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Journal of Challenges

June 2015, Volume 2, 2, pp 43-57

Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?

Robert Spousta


Steve Chan

Robert Spousta 1 Steve Chan 1 

  1. Sensemaking Fellowship, Swansea University (SU)’s Network Science Research Center (NSRC), Wales, UK 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed

Pages: 43-57

DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.2/

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This paper contextualizes the nature of threats to critical infrastructure, especially vulnerabilities within electric grid systems, and analyzes key considerations for the protection architecture of such systems. By exploring historical case studies, we demonstrate the potential for blind spots in infrastructure protection policy, which can leave electric grids vulnerable to a variety of threats, including improvisational malignant devices. These devices in turn have the potential to catalyze cascading failure scenarios within interdependent critical infrastructure systems, constituting “wicked problems” of complexity that bear relevance to a variety of public and private institutions responsible for the provision of essential services.

Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on critical infrastructure systems by investigating the brittleness of such systems from a novel conceptual perspective and applying previously unexplored historical parallels.


Aluminum foil kite, Brittleness, Resilience, Collaborative big data analytics, Complex systems, Critical infrastructure protection, Improvisational malignant device,  Sense making, Smart electric grids.


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( 247 ) Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure in Indonesia: A Bibliographic Study
( 248 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 249 ) The Dimensions of the Quality Perceived by Users in a Clinical Analysis Laboratory of A University Hospital
( 250 ) Ethical Context of Organization and Turnover Intention of Women Employees: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support
( 251 ) A Process Model for Conformance of Health Information Systems: Towards National Interoperability
( 252 ) Likely Effect of Gender and Education on Information Adoption and Utilization among Sugarcane Farmers in the Nyanza Region, Kenya
( 253 ) Change Management and Firm Performance of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
( 254 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 255 ) Factors Influencing Audit Expense and Quality in an Emerging Economy: A Study on Bangladesh
( 256 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 257 ) Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Soil Conservation Development
( 258 ) The Contingent Fit between Management Control System and Capabilities on Sustainability Performance
( 259 ) International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption and Earnings Management: The Fundamental Effect Framework
( 260 ) Influence of Corporate Characteristics on Firm Leverage: Evidence from Bangladesh
( 261 ) The Impact of Merger and Acquisition on the Financial Performance of the Nasdaq Listed Small Size Technology Companies
( 262 ) Factors Affecting Profitability of General Insurance Companies in Indonesia
( 263 ) Exploring the Dimensions Using Exploratory Factor Analysis of Disruptive Factors and Inventory Control
( 264 ) Panel Data Estimators in the Presence of Serial and Spatial Correlation with Panel Heteroscedasticity: A Simulation Study
( 265 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 266 ) Exploring the Linkages between Remittances, Economic Growth and Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
( 267 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 268 ) Exchange Rate Fluctuations and the Performance of Nairobi Securities Exchange Market in Kenya During the Coronavirus Pandemic
( 269 ) A Qualitative Analysis of the Impediments to Business Innovation and Information Management in Nigeria: A Policy Stance
( 270 ) Analysis of Demographic Factors on Perceptions of Inventory Managers towards Healthcare Performance
( 271 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 272 ) The Euribor and EONIA Reform: Achieving Regulatory Compliance while Protecting Financial Stability
( 273 ) The Financial Decentralization Policy for Local Development in Cameroon: An Econometric Analysis
( 274 ) The Reasons Behind the Shift of Patients from Public to Private Hospitals: Evidence from Public Hospitals in Cumilla City Corporation
( 275 ) Innovation Efforts in the Face of Institutional Obstacles in Latin America
( 276 ) Assessment of Mental Health of Undergraduate Students Based on Age: A Bayesian Ordinal Quantile Regression Approach
( 277 ) Research on the Construction and Application of Chinese Enterprises Overseas Port Investment Confidence Index Based on D-S Evidence Theory
( 278 ) Assessing Access to Comprehensive HIV Treatment Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in the Bamenda Health District
( 279 ) The Promise and Reality of Public Sector Reform – A Case Study of the Implementation of Trinidad and Tobagos Health Sector Reform
( 280 ) Sustainability Performance and Sustainable Development Goals
( 281 ) Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan
( 282 ) A Study on Financial Performance of Transport & Warehouses Firms Listed on the Hanoi Stock Exchange
( 283 ) The Effects of The Covid-19 Pandemic on Explotative and Explorative Strategies of Pharmaceutical Industries in Brazil
( 284 ) IT Governance as Drivers of Dynamic Capabilities to Gain Corporate Performance Under the Effects of Environmental Dynamism
( 285 ) Fertility, Education, Labor Force Outcomes, and Cultural Acculturation of Immigrants
( 286 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 287 ) Child Support Enforcement and Infants Health Outcomes
( 288 ) Factors Influencing Profitability of Commercial Banks in Tanzania: A Case Study of CRDB Bank Plc
( 289 ) Income Shocks and Child Mortality Rates: Evidence from Fluctuations in Oil Prices
( 290 ) Nexus among Foreign Exchange Reserve, Remittance and Trade Openness: An Empirical Investigation in the Case of Bangladeshi Economy
( 291 ) Testing the Validity of Arbitrage Pricing Theory: A Study on Dhaka Stock Exchange Bangladesh
( 292 ) Employee Creative Behaviour: A Predictive Study of Perceived Relational Injustice and Workplace Ostracism among Public Sector Workers
( 293 ) Is Foreign Direct Investment the Way Forward for Manufacturing Sector Renaissance in Nigeria?
( 294 ) Analysis of Synergies in Indian Corporate M&A Deals: A Logit Regression Approach
( 295 ) The Impact of Fundamental Factors on the Share Price of Micro-Sized Nasdaq Listed Technology Companies
( 296 ) World Governance Indicators and Fraud: Evidence from One Belt One Road Countries
( 300 ) Critical Review of Literature on Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty
( 305 ) Interfaces Between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013
( 306 ) Rural Roads Infrastructure and Agricultural Products Distribution: A Focus on Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria
( 307 ) An Investigation into the Causes of Failures in Railway Infrastructure at Transnet Freight Rail - A Case of the Steel and Cement Business Unit
( 308 ) Infrastructure Development, Capacity Utilization and Manufacturing Value Added in Nigeria
( 310 ) Social Protection Programmes, Agricultural Production and Youth Employment in Nigeria: Analysis from LSMS-ISA