Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

December 2019, Volume 6, 4, pp 213-223

Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon

Lawrence Tatanah Nanganoa


Jetro Nkengafac Njukeng


Christopher Ngosong


Sone Kone Edigar Atache


Godwin Sendze Yinda


Jeremiah Ndande Ebonlo


Juliana Namein Ngong


Francis Ajebesone Ngome

Lawrence Tatanah Nanganoa 1 ,

Jetro Nkengafac Njukeng 1 

Christopher Ngosong 3 Sone Kone Edigar Atache 3 Godwin Sendze Yinda 3 Jeremiah Ndande Ebonlo 3 Juliana Namein Ngong 7
Francis Ajebesone Ngome 8

  1. Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Ekona, Cameroon. 1

  2. Department of Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, University of Buea, Cameroon. 3

  3. Department of Crop Production Technology, College of Technology, University of Bamenda, Cameroon. 7

  4. Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Yaounde, Cameroon. 8

Pages: 213-223

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.64.213.223

Share :

Article History:

Received: 12 August, 2019
Revised: 16 September, 2019
Accepted: 18 October, 2019
Published: 22 November, 2019


Soil fertility management of smallholder farms in the humid tropics is a major issue as a result of inherently low fertility with nitrogen being the most limiting plant nutrient. Use of grain legume fallows could improve soil quality through nitrogen fixation and ensure food and nutritional security in developing countries. This field trial was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) to evaluate the short-term benefits of grain legume fallows (common bean, groundnut, cowpea, and soybean) on soil fertility improvement and income generation in relation to a natural weed fallow system. The results showed that total soil nitrogen content ranged from 0.19–0.24%, and differed (P < 0.001) significantly with the highest in common bean plots as compared to the others. The soil organic carbon (SOC) content was highest in cowpea plots (3.36 %) and lowest in the natural weed fallow (2.77 %). However, the SOC were not significantly different among the fallow systems but were higher than the SOC of the soil before sowing (2.41 %). Grain yield ranged from 1.0–1.9 t/ha and differed (P < 0.001) significantly. The highest profitability of integrating grain legumes in farming systems was recorded in the groundnut fallow, followed by soybean, and bean. Cowpea generated a negative return, while the natural fallow system had no effect. Integrating grain legumes fallow into agricultural systems in the humid tropics enhance the value of the fallow lands and may serve as viable short-term economic incentives for smallholder farmers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature that reports the benefits of grain legumes on soil fertility improvement and also showed that the integration of grain legume fallows into agricultural systems in the humid tropics generate income for smallholder farmers and could serve as motivation for their adoption.


Fallow systems, Grain legumes, Nitrogen, Organic carbon, Profitability, Smallholder farmers.



Anikwe, M.A.N., J.C. Eze, C.G. Chikelu and E.E. Ikenganyia, 2016. Quantifying short-term effects of soil improving legumes on soil properties and carbon sequestration in a degraded Paleustult in Agbani, Enugu Southeast Nigeria. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 13(3): 1-9.Available at:

Bichel, A., M. Oelbermann, P. Voroney and L. Echarte, 2016. Sequestration of native soil organic carbon and residue carbon in complex agroecosystems. Carbon Management, 7(5-6): 261-270.

Blair, G. and O. Boland, 1978. The release of phosphorus from plant material added to soil. Soil Research, 16(1): 101-111.Available at:

Brady, N.C. and R.R. Wail, 2010. Elements of the nature and properties of soils. Pearson Education, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp: 361 –395.

Bremner, J.M. and C.S. Mulvaney, 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, Page, A. L., Miller, R. H. and Keeney, D. R. (Eds.), American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America. pp: 595 –624.

Cameroon’s Annual Statistics, 2017. National institute of statistics. Available from [Accessed 20th September 2019].

Carsky, R.J., M. Becker and S. Hauser, 2001. Mucuna cover crop fallow systems: Potential and limitations. Sustaining Soil Fertility in West Africa, 58: 111-135.Available at:

Clark, M.S., W.R. Horwath, C. Shennan and K.M. Scow, 1998. Changes in soil chemical properties resulting from organic and low-input farming practices. Agronomy Journal, 90(5): 662-671.Available at:

Dikand Kadiata, B. and K. Lumpungu, 2003. Differential phosphorus uptake and use efficiency among selected nitrogen-fixing tree legumes over time. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 26(5): 1009-1022.Available at:

Dwivedi, A., I. Dev, V. Kumar, R.S. Yadav, M. Yadav, D. Gupta, A. Singh and S. Tomar, 2015. Potential role of maize-legume intercropping systems to improve soil fertility status under smallholder farming systems for sustainable agriculture in India. International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, 4(3): 145-157.

Etchu, K., V. Ndzi, K. Ndamukong and B. Oben, 2012. Comparative performance of grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus) fed maize and rodent pellets as concentrate supplement under intensive management system in Cameroon. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(6): 883-891.Available at:

Fageria, N., V. Baligar and B. Bailey, 2005. Role of cover crops in improving soil and row crop productivity. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36(19-20): 2733-2757.Available at:

FAO-UNDP/ONAREST, 1980. Soils and soil fertility management of lands of the Ekona Banana Estate,” Technical Report no. 11, Ekona, Cameroon: Cameroon Development Corporation.

Fening, J.O., E. Yeboah, T. Adjei-Gyapong and E. Gaizie, 2009. On farm evaluation of the contribution of three green manures to maize yield in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3(9): 234–238.

Flint, M.L. and P.A. Roberts, 1988. Using crop diversity to manage pest problems: Some California examples. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 3(4): 163-167.Available at:

Franke, A., G. Van den Brand, B. Vanlauwe and K. Giller, 2018. Sustainable intensification through rotations with grain legumes in Sub-Saharan Africa: A review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 261: 172-185.Available at:

Fritzpatrick, E.A., 1986. An introduction to soil science. 2nd ed. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons Inc. pp: 255.

Gogoi, N., K.K. Baruah and R.S. Meena, 2018. Grain legumes: Impact on soil health and agroecosystem. In: Meena, R., Das, A., Yadav, G., Lal, R. (Eds.), Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Singapore: Springer.

Hajduk, E., S. Właśniewski and E. Szpunar-Krok, 2015. Influence of legume crops on content of organic carbon in sandy soil. Soil Science Annual, 66(2): 52-56.Available at:

Hepperly, P., D. Lotter, C.Z. Ulsh, R. Seidel and C. Reider, 2009. Compost, manure and synthetic fertilizer influences crop yields, soil properties, nitrate leaching and crop nutrient content. Compost Science & Utilization, 17(2): 117-126.Available at:

Jones, B.J.J., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. CRC Press, LLC.

Kalra, Y.P. and D.G. Maynard, 1991. Methods manual for forest soil and plant analysis. Information Report NOR-X-319, Forestry Canada, Edmonton, Alberta: Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre,  pp: 116.

Koutika, L.-S., S. Hauser, J.M. Kamga and B. Yerima, 2005. Comparative study of soil properties under Chromolaena odorata, Pueraria phaseoloides and Calliandra calothyrsus. Plant and Soil, 266(1-2): 315-323.Available at:

Landon, J.R., 1991. Booker tropical soil manual. UK: Longman Scientific and Technical Essex.

Leterme, P. and M.L. Carmenza, 2002. Factors influencing pulse consumption in Latin America. British journal of Nutrition, 88(S3): 251-254.Available at:

Liu, Y., L. Wu, J.A. Baddeley and C.A. Watson, 2011. Models of biological nitrogen fixation of legumes. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 31(1): 155-172.Available at:

Massawe, P.I., K.M. Mtei, L.K. Munishi and P.A. Ndakidemi, 2016. Effect of rhizobium and intercropping systems on soil nutrients and biological nitrogen fixation as influenced by legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris and Dolichos lablab). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(10): 135-149.

McLaughlin, M.J., A. Alston and J. Martin, 1988. Phosphorus cycling in wheat-pasture rotations. Iii. Organic phosphorus turnover and phosphorus cycling. Soil Research, 26(2): 343-353.Available at:

Meena, R.S. and R. Lal, 2018. Legumes and sustainable use of soils. In: Meena R., Das A., Yadav G., Lal R. (Eds.), Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Singapore: Springer. pp: 1 - 31.

Meena, R.S., R.S. Yadav, H. Meena, S. Kumar, Y.K. Meena and A. Singh, 2015. Towards the current need to enhance legume productivity and soil sustainability worldwide: A book review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 104: 513–515.Available at:

Muhr, L., M. Peters, S.A. Tarawali and R. Schultze-Kraft, 1999. Forage legumes for improved fallows in agropastoral systems of subhumid West Africa: II. Green manure production and decomposition after incorporation into the soil. Tropical Grasslands, 33(4): 234–244.

Muoni, T., A.P. Barnes, I. Öborn, C.A. Watson, G. Bergkvist, M. Shiluli and A.J. Duncan, 2019. Farmer perceptions of legumes and their functions in smallholder farming systems in east Africa. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 17(3): 205-218.

Nanganoa, L.T. and J.N. Njukeng, 2018. Phosphorus speciation by 31P NMR spectroscopy in leaf litters and crop residues from para rubber, cocoa, oil palm, and banana plantations in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2018(2): 1 – 8.Available at: https://

Nanganoa, L.T., J.N. Okolle, V. Missi, J.R. Tueche, L.D. Levai and J.N. Njukeng, 2019. Impact of different land-use systems on soil physicochemical properties and macrofauna abundance in the humid tropics of Cameroon. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2019(2): 1-9.Available at:

Ngobo, M., M. McDonald and S. Weise, 2004. Impacts of type of fallow and invasion by Chromolaena odorata on weed communities in crop fields in Cameroon. Ecology and Society, 9(2): 1-15.Available at:

Ngosong, C., V. Bongkisheri, C.B. Tanyi, L.T. Nanganoa and A.S. Tening, 2019. Optimizing nitrogen fertilization regimes for sustainable maize (Zea mays L.) production on the volcanic soils of Buea Cameroon. Advances in Agriculture, 2019(7): 1 – 8.Available at:

Ngosong, C., B.N. Nkiambuo, C.B. Tanyi, R.N. Nkongho, J.N. Okolle, A.E. Egbe and A.S. Tening, 2018. Comparative study of soil and foliar NPK fertilizers on the yield and income of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 8(3): 1-9.Available at:

Ngwu, O.E., 2008. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation potentials of three wild legumes in an Utisol in South Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 11(1): 171 – 174.

Nottidge, D., S. Ojeniyi and D. Asawalam, 2005. Comparative effects of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on soil properties in a humid Ultisol. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science, 15(1): 9-13.

Ojeniyi, S.O., S.A. Odedina and T.M. Agbede, 2012. Soil productivity improving attributes of Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) and siam weed (Chromolaena odorata). Emirate Journal of Food and Agriculture, 24(3): 243-247.

Price, N., 1994. Alternate cropping in the management of radopholus similis and cosmopolites sordidus two important pests of banana and plantain. International Journal of Pest Management, 40(3): 237-244.Available at:

Reem, M.H., 2017. The effect of phosphorus in nitrogen fixation in legumes. Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal, 5(1): 555652.Available at:

Rowell, D.L., 1994. Soil science: Methods and applications. England, UK: Addison Wesley Longman Singapore Publishers (Pte) Ltd. pp: 350.

Saha, S., B. Mina, K. Gopinath, S. Kundu and H. Gupta, 2008. Organic amendments affect biochemical properties of a subtemperate soil of the Indian Himalayas. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 80(3): 233-242.Available at:

Sallaku, G., J. Liko, Z. Rada and A. Balliu, 2016. The effects of legume crops (pea and faba bean) on soil nutrients availability and yield parameters of subsequent cabbage crops under organic production conditions. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 5(12): 619-625.Available at:

Schulz, S., R.J. Carsky and S. Tarawali, 2001. Herbaceous legumes: The panacea for West African soil fertility problems? Sustaining soil fertility in West Africa. SSSA Special Publication, 58: 179–196.

Serrao, E.A.S., I.C. Falesi, J.B. Da Veiga and F. Texeira Neto, 1979. Productivity of cultivated pastures on low fertility soils of the Amazon region of Brazil. In: Pasture production on acid soils of the tropics. Sanchez, P. A., Tergas, T. E. (Eds.), Cali, Colombia: CIAT. pp: 195–225.

StatSoft, 2016. STATISTICA version 13.2 for windows, Tusla, Okla, USA.

Swangjang, K., 2015. Soil carbon and nitrogen ratio in different land use. In International Conference on Advances in Environment Research, 87: 36–40.

Van Reeuwijk, L.P., 1992. Procedures for soil analysis. 3rd Edn., Wageningen: International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC).

Vanlauwe, B., J. Six, N. Sanginga and A. Adesina, 2015. Soil fertility decline at the base of rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature Plants, 1(7): 15101.Available at:


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


The study was supported by the Agriculture Investment and Market Development Project (PIDMA), Cameroon.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed significantly to this study and are grateful to the Soil, Plant and Water Analysis Laboratory, Ekona Regional Centre, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) for providing the analytical facility.

Related Article

( 1 ) Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon
( 3 ) Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province
( 4 ) Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage
( 5 ) Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain
( 6 ) The Impact of Intensive Utilization of Cultivated Land on Grain Yields: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China
( 10 ) Determination of Milk Composition, Bacteriology and Selected Blood Parameters of Dairy Goats Under Different Feeding Systems
( 11 ) Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Three Contrasting Soils Under Different Land Use Systems
( 13 ) Development of a Mathematical Model for Angle of Soil Failure Plane in Case of 3-Dimenssional Cutting
( 14 ) Soil-Blade Interaction of a Rotary Tiller: Soil Bin Evaluation
( 15 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 16 ) Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
( 17 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 18 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 19 ) Status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Southwestern Nigeria
( 20 ) Improvement of Maize Productivity (Zea Mays L.) by Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Ferruginous Soil in Center of Benin
( 22 ) Assessment of Potassium Leaching Behaviour in Selected Soils of Southeastern Nigeria
( 23 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 25 ) Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 26 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density
( 27 ) Seedlings Performance of Triplochiton scleroxylon (K. Schum.) under Different Light Intensities and Soil Textural Classes
( 28 ) Root Density, Distribution and Yield Relationships of High Yielding Sugarcane Varieties Under Sandy Soil Condition
( 29 ) Determination of Phosphorous Fixation Capacity on Alluvium, Sandstone and Shale Soils of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 30 ) Effect of Land Use and Slope Position on Infiltration Characteristics on Sandstone-Derived Soils of Southern Nigeria
( 31 ) Adaptability of Soil pH through Innovative Microbial Approach
( 32 ) The Effect of Continuous Grazing on Herbaceous Species Composition, Basal Cover and Production on Three Soil Types in the North West Province, South Africa
( 33 ) Effect of Mid-Term Cropping System Adoption on Soil Chemical Properties at Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal
( 34 ) Soil Properties and Growth of Maize as Affected by Slope Position and Fertilizer Type on Coastal Plain Sands
( 35 ) Effect of Beneficial Soil Microbes on Growth and Yield of Celery in Volcanic Soil of West Java
( 38 ) An Assessment of the Level of Awareness of Climate Change and Variability among Rural Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 39 ) Constraints to Brood and Sell Poultry Production among Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 40 ) Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria
( 41 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 42 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 43 ) Technical Efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Ebonyi South Agricultural Zone, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 44 ) An Assessment of the Market Structure of Sesame among Farmers, Wholesalers and Retailers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
( 45 ) Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis
( 46 ) Perception of Cassava Farmers of Climate Change on Cassava Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 47 ) A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 48 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 49 ) Investigating Constraints to Poultry Management Practices among Smallholder Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 50 ) Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies: Farmers Perception in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 51 ) Farm and Disease Management by Commercial Poultry Farmers
( 52 ) Climate Variability, Incidences and Mitigation Strategies among Poultry Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
( 53 ) Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria
( 54 ) Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 55 ) Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia
( 57 ) Vegetable Farmers Knowledge and Safety Practices towards Pesticides: Results from Field Observation in Southeastern DR Congo
( 58 ) Perception of Ethno-Veterinary Medicine among Poultry Farmers in Oyo State
( 59 ) Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria
( 60 ) A Survey of Farmers Knowledge and Practice on the Management of Watermelon Diseases in Horticultural Belt of Mt. Kenya Slopes
( 61 ) The Effect of Farmers Social Networks on Sustainable Agricultural Practices Adoption: A Scoping Review Protocol
( 62 ) Analysis of Smallholder Farmers Repayment of Bank of Agriculture Loan in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria (2009-2018)
( 63 ) Analysis of Arable Farmers Agroforestry Practices in Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria
( 65 ) Supernumerary Teats in Kalahari Red Goats in the Humid Tropics
( 67 ) Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Methods in Humid Subtropical Conditions
( 68 ) Diversity, Use Pattern and Management of Forest Resources in the Eastern Himalaya: A Case Study of Mizoram, India
( 69 ) Urban Area - Review of Protective Forest Management
( 71 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 72 ) Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey
( 73 ) Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo
( 74 ) Evaluation of the Biomass of the Green Oak (Quercus Rotundifolia) of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the South Jbel Aoua Forest (Morocco)
( 75 ) An Example of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: Production of Pine Nuts
( 76 ) A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation
( 77 ) Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province
( 78 ) Variation of Wood Density in Tropical Rainforest Trees
( 79 ) Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation: A Case of the Kalika Community Forest, Dhading, Central Nepal
( 80 ) The Value of Selected Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya
( 82 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 83 ) Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis of Forestry Industry Structure and Competitiveness in Heilongjiang Province
( 85 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 86 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 87 ) Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone
( 88 ) Relationship between Human Activities and Deforestation in Karongi District of Rwanda
( 89 ) Temporal Rhythms of Dry Tropical Forest Regeneration under Exploration of Granite-Gnaisse Mining in a Semi-Arid Area
( 90 ) Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria
( 91 ) Impacts of Rural Community on the Forest Estate in Ugbolu, Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 92 ) Ecosystem Services Assessment of Mangrove Forest in a Coastal Island of Bangladesh
( 93 ) Floristic Composition and Woody Species Diversity in National Park of Madhupur Tract Under Tangail North Forest Division, Bangladesh
( 94 ) Wood Density of Lower Stratum Trees in a Semi-Deciduous Tropical Forest of Cameroon