Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

June 2021, Volume 8, 1, pp 11-30

Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar

W. L. N. Wasana


R.T.K. Ariyawansha


B.F.A. Basnayake

W. L. N. Wasana 1

R.T.K. Ariyawansha 2 B.F.A. Basnayake 2 ,

  1. Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. 1

  2. Solid Waste Management Research Unit, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. 2

Pages: 11-30

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.11.30

Share :

Article History:

Received: 12 January, 2021
Revised: 09 February, 2021
Accepted: 02 March, 2021
Published: 22 March, 2021


Biochar biocatalyst action could improve quality and reduce costs in producing biochar fertilizer. Objective of this study was to develop a high-quality organic fertilizer using biochar biocatalyst action. To activate Gliricidia stem biochar (produced at 400-500oC and 2.5 hours residence time), aqueous biocatalysts were prepared in two separate aerobic reactors containing 4L of water, 12.5 g of rock phosphate, and Gliricidia biocatalyst (GBC) with 1 kg of Gliricidia leaves and market waste biocatalyst (MWBC) with 1 kg of market wastes. Intermittently total 377.5 g and 525 g of biochar were added respectively to the reactors until they reach neutral pH. GBC showed higher total nitrogen (243 mg/L) and available phosphorous (8,125 mg/L) contents. Four compost piles were prepared with fresh immature grass of 18 kg/pile and Gliricidia leaves of 2 kg/pile. Produced biocatalysts were added at the beginning to three piles as 6% GBC, 3% GBC, and 3% MWBC and the control with 6% biochar on dw basis. N, P, K levels of all the compost piles after 8 weeks were within the recommended levels of compost. The highest total nitrogen (20.3 g/kg) and available potassium (83.71 g/kg) remained in 6% GBC and the highest available phosphorous (3.41 g/kg) measured in 3% MWBC. pH values of all piles ranged between 8.8-9.2. The made fertilizer is very suitable and cost-effective for acidic soils to improve soil nutrient status unlike the addition of lime. Michaelis-Menten kinetics indicates that it is preferable to add market waste-like substances to GBC for optimizing the qualities.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents a novel procedure of biochar activation using an aqueous mixture of Gliricidia sepium stem biochar, Gliricidia leaves and rock phosphate under aerobic conditions and also, production of high quality organic fertilizer with the addition of activated biochar during active phase of composting.


Biochar, Biochar-biocatalyst, Compost, Gliricidia green leaves, Market waste, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Organic fertilizer.


[1]          R. Lal, "Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security," Science, vol. 304, pp. 1623-1627, 2004. Available at:

[2]          A. Sissoko and A. K. Kpomblekou, "Carbon decomposition in broiler litter-amended soils," Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 42, pp. 543-550, 2010. Available at:

[3]          M. Bustamante, D. Said-Pullicino, C. Paredes, J. Cecilia, and R. Moral, "Influences of winery–distillery waste compost stability and soil type on soil carbon dynamics in amended soils," Waste Management, vol. 30, pp. 1966-1975, 2010. Available at:

[4]          S. Godbout, M. Verma, J. Larouche, L. Potvin, A. Chapman, S. Lemay, F. Pelletier, and S. Brar, "Methane production potential (B0) of swine and cattle manures–a Canadian perspective," Environmental technology, vol. 31, pp. 1371-1379, 2010. Available at:

[5]          R. Kookana, A. Sarmah, L. Van Zwieten, E. Krull, and B. Singh, "Biochar application to soil: Agronomic and environmental benefits and unintended consequences," Advances in Agronomy, vol. 112, pp. 103-143, 2011. Available at:

[6]          N. S. Bolan, A. Kunhikrishnan, G. Choppala, R. Thangarajan, and J. Chung, "Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility," Science of the Total Environment, vol. 424, pp. 264-270, 2012. Available at:

[7]          K. N. Palansooriya, Y. S. Ok, Y. M. Awad, S. S. Lee, J.-K. Sung, A. Koutsospyros, and D. H. Moon, "Impacts of biochar application on upland agriculture: A review," Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 234, pp. 52-64, 2019. Available at:

[8]          A. Karthik, S. A. H. Hussainy, and M. Rajasekar, "Comprehensive study on biochar and its effect on Soil properties: A review," International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, vol. 9, pp. 459-477, 2020. Available at:

[9]          M. P. Bernai, C. Paredes, M. Sanchez-Monedero, and J. Cegarra, "Maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared with a wide range of organic wastes," Bioresource Technology, vol. 63, pp. 91-99, 1998. Available at:

[10]        D. A. Wardle, M.-C. Nilsson, and O. Zackrisson, "Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus," Science, vol. 320, pp. 629-629, 2008. Available at:

[11]        W. Kwapinski, C. M. Byrne, E. Kryachko, P. Wolfram, C. Adley, J. J. Leahy, E. H. Novotny, and M. H. Hayes, "Biochar from biomass and waste," Waste and Biomass Valorization, vol. 1, pp. 177-189, 2010. Available at:

[12]        J. Titova and E. Baltrėnaitė, "Physical and chemical properties of biochar produced from sewage sludge compost and plants biomass, fertilized with that compost, important for soil improvement," Waste Biomass Valor, 2020.

[13]        S. De Neve, S. Sleutel, and G. Hofman, "Carbon mineralization from composts and food industry wastes added to soil," Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol. 67, pp. 13-20, 2003. Available at:

[14]        L. Cooperband, The art and science of composting: A resource for farmers and compost producers,” Centre for Integrated Agricultural Systems. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002.

[15]        H. T. Soudejani, H. Kazemian, V. J. Inglezakis, and A. A. Zorpas, "Application of zeolites in organic waste composting: A review," Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, vol. 22, p. 101396, 2019. Available at:

[16]        S. Barrington, D. Choinière, M. Trigui, and W. Knight, "Effect of carbon source on compost nitrogen and carbon losses," Bioresource Technology, vol. 83, pp. 189-194, 2002. Available at:

[17]        K. Samudrika, R. Ariyawansha, B. Basnayake, and A. Siriwardana, "Optimization of biochar additions for enriching nitrogen in active phase low-temperature composting," Organic Agriculture, vol. 10, pp. 449-463, 2020. Available at:

[18]        H. Schulz, G. Dunst, and B. Glaser, "No effect level of co-composted biochar on plant growth and soil properties in a greenhouse experiment," Agronomy, vol. 4, pp. 34-51, 2014. Available at:

[19]        P. Blackwell, S. Shea, P. Storer, Z. Solaiman, M. Kerkmans, and I. Stanley, "Improving wheat production with deep banded oil mallee charcoal in Western Australia," in In Proceedings of Agchar Initiative Conference, Terrigal, Australia, 2007.

[20]        W. Hartmeier, Immobilization biocatalysts: An introduction. Switzerland: Springer Nature, 2012.

[21]        J. Kastner, J. Miller, R. Ormsby, J. Locklin, and K. Fries, "Down to earth energy”,  In: Monroe, G.A. (Eds.) Catalytic properties of biochar for chemical synthesis," presented at the IBE.  Biofuels/Biomaterials Conference, Cambridge, MA, 2010.

[22]        N. S. Gunasekara, B. F. A. Basnayake, and R. T. K. Ariyawansha, "Development of an effective organic fertilizer through a novel approach of biocatalyst derived from biochar," in In: Proceedings of Faculty of Agriculture Undergraduate Research Symposium, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, 2014, p. 173.

[23]        R. Ariyawansha, B. Basnayake, A. Karunarathna, and M. Mowjood, "Extensions to Michaelis-Menten kinetics for single parameters," Scientific reports, vol. 8, pp. 1-11, 2018. Available at:

[24]        K. A. Johnson, "A century of enzyme kinetic analysis, 1913 to 2013," FEBS Letters, vol. 587, pp. 2753-2766, 2013. Available at:

[25]        J. Lehmann, M. C. Rillig, J. Thies, C. A. Masiello, W. C. Hockaday, and D. Crowley, "Biochar effects on soil biota - a review," Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 43, pp. 1812-1836, 2011. Available at:

[26]        J. E. Amonette and S. Joseph., Physical properties of biochar,” In: Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (Eds.) Biochar for environmental management. Science and Technology: Earthscan, London, 2009.

[27]        F. Verheijen, S. Jeffery, A. C. Bastos, M. Van Der Velde, and I. Diafas, Biochar application to soils: A critical scientific review of effects on soil properties, processes and functions,” EUR 24099 EN. Luxembourg: Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities.

[28]        R. T. K. Ariyawansha, B. F. A. Basnayake, D. M. G. P. Vijenayaka, N. S. Waduge, and D. A. S. Gamage, "Biochar applications for enhancing nutrient availability in tropical soils," in In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid Waste Innovation in Technology and Management, Hong Kong SAR, P.R. China, 2013, pp. 676–679.

[29]        C. Sundberg, S. Smårs, and H. Jönsson, "Low pH as an inhibiting factor in the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic phase in composting," Bioresource Technology, vol. 95, pp. 145-150, 2004. Available at:

[30]        C. Dissanayake and R. Chandrajith, "Phosphate mineral fertilizers, trace metals and human health," Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, vol. 37, pp. 153-165, 2009. Available at: .

[31]        P. Jayathilake, I. Reddy, D. Srihari, and K. Reddy, "Productivity and soil fertility status as influenced by integrated use of n-fixing biofertilizers, organic manures and inorganic fertilizers in onion," The Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 46-59, 2006.

[32]        B. Liang, J. Lehmann, D. Solomon, J. Kinyangi, J. Grossman, B. O'neill, J. O. Skjemstad, J. Thies, F. J. Luizão, and J. Petersen, "Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils," Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 70, pp. 1719-1730, 2006. Available at:

[33]        R. H. Socolow, "Nitrogen management and the future of food: lessons from the management of energy and carbon," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 96, pp. 6001-6008, 1999.

[34]        P. Hepperly, D. Lotter, C. Z. Ulsh, R. Seidel, and C. Reider, "Compost, manure and synthetic fertilizer influences crop yields, soil properties, nitrate leaching and crop nutrient content," Compost Science & Utilization, vol. 17, pp. 117-126, 2009. Available at:


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This investigation received financial support from the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


The authors are very much grateful to D. D. K. Galahitiyawa, D. M. A. S. Wasantha, Department of Agricultural Engineering, G. Herath, Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya for their support throughout the study period.

Related Article

( 1 ) Agricultural Dualism, Wage Inequality and Development Policies
( 2 ) Development of a Mathematical Model for Angle of Soil Failure Plane in Case of 3-Dimenssional Cutting
( 3 ) Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia
( 4 ) Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia
( 5 ) Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State
( 6 ) Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas
( 7 ) Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar
( 8 ) A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment
( 9 ) High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds
( 12 ) Microbial Degradation of Organic Waste through Vermicomposting
( 13 ) Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)
( 14 ) Evaluation of Eggshell as Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Basil
( 16 ) Effect of Different Sources of Fertilizers on the Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Kohat-2000 Under Rainfed Conditions of Kohat During 2012
( 17 ) Straw Composting with Biological Agent Inoculation and Application Biofertilizer to Increase Rice Production
( 19 ) Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia
( 21 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 23 ) Evaluation of Repellency of Plant-Derived Insecticide against Brinjal and Pepper Pest Populations
( 25 ) Effect of Land Use and Slope Position on Infiltration Characteristics on Sandstone-Derived Soils of Southern Nigeria
( 26 ) Quality Characteristics of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil Extracted from Some Hybrids Cultivated Under Egyptian Conditions
( 27 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 28 ) Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad
( 29 ) Effect of Fungi and Manure on Cadmium Content and Biomass of Maize Grown In Cadmium Contaminated Tailing from Bangka Indonesia
( 30 ) Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
( 31 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 32 ) Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
( 33 ) Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria
( 34 ) Bioaccumulation of Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals and Minerals in Tympanotonus Fuscatus from Coastal Region of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
( 35 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 36 ) The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria
( 37 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 38 ) Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil
( 39 ) Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis
( 40 ) The Evaluation of Some Dietary Fiber Rich by-Products in Ice Creams Made from the Traditional Pudding - Kesme Muhallebi
( 41 ) Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old
( 42 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 43 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 44 ) Sooty Mold on Lemon Trees - First Recording from El-Beida City, Libya
( 45 ) Isolation and Screening of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on Andisols
( 46 ) Edible Films and Coatings: A Good Idea From Past to Future Technology
( 47 ) Agronomic Practices of Maize and Farm Nutrient Status in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: Lesson from Agronomic Panel Survey
( 48 ) Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia
( 49 ) Traditional Technologies and Probiotic Properties of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Kawal -A Chad Traditional Fermented Food Condiment
( 50 ) Vegetable Farmers Knowledge and Safety Practices towards Pesticides: Results from Field Observation in Southeastern DR Congo
( 51 ) Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria
( 52 ) Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk
( 53 ) Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends
( 54 ) Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province
( 55 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 56 ) Quality Evaluation of Instant Mosa (A Fried Maize Based Snack) Produced from Fermented Maize and Sorghum Flour
( 58 ) Comparative Analysis of Thermal Retention Capacity of Ice Chest Wood Cooler Stands Made from Pinus Caribeae and Nauclea Diderichii
( 61 ) Suitability of Temperate and Tropical Crossbred Dairy Cattle under Peri-Urban Production System in Bangladesh
( 62 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 64 ) Determination of Milk Composition, Bacteriology and Selected Blood Parameters of Dairy Goats Under Different Feeding Systems
( 65 ) Assessments of Market Oriented Beef Cattle Fattening System Under Farmer Management Condition in South Omo Zone of Snnpr