Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Effect of Photoperiod on Estrus Cycle and Reproductive Organs in Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus: Waterhouse)

Fonou Tadiesse Lavoisier


Fopa Foda Constant


Vemo Narcisse Bertin


Martine Astride Tsambou


Fonkem Severin


Takam Mbogne B


Kenfack Augustave

Fonou Tadiesse Lavoisier 1 ,

Fopa Foda Constant 1 Vemo Narcisse Bertin 1 Martine Astride Tsambou 1 Fonkem Severin 1 Takam Mbogne B 1 Kenfack Augustave 1 
  1. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Science, University of Dschang, Cameroon. 1

Pages: 87-92

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.82.87.92

Share :

Article History:

Received: 12 January, 2021
Revised: 08 February, 2021
Accepted: 02 March, 2021
Published: 15 March, 2021


African giant rat is a prolific animal in its wild condition. Therefore, in captivity, the decrease in productive performances may be due to photoperiod under which they are submitted. This research was carried out to evaluate whether photoperiod affects estrus cycle and reproductive organs in female African giant rat (AGR). Twenty-eight matured female AGR were randomly assigned to four lighting conditions (Light / Dark): 0 L/ 24 D, 12 L/ 12 D, 18 L/ 06 D and 24 L/ 0 D. Animals were individually housed and had free access to food and water. Daily, vaginal smears were taken and observed under a microscope to determine estrus cycle length. After four weeks, twelve animals were sacrificed and sexual organs were collected and weighted. Results showed that in AGR, the length of estrus cycle ranged between 5.5 and 6.4 days. However, this estrus cycle duration showed an upward (p>0.05) trend with a decreasing photoperiod. The weight of ovary and uterus was significantly (p<0.05) low in animals continuous enlightened compared to other treatment groups. Uterus length have dropped by 13.94%, 17.81 % and 9.50 % in animals exposed to 12 h, 18 h and 24 h of light per day respectively compared to those bred in dark condition. Regarding above results, AGR has a regular estrus cycle and the variation of photoperiod does not have effect on the duration of estrus cycle but it is detrimental for reproductive organs.
Contribution/ Originality
This research was carried out to evaluate whether photoperiod affects estrus cycle and reproductive organs in female African giant rat (AGR).


African giant rat, Estrus cycle, Photoperiod, Sexual organs.


Ajayi, S. (1977). Observations on the biology, domestication and reproductive performance of the African giant rat Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse in Nigeria. Mammalia, 39(3), 343-364.

Ali, M., Onyeanusi, B., Ayo, J., Salami, S., & Hambolu, J. (2017). Effects of continuous light exposure on testicular structure and function of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 38(2), 159-166.

Asibey, E., & Addo, P. (2000). The grasscutter, a promising animal for meat production. African Perspective Practices and Policies Supporting Sustainable Development, Turnham, D. (Ed.). Zimbabwe: Weaver Press.

Aydin, I., Sur, E., Ozaydin, T., & Dinc, D. A. (2011). Determination of the stages of the sexual cycle of the bitch by direct examination. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10(15), 1962-1967. Available at:

Bridges, R., Tamarkin, L., & Goldman, B. (1976). Effect of photoperiod and melatonin on reproduction in the syrian hamster. Annale of Animal Biology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, 16(3), 399-408.

Delgadillo, J. A., Fitz-Rodríguez, G., Duarte, G., Véliz, F. G., Carrillo, E., Flores, J. A., & Malpaux, B. (2004). Management of photoperiod to control caprine reproduction in the subtropics. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 16(4), 471-478. Available at:

Gayrard, V. (2007). Physiologie de la reproduction des mammifères. National Veterinary School of Toulouse, Physiology Unit, 198.

Kenfack, A., Fonou, L., Mweugang, N., Atsamo, A., Takam, B., Foda, C., & Tsambou, M. (2020). Effects of photoperiod on male African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus) reproductive parameters in captivity. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 13(4), 62-66.

Li, Y., Cheng, S., Li, L., Zhao, Y., Shen, W., & Sun, X. (2019). Light-exposure at night impairs mouse ovary development via cell apoptosis and DNA damage. Bioscience Reports, 39(5), 16-19. Available at:

Malekani, M., Westlin, L., Paulus, J., & Potgieter, H. (2002). Oestrous occurrence in captive female Cricetomys gambianus (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Journal of Zoology, 257(3), 295-301. Available at:

Marcondes, F., Bianchi, F., & Tanno, A. (2002). Determination of the estrous cycle phases of rats: Some helpful considerations. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 62(4A), 609-614. Available at:

Nayeli, O., Marcela, A., & Pilar, D. (2017). Effect of photoperiod on estrus cycle in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Endocrine Abstracts, 49. Available at: 10. 1530/endoabs.49.EP1130.

Ojo, V., Adesokan, F., Nchor, A., & Oduntan, O. (2016). Comparative advantages of selected bushmeats to conventional meat types. International Journal of Mechanical, 6(2), 1-4.

Oke, O., & Oke, B. (1999). Vaginal cytological changes during the oestrous cycle of the adult female African giant (C. gambianus, Waterhouse). Tropical Veterinarian, 17(2), 169-180.

Steger, R., Peluso, J., Mitchell, J., & Hafez, E. (1975). Photoperiod effect on gonadotropin releasing hormone induced ovulation in the immature rat. Biology of Reproduction, 13(5), 597-602. Available at:

Tamura, H., Takasaki, A., Taketani, T., Tanabe, M., Kizuka, F., Lee, L., & Yamagata, Y. (2012). The role of melatonin as an antioxidant in the follicle. Journal of Ovarian Research, 5(1), 1-9.

Tay, T. T., Li, D., Huang, Y., Wang, P., Tahar, T., & Kawi, J. (2018). Effects of changes in photoperiod and temperature on the estrous cycle of a captive female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Zoo Biology, 37(2), 90-97.

Viguie, C., Caraty, A., Locatelli, A., & Malpaux, B. (1995). Regulation of LHRH secretion by melatonin in the ewe. Simultaneous delayed increase in LHRH and LH pulsatile secretion. Biology of Reproduction, 52(5), 1114-1120.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Effect of Different Sources of Fertilizers on the Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Kohat-2000 Under Rainfed Conditions of Kohat During 2012
( 2 ) Effect of Different Types of Surfectants on Zinc Efficiency in Spinach Yield
( 3 ) Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
( 4 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 5 ) The Effect of Steaming Process on Fat Soluble Vitamins Content and Fatty Acid Profile in Bluefish and Rainbow Trout Fillets
( 6 ) Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube
( 7 ) Effect of Different Concentrations of Vermicompost (Biohumus) On the Root Collar Diameter and Height Growth in the Seedlings of Anatolian Black Pine
( 8 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 9 ) Effects of Age at Fattening On Butana Camel Males Carcass Characteristics in the Sudan
( 10 ) Effect of Sowing Date on Maize Seed Yield and Quality: A Review
( 11 ) Effect of Fungi and Manure on Cadmium Content and Biomass of Maize Grown In Cadmium Contaminated Tailing from Bangka Indonesia
( 12 ) Germination Effects of Purposive Bruchid Screening of African Ebony (Dalbergia Melanoxylon) Seeds In the Arid and Semi-Arid Region of South Eastern Kenya
( 13 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 14 ) Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks
( 15 ) Effect of Using Different Pre-Storage Warming Times on Hatchability of White Hisex Breeders’ Eggs
( 16 ) Effect of Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants on Sclerotiumrolfsii, Causal Agent of Postharvest Rot of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.)
( 17 ) Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 18 ) Effects of Degasified Extender on Quality Parameters of Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa
( 19 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 20 ) In Vitro Differential Effect of Nerve Growth Factor on Functional Parameters of Murrah Buffalo Spermatozoa in Low and High Fertile Groups
( 21 ) Physiological Effects of Some Artificial and Natural Food Coloring on Young Male Albino Rats
( 22 ) Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat
( 23 ) Effect of Intra Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Carrot (Daucus Carrota L.Sub Sp. Sativus)
( 24 ) Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes
( 25 ) Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)
( 26 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 27 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 28 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 29 ) Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties
( 30 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 31 ) Effect of Environmental Pollution on Production and Metabolic Profile in Buffalo Cows
( 32 ) The Effect of the Reduced Dose of GnRH on Conception, Ovulation and Ovarian Structures in Ovsynch Program of Lactating Dairy Cows
( 33 ) Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)
( 34 ) The Effects of Magnetic Field on Germination of Seeds and Growth of Seedlings of Stone Pine
( 35 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 36 ) Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia
( 37 ) Effect of Soaking on the Nutritional Values of Kordala (Maerua Pseudopetalosa) Seeds Grown in Kordofan Region, Sudan
( 38 ) Effect of Substrates on Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus
( 39 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 40 ) Effect of Body Weight on Reproductive Fitness in Spodoptera Litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
( 41 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 42 ) The Potential Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Reproductive Profile of Male Rat and its Possible Consequences
( 43 ) A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment
( 44 ) Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 45 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 46 ) Changes in Certain Agronomic Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Alphonse Lavallee’ in Response to Water Deficit under the Different Rootstock Effect
( 47 ) Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour
( 48 ) Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan
( 49 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 50 ) The Effect of Varieties and Fungicide Spray Frequencies on Septoria Leaf Blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) Epidemics on Bread Wheat in Western Amhara, Ethiopia
( 51 ) The Fungicide and Variety Integration Effect on Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) Disease of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Western Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 52 ) High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds
( 53 ) Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit
( 54 ) Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours
( 55 ) Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri
( 56 ) Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea
( 57 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 58 ) Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder
( 59 ) Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda
( 60 ) The Effect of Land-Use on Herbaceous Production and Grazing Capacity in the Molopo District of the North West Province, South Africa
( 61 ) Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk
( 62 ) Interactive Effects of Zinc-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi on Cadmium Uptake, Rubisco, Osmolyte Synthesis and Yield in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
( 63 ) The Effect of Farmers Social Networks on Sustainable Agricultural Practices Adoption: A Scoping Review Protocol
( 64 ) Effect of Blanching Time and Drying Method on Quality of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)
( 65 ) Effect of Photoperiod on Estrus Cycle and Reproductive Organs in Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus: Waterhouse)
( 66 ) Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar
( 67 ) Effect of Time of Feeding on Body Temperature of Wad Bucks and Pregnant Does in Tropical Environment
( 68 ) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and its Effects on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows during the Postpartum Period in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 69 ) Alleviating Climate Change Effect using Environmentally Friendly Process to Preserve Wood against Biodeteriaorating Agent
( 70 ) Effect of Land Use and Slope Position on Infiltration Characteristics on Sandstone-Derived Soils of Southern Nigeria
( 71 ) The Effect of Continuous Grazing on Herbaceous Species Composition, Basal Cover and Production on Three Soil Types in the North West Province, South Africa
( 72 ) Effect of Desiccation and Storage Environment on Longevity of Ehretia cymosa Thonn. Seeds
( 73 ) Effect of Mid-Term Cropping System Adoption on Soil Chemical Properties at Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal
( 74 ) Effect of Beneficial Soil Microbes on Growth and Yield of Celery in Volcanic Soil of West Java
( 78 ) Mechanisms of the Decline in Reproductive Fitness with Age in the Moth Spodoptera Litura
( 81 ) Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals
( 86 ) Preservative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ginger in Wara - A West African Traditional Soft (Unripened) Cheese
( 88 ) Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
( 92 ) Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage
( 93 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 95 ) Suitability of Temperate and Tropical Crossbred Dairy Cattle under Peri-Urban Production System in Bangladesh
( 96 ) Influence of Dehydrated Medicago Sativa on Quality Characteristics of Marchigiana Beef
( 97 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 98 ) Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
( 100 ) Fetal Maceration in Crossbred Holstein Frisian Heifer-A Case Report
( 101 ) Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 102 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 103 ) Cholesterol Content of Bull Spermatozoa Alters Survival at Ultra-Low Temperatures
( 104 ) Empirical Study on the Relationship between Market Share, Advertising Density and Ratio of Sales
( 106 ) Prevalence and Management of Some Surgical Affection in Cattle and Buffaloes at Qena Governorate in Field Situation
( 108 ) Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft
( 109 ) Apparent Metabolisability of Diets Containing Concentrate, Zostera Noltii or Taraxacum Officinalis in Anas Penelope
( 111 ) Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Culture with Reduction Feed on Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage in Cirata Reservoir
( 113 ) Performance of Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland
( 114 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 116 ) Status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Southwestern Nigeria
( 117 ) Accelerating Agricultural Productivity to Enhance Economic Growth in Botswana
( 118 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 119 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 120 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 122 ) Duration of Freezing Influences Sensory Attributes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Plantain (Musa paradisiaca AAB)
( 124 ) Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies: Farmers Perception in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 125 ) Climate Variability, Incidences and Mitigation Strategies among Poultry Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
( 127 ) Genotype-Environment Interactions and Yield Stability of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) in Lomami Province, Central Part of Democratic Republic of Congo