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Review of Plant Studies

June 2021, Volume 8, 1, pp 1-11

Penicillium and Aspergillus Species Characterization: Adaptation to Environmental Factors and Sensitivity to Aqueous Medicinal Plants Extracts

Abdulnabi Abbdul Ameer Matrood


Abdelhak Rhouma

Abdulnabi Abbdul Ameer Matrood 1
Abdelhak Rhouma 2

  1. Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basra, Iraq. 1

  2. High Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia. 2

Pages: 1-11

DOI: 10.18488/journal.69.2021.81.1.11

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Article History:

Received: 25 January, 2021
Revised: 02 March, 2021
Accepted: 30 March, 2021
Published: 22 April, 2021


In this study, nine fungal species belonging to genus Aspergillus (6) and Penicillium (3), which were found on whiteflies cadavers adults collected from cucumber cultivation fields in Basra Iraq, are characterized regarding mycelial growth rate at different culture media, pH levels and temperature degrees, and their sensitivity under in vitro assay to aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Mentha arvensis and Allium sativum at different concentrations. Aspergillus and Penicillium species showed a wide range of tolerance to different culture media, pH levels and temperature degrees which decrease significantly there mycelial growth rate, although no of these parameters were able to inhibit them completely. This study has demonstrated further information on conditions favoring mycelial growth of Aspergillus and Penicillium species (at pH 6 and temperature between 25 and 30°C). In sensitivity assays, all tested species were susceptible to the aqueous extracts. The mycelial growth inhibition was significantly higher with the high concentrations of aqueous extract. The aqueous M. arvensis extracts at 150 mg/mL succeed to decrease the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus (82.5%) and A. fumigatus (81.67%). It appears that the growth rates of A. parasiticus (94.17%) and A. fumigatus (93.38%) was significantly inhibited by the aqueous A. sativum extracts at 150 mg/mL. A. fumigatus (80.83%) and A. parasiticus (76.67%) were high significantly inhibited by the aqueous extracts of O. sanctum at 150 mg/mL. The response of Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. to natural situations and aqueous extracts is important to understand their behaviour and to predict fungal spoilage on crops fruits.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the evaluation of the aqueous extracts efficacy of Ocimum sanctum, Mentha arvensis and Allium sativum against Aspergillus and Penicillium species and their sensitivity to culture media, pH and temperature under laboratory conditions.


Aqueous extracts, Aspergillus spp, Culture media, Penicillium spp, pH, Temperature.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


The authors are grateful to the review editor and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions to improve the clarity of the research paper. Dr. Abdulnabi Abbdul Ameer Matrood and Dr. Abdelhak Rhouma contributed equally to the work and contributed equally as first authors of this manuscript.

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