A novel Channel Estimation (CE) approach in multi-carrier wireless communication systems, such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system and Code Division Multiple access (CDMA) via a combination of Local Search (LS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed in this study. The CE is vital towards overcoming the effect of channel fading, which causes the degradation of the Bit Error Rate (BER) and the jamming of pilot symbols. The CE expressions were derived as an objective function to study the effect of improving BER in MC-CDMA/OFDM for a frequency selective Rayleigh fading environment. The number of particles for each single swarm was used to determine the best fitness solution, and is being computed from an average BER value. The proposed channel estimator was tested under the fast fading channel in a multi carrier communication system with and without interpolation methods. The simulation showed that the proposed CE of the MIMO-OFDM system can significantly result in better BER performance compared with other techniques at different modulation types, mean square error (MSE), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, and channel lengths.
This study originates new formula for modify local search and particle swarm optimization algorithm LS-PSO.
S. Coleri, M. Ergen, A. Puri, and A. Bahai, "Channel estimation techniques based on pilot arrangement in OFDM systems," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 48, pp. 223-229, 2002. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
K. Fazel and G. Fettwis, "Performance of an efficient parallel data transmission system," IEEE Transactions on Communication Technology, vol. 15, pp. 805-813, 1967. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
O. Edfors, M. Sandell, J. Beek, and S. K. Wilson, "OFDM channel estimation by singular value decomposition," IEEE Transactions on Communication, vol. 46, pp. 931 – 939, 1998. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
M. R. Raghavendra and K. Giridhar, "Improving channel estimation in OFDM systems for sparse multipath channels," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing Letters, vol. 12, pp. 52-55, 2005. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
O. O. Oyerinde and S. H. Mneney, "Recursive MMSE-based iterative channel estimation for OFDM-IDMA systems," in Proc. IEEE AFRICON, Conf, 2013, pp. 1-5.
Y. Li, N. Seshadri, and S. Ariyavisitakul, "Channel estimation for OFDM systems with transmitter diversity in mobile wireless channels," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 17, pp. 461-471, 1999. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
I. S. Amiri, M. Ebrahimi, A. H. Yazdavar, S. Ghorbani, S. E. Alavi, S. M. Idrus, and J. Ali, "Transmission of data with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing technique for communication networks using GHz frequency band solutions carrier," IET, Communications, vol. 8, pp. 1364-1373, 2014. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
Y. S. Lee, H. Shin, and H. N. Kim, "Channel estimation based on a time-domain threshold for OFDM systems," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 55, pp. 656 -662, 2009. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
S. Kaiser and P. Hoeher, "Performance of multi-carrier CDMA system with channel estimation in two dimensions," in Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 1997. Waves of the Year 2000. PIMRC'97., The 8th IEEE International Symposium on. IEEE, 1997, pp. 115-119.
R. C. Eberhart and Y. Shi, "Comparing inertia weight and constriction factors in particle swarm optimization [A]," in Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation [C]. San Diego, CA: IEEE Press, 2000, pp. 84-88.
Y. Xu, R. Qu, and R. Li, "A simulated annealing based genetic local search algorithm for multi-objective multicast routing problems," Annals of Operations Research, vol. 206, pp. 527-555, 2013. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
A. Jaszkiewicz, "Genetic local search for multiple objective combinatorial optimizations," European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 137, pp. 50-71, 2002. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
S. A. Ghauri, S. Alam, M. F. Sohail, A. Ali, and F. Saleem, "Implementation of OFDM and channel estimation using LS and MMSE estimators," International Journal of Computer and Electronics Research, vol. 2, pp. 41-46, 2013. View at Google Scholar
A. K. Nahar and K. H. Bin Gazali, "Local search particle swarm optimization algorithm channel estimation based on MC-CDMA system," ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 10 pp. 9659-9766, 2015.
J. V. De Beek, O. Edfors, M. Sandell, S. K. Wilson, and P. O. Borjesson, "On channel estimation in OFDM," presented at the Vehicular Technology Conference (Chicago), 1995.
A. K. Nahar, Y. Rahayu, and A. Y. Jaber, "Design the MC-CDMA system with LS-PSO channel estimation based FPGA," Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering, and Technology, vol. 10, pp. 1051-1061, 2015. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
A. K. Nahar and Y. Rahayu, "Design of selectable modems for MC-CDMA based on software defined radio," International Journal of Engineering Technology and Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 1-7, 2015. View at Google Scholar
J. He and H. Guo, "A modified particle swarm optimization algorithm," TELKOMNIKA, vol. 11, pp. 6209-6215, 2013. View at Google Scholar
L. Costa, S. I. Espırito, and F. M. G. P. Edite, "A hybrid genetic pattern search augmented lagrangian method for constrained global optimization," presented at the International Congress on Computational and Applied Mathematics (ICCAM 2009), Antalya, Turkey, 2009.
This study received no specific financial support.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.