigned BCAT (BCAT 4) for Year 7 were collected as research artefacts. A semi-structured interview was conducted with Ms. Ella, who assessed the Year 7 students. Learning outcomes and marks awarded in BCAT 4 are discussed in this paper. The Year 7 students were expected to carry out the task based on the learning outcomes, which are categorised into three dimensions: Knowledge and Understanding (K&U), Thinking skills, Problem Solving and Investigation (PSI), and Communication Skills (CS). It was found that these learning outcomes were confusing. The learning outcomes and the dimensions indicated should be clear and consistent. The marks awarded in the assessment task were not fair and contradict the aims of designing a quality assessment task. A proper marking scheme should be discussed and designed by teachers in order to give a fair and systematic approach in the process of working out the solution for the assessment tasks. Teachers must not depend on BCATs only as a source of feedback for students. Continuous formative assessment should be administered to ensure the students’ mastery of knowledge.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the school-based assessment for learning outcomes, in the learning of mathematics in Brunei Darussalam. The paper’s primary contribution is finding whether the standard and quality of the assessment tasks have met the newly reformed national education system requirements.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Strategic Communication: Impact on Productivity and Company Image

Research Article
Author(s): Irene Akuamoah-Boateng, Kwame A. Domfeh
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Business communication is the exchange of business related ideas and information in a specific manner to achieve the goals of organizations and dependent on reflective listening. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of communication on the productivity and image of organisations using Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority.  Convenient sampling technique was used in selecting forty respondents, comprising of employees from eight departments. Questionnaires were administered to the respondents to get the needed information. It was identified that communication has a negative effect on productivity whiles it has a positive effect on company image since the company focuses more on external communication than internal communication. It was proposed that management should concentrate on effective communication in order to enhance its image and productivity.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Rheoencephalography: Past Popularity, Obvilion at Present and Optimistic Furure

Research Article
Author(s): Yu.E. Moskalenko, Ju.V. Andreeva
Journal: International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology

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Abstract
The reoencephalographic method (REG) has been known for a number of decades. The history of this method includes loss of its popularity, years of oblivion and a second wave of recognition.  Such a tumultuous history is common for methods based on physical principles, such as capacitance and resistance, when applied to physiology and medicine prior to serious preliminary investigations to establish indices for living tissues common to natural subjects. In this case because blood characterize by comparatively low electrical resistance it was concluded that the volume of blood and its circulatory processes could be monitored by this method. In reality this proved to be an over simplification. In particular, applying such methods to issues of cerebral circulation did not provide any significant understanding for medicine. Years passed before it was understood that CSF circulation played a significant role within the cranial cavity and that the REG signal reflected not only blood volume but also the volume of distribution between blood and CSF. Additionally it was found that the electrical conductivity of blood depends on its velocity of movement. These factors together with progress in electronics and application of computer techniques which allow for coupling of REG with other methods have given a “second birth” to the REG method which can become important to physiology and medicine. The new “face” of REG is introduced in the present paper.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation of rheoencephalography (REG), which expanded its applications for the study of fundamental and practical  problems of intracranial liquid volume fluctuations. Biophysical analysis shows that REG could reflect cerebrovascular compensatory capabilities and with in coupling with transcranialdopplerography permits to evaluate CSF-mobility and skull mechanical properties.
Physical Sciences » International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

A Comparative Study of the Physico-Chemical Properties and Methylene Blue Adsorption Behaviour of Fly Ash, Nano-Oxides and the Composite Materials of Nano-Oxides and Fly Ash

Research Article
Author(s): Olushola S. Ayanda, Olalekan S. Fatoki, Folahan A. Adekola, Bhekumusa J. Ximba, Jimoh O. Tijani, Leslie F. Petrik
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
In this present study, composite materials involving fly ash produced from coal combustion and nano-oxides were prepared. The nature, morphology and properties of the precursors and the composite materials were determined by modern instrumental analytical techniques such as carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CNH) analysis, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and porosity analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Particle size distribution, ash content, pH and point of zero charge were also investigated.  The adsorption kinetics of methylene blue (MB) onto these adsorbents was examined. Experimental results showed that the composition of fly ash and nano-oxides contributed to the development of intergranular voids and crevices with high surface and micropore areas that enhanced the adsorption of MB from an aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB onto the precursors and the composite materials follow the pseudo-second order kinetic model.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that fly ash, nano-oxides and composite materials can be used for the remediation of organic pollutants from wastewaters. This study involves the preparation of composite materials from fly ash and nano-oxides, characterization, and demonstration of the methylene blue adsorption utilization potential. The method used for the preparation of the composites is simple, modern instrumental analytical techniques were used for the characterization, and a standard method used to simulate organic pollutants was used to assess the adsorption potential of precursors and composites.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 12

Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing and Basic Concept of Classification

Research Article
Author(s): Shammi Shawal, Muhammad Shoyab, Suraiya Begum
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
We have to classify and analyze digital images for different study and purposes. Digital images are obtained from sources like camera, satellites, aircraft etc. Data obtained from satellites or aircraft i.e, the space based and remote sensing data needs to be corrected as they are usually geometrically distorted due to their acquisition system and the movements of the platform of aircraft. Processing and pre-processing are necessary for such correction prior to image classification. Image Processing is a technique which is used to enhance raw images received from cameras, satellites, space probes, aircrafts etc. and Digital image processing is the technique of processing images in the form of discrete digital brightness using digital circuits or digital computers. Image  analysis and classification starts when processing and pre-processing ends.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes towards the concepts of digital image, digitization, image processing and classification. It complies originally about the stages of digital image processing and its application as well as its necessity.  
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Synthesis, Physico-Chemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Some Metal (II) -Mixed Ligand Complexes of Tridentate Schiff Base Derives From Β-Lactam Antibiotic {(Cephalexin Mono Hydrate)-4-Chlorobenzophenone} and Saccharin

Research Article
Author(s): Taghreed. H. Al-Noor, Amer. J. Jarad, Abaas Obaid Hussein
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
A new Schiff base (4-chlorophenyl)(phenyl methanimine (6R,7R)-3-methyl-8-oxo-7-(2-phenylpropanamido)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate=HL=C29H24ClN3O4S) has been synthesized from β-lactam antibiotic (cephalexin mono hydrate (CephH)=(C16H19N3O5S.H2O) and 4- chlorobenzophenone. Metal  mixed ligand   complexes of the Schiff base were prepared from chloride salt of   Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II), in 50% (v/v) ethanol – water medium in  aqueous ethanol(1:1) and Saccharin(C7H5NO3S) containing   sodium hydroxide. Several physical tools in particular; IR, C:H:N , 1H NMR,13C NMR for ligand, melting  point,  molar conductance, magnetic moment. and determination of the percentage of  the metal  in  the  complexes  by  flame(AAS). The   ligand   and   their metal complexes were   screened for   their antimicrobial activity against   four bacteria (gram +ve) and (gram -ve) [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus]. The proposed structure of the complexes using the program, Chem office 3D (2006) and the general formula have been given for the prepared mixed ligand complexes [M(Sac)3(L)].
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature 
Synthesized compound from β-lactam antibiotic. This study uses new estimation methodology several physical tools .This study originates new formula. Compounds were   screened for   their antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains.


Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Impact of Ramadan Fasting on Some Biochemical Aspects in Healthy Subjects

Research Article
Author(s): Haleema Al Nahari, Hamed Kouja
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Muslims are obligated to fasting during the day and restricting food and drinking amount for the period after the sunset during Ramadan. Modifications in the circadian distribution of the eating and sleeping schedule result in various changes in different biochemical parameters. In this study the effect of fasting on glucose, insulin, Cortisol, triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), estradiol, testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4 and FT3 during and post fasting was measured. Blood samples were taken from 26 adult male subjects during and post fasting. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in glucose and TSH levels, while the levels of insulin triglyceride, free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) showed a significant increase. This study showed that there are changes in dietary habits depending on cultural rituals, often practices during Ramadan, among Muslim societies. Consequently that may affect various components of metabolic importance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study showed that there are changes in dietary habits depending on cultural rituals, often practices during Ramadan, among Muslim societies. Consequently that may affect various components of metabolic importance
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 12

Strategic Determinants of Family Firm Performance: A Proposed Research Framework

Research Article
Author(s): Issa M. H. Smirat, Mohd Noor Mohd Sharif
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Studies on family firm have increased rapidly in recent years, as a result of importance of family businesses increased for the global economy. However, still little research is looking at the strategic management of family firms. In particular comprehensively, the strategic alignment with external environment, structure and family involvement influence on firm performance has been largely neglected thus far. The dynamic environment through the world economic crisis proposed the need for more concentration on the strategic alignment between a firm’s contingencies, organizational characteristics, results in supreme performance. However, it is has extremely argued that family firms differ  in expressions of their strategic orientation, at most as a result of the family influence on the firm compared to non-family. This proposed study addresses the question how strategic orientation contributes to developing performance in family firms and what role can external environment and family influence play. Depending on the distinguished typology proposed to strategy, we considering strategic perspectives of family and environment influence on the firm. Building on a sample of 380 Palestinian family firms, we hypothesized that that strategy aligned with organizational structure, moderated by family and environment influence play an important role for the achievement of top most performance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the validity of Miles and Snow typology in a different environment using more measurement, where the sample represents more than 90 percent of the economy. 
The framework comprehensively depends on content RBV beside the context contingency theories investigate the moderators’ effect on strategy, structure on family firm performance.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Antibody Response to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sudan

Research Article
Author(s): Hind Mohamed Abushama, Maathr Ibrahim Abdel Wahab, Ahmed Mohamed Elhassan, Omran Fadl Osman, Hiba Salah-Eldin Mohamed
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The role of antibody levels in protective immunity against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of antibody response against CL among Sudanese population. Fifty six clinically diagnosed CL subjects were enrolled in this study. Forty eight of them had healed scar and eight have active lesions. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was 54.7% positive. The frequency of human IL4RP2 alleles was investigated in this study. The results showed 83.9% (183 bp) and 16.1% (253 bp) and the heterozygosity was 39%. The mean antibody levels using direct agglutination test (DAT) has found to be higher against Leishmania major (L. major) antigen than Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) antigen and the difference was found to be significant (P = 0.01 <0.05). The anti L. major IgG was quantified in this study using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean of antibody levels measured by ELISA and DAT was significantly higher in study participants with scars more than those with skin lesions. Overall this outcome would be supportive to indicate a possible role of antibody-mediated protection in CL and would signify the importance of identification of antigens that may elicit protective antibodies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated a possible role of antibody response against cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Analysis of some immune parameters that related to variation in clinical response should assist in decision-making concerning treatment.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10