Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

March 2014, Volume 1, 1, pp 6-20

Efficacy of Allicin (Allium Sativum Linn.) Against Bipolaris Sorokiniana in Barley Plants

Erna Elisabeth Bach


Eliana Rodrigues


Noemir Antoniazzi


Nilsa SumieYamashita Wadt

Erna Elisabeth Bach 1
Eliana Rodrigues 2
Noemir Antoniazzi 3
Nilsa SumieYamashita Wadt 4

  1. Departamento da Saúde, UNINOVE, R. Dr. Adolfo Pinto, Barra Funda, São Paulo, SP, Brazil 1

  2. Coordenação de Pós-Graduação, Ciências da Saúde, FMU, Avenida Santo Amaro, Brasil 2

  3. Cooperative Agraria (FAPA), Praça Nova Pátria, Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil 3

  4. Departamento da Saúde, UNINOVE, R. Dr. Adolfo Pinto, Barra Funda, São Paulo, SP, Brazil 4


Spot blotch is caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, and is the most deleterious disease for the producers. To control the disease, fungicides have been used that can impact the environment and human health. One method to eliminate these drawbacks is promoting induced protection. This study investigated the use of aqueous allicin extract as a biological control of B.sorokiniana or as an inducer of protection in barley plants (Embrapa BRS 195) against the pathogen under greenhouse conditions and also evaluated the possible mechanisms. Results demonstrated that induction was shown to have local and systemic action but don’t have biological control in concentration of 0.097 to 0.97 µg /mL of allicin.
In order to prove the resistance effect, biochemical analyses were performed to quantify proteins, phenols and the enzymatic activity of beta-glucanase. Barley plants when treated with aqueous allicin extract, showed an increased in the concentration of proteins, as well in activity of the enzyme beta-glucanase, when compared with the extract from healthy plants. In infected plants, protein concentrations decreased and enzymatic activity was lower than in healthy plants. Biochemical analyses indicated that p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid and salicylic acid increased in treated barley plants. In conclusion, allicin can act as a potential elicitor that can be used as an alternative for diseases control. It’s less dependent on chemical compounds, with a lower cost and causing less damage to the environment. The acting mechanism depends on the increase of salicylic acid and presence of other molecules (glucanase, proteins).

Contribution/ Originality



  1. C. A. Forcelini, "Trigo - a importância do tratamento de sementes," Correio Agropecuario, vol. 1, pp. 2-5, 1991.
  2. E. C. Picinini, "O controle de uma doença em potencial," Correio Agrícola, vol. 1, pp. 7-9, 1990.
  3. E. E. Bach, B. C. Barros, and H. Kimati, "Induced resistance against bipolaris bicolor, bipolaris sorokiniana and drechslera tritici-repentis in wheat leaves by Xantham Gum and Heat-Inactivated Conidial Suspension", Journal of Phytopathology, vol. 151, pp. 411–418, 2003.
  4. H. K. Manandhar, S. B. Mathur, V. Smedegaard-Petersen, and H. Thordal-Christensen, "Accumulation of transcripts for pathogenesis-related proteins and peroxidase in rice plants triggered by Pyricularia oryzae,Bipolaris sorokiniana and UV light",  Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol., vol. 55, pp. 289–295, 1999.
  5. O. L. Castro and E. E. Bach, "Increased production of b-1,3 glucanase and proteins in bipolaris sorokiniana pathosystem treated using commercial xanthan gum," Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 42, pp. 165–169, 2004.
  6. E. Block, "The chemistry of garlic and onion," Sci. Am., vol. 252, pp. 94–99, 1985.
  7. C. J. Cavallito and H. Bailey, "Allicin, the antibacterial principle of allium sativum I. Isolation, physical properties and antibacterial action," J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 66, pp. 1950–1, 1944.
  8. K. C. Agarwal, "Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents," Medical Research Reviews, vol. 16, pp. 111–124, 1996.
  9. S. M. Tsao and M. C. Yin, "In-vitro antimicrobial activity of four diallyl sulphides occurring naturally in garlic and Chinese leek oils", J. Med. Microbiol, vol. 50, pp. 646–649, 2001.
  10. A. Miron, Rabinkov, D. Mirelman, L. Weiner, and M. Wilchek, "A spectrophotometric assay for allicin and aliinase activity: Reaction of 2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate with thiosulphinates," Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 265, pp. 317-325, 1998.
  11. D. Portz, E. Koch, and A. J. Slusarenko, "Ef¬fects of garlic (Allium Sativum) juice containing al¬licin on phytophthora infestans and downy mildew of cucumber caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis," European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 122, pp. 197-206, 2008.
  12. E. Ledezma and R. Apitz-Castro, "Ajoene, el principal compuesto activo derivado del ajo (Allium Sativum), un nuevo agente antifúngico," Revista Iberoamericana De Micologia, vol. 23, pp. 75-80, 2006.
  13. N. Antoniazzi, C. Deschamps, and E. E. Bach, "Effect of xanthan gum and allicin as elicitors against bipolaris sorokiniana on barley in field experiments," Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, vol. 115, pp. 104–107, 2008.
  14. H. Curtis, U. Noll, J. Stormann, and A. J. Slusarenko, "Broad-spectrum activity of the volatile phytoanticipin allicin in extracts of garlic (Allium Sativum L.) against plant pathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes," Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, vol. 65, pp. 79-89, 2004.
  15. A. C. Massabni, P. P. Corbi, M. Cavicchioli, and A. Cuin, "A química do alho," Revista De Oxidologia, vol. 1, pp. 13-16, 1998.
  16. C. Egen-Schwind, R. Eckard, and F. H. Kemper, "Metabolism of garlic constituints in the isolated perfused rat liver," Plant Med, vol. 58, pp. 301-305, 1992.
  17. Farmacopeia Brasileira, "In Diário oficial da uniao," Brasilia, pp. 1–80, 2005.
  18. L. D. Lawson, S. D. Wood, and B. G. Hughes, "HPLC analysis of allicin and other thiosulphinates in garlic clove homogenates," Planta Med., vol. 57, pp. 263-270, 1991.
  19. T. Miron, A. Rabinkov, D. Mirelman, M. Wilchekand, and L. Weiner, "The mode of action of allicin: Its ready permeability through phospholipid membranes may contribute to its biological activity," Biochim. Biophys. Acta., vol. 1463, pp. 20–30, 2000.
  20. E. C. Large, "Growth stages in cereal: Illustration of the feekes scale," Plant Pathol., vol. 3, pp. 129–134, 1954.
  21. S. R. Silva, "Aspectos do controle da antracnose em plantas de milho (zea mays l.), mantidas em casa-de-vegetacão pelo emprego de Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen", Tese de Mestrado ESALQ, p. 81, 1989.
  22. O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosenbrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, "Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent," J. Biol.Chem., vol. 193, pp. 265–275, 1951.
  23. R. Swain and W. E. Hillis, "The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica. I. The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents," Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 10, pp. 63-68, 1959.
  24. A. Van Hoof, J. Leymam, H. J. Scheffer, and J. D. Walton, "A single beta-1,3 glucanase secreted by the maize pathogen C. carbonum acts by an exolytic mechanism," Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, vol. 39, pp. 259-267, 1991.
  25. S. E. Wyatt, S. Q. Pan, and J. Kuc, "Beta-1,3-glucanase, chitinase and peroxidase activities in tobacco tissues resistant and susceptible to blue mould as related to flowering, age and sucker development," Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, vol. 39, pp. 433–446, 1991.
  26. K. H. Miean and S. Mohamed, "Flavonoid (Myricetin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Luteolin and Apigenin) content of edible tropical plants," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 49, pp. 3106-3112, 2001.
  27. V. Lanzotti, "The analysis of onion and garlic," J. Chromato., vol. 1112, pp. 3-22, 2006.
  28. G. R. Fenwick and A. B. Hanley, "Genus allium," Crit. Rev.Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 22, pp. 199-377, 1991.
  29. H. Xiao and K. L. Parkin, "Antioxidant functions of selected allium thiosulphinates and s-alk(En)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides," J. Agric. Food Chem, vol. 50, pp. 2488-2493, 2002.
  30. G. Schulz, In: , R. H. and, and E. V. E. Tayler, Rational phytotherapy. A physicians’ guide to herbal medicine, 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer, 1998.
  31. L. V. Small, J. H. Bayley, and C. Cavallito, "Alkyl thiosulphinates," Journal American Chemical Society, vol. 69, pp. 1710-1713, 1947.
  32. E. Block, S. Ahmad, M. Jain, R. Crecely, C. R. Apitz, and M. Cruz, "(E,Z)-ajoene: A potent antithrombotic agent from garlic," Journal American Chemical Society, vol. 106, pp. 8295-8296, 1984.
  33. E. Block, Challenges and artifact concerns in sulfur analysis. Volatile sulfur compounds in food, ACS symposium series 1068, Ch. 2. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 2011.
  34. R. R. Cutler and P. Wilson, "Antibacterial activity of a new, stable, aqueous extract of allicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus," British Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 61, pp. 1-4, 2004.
  35. L. C. Harris, S. L. Cottrel, and S. Plummer, "Antimicrobial properties of Allium Sativum (Garlic)," Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 57, pp. 282–286, 2001.
  36. S. Yoshida, S. Kasuga, and N. Hayashi, "Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 53, pp. 615–617, 1987.
  37. R. Naganawa, N. Iwata, K. Ishikawa, H. Fukuda, T. Fujino, and A. Suzuki, "Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic," Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 62, pp. 4238-42, 1996.
  38. J. Kuc, "Development and future direction of induced systemic resistance in plants," Crop Protection, vol. 19, pp. 859-861, 2000.
  39. E. E. Bach, M. C. S. Marcondes, G. F. Patricio, K. F. Esquerdo, C. V., and N. S. Y. Wadt, "Aqueous extract of leaves from Bauhinia variegata used in barley plants to protect against Bipolaris sorokiniana   " Agricultural Research and Reviews, vol. 1, pp. 71 – 79, 2012.
  40. E. Liljeroth, K. Santen, and T. Bryngelsson, "PR protein accumulation in seminal roots of barley and wheat in response fungal infection – the importance of cortex senescence," Journal of Phytopathology, vol. 149, pp. 4547-4567, 2001.
  41. A. E. Jenns and J. Kuc, "Graft transmission of systemic resistance of cucumber to anthracnose induced by colletotrichum lagenarium and tobacco necrosis virus," Phytopathology, vol. 69, pp. 753–756, 1979.
  42. Z. Zhang and G. Y. Yuen, "Effects of culture fluids and preinduction of chitinase production on biocontrol of bipolaris leaf spot by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia C3," Biol. Control., vol. 18, pp. 277–286, 2000.
  43. R. A. Dixon, "Natural products and plant disease resistance," Nature, vol. 411, pp. 843-47, 2001.
  44. F. Shahidi and M. Naczk, "Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals," Boca Raton: CRC., pp. 558, 2004.
  45. C. Sheonjin, "Sample purification using polyvinylpirrolidone for the HPLC analysis of salicylic acid from cucumber leaf extract," Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, vol. 45, pp. 312-317, 2004.
  46. H. I. Lee, J. Leon, and I. Raskin, "Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., vol. 92, pp. 4076-4079, 1995.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Efficacy of Allicin (Allium Sativum Linn.) Against Bipolaris Sorokiniana in Barley Plants
( 2 ) Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State
( 5 ) Genotypic Difference in Growth and Yield Related Traits of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Southern Tigray
( 6 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 7 ) Growth and Yield Response of Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) Varieties to Intra-Row Spacing in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia
( 9 ) Evaluation of Field Pea (Pisum Sativum L) Genotypes Performance for Yield and Yield Components at Five Growing Environments of Southern Ethiopia
( 12 ) Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
( 13 ) Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)
( 14 ) Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage
( 15 ) Screening of Some Coffee Arabica Genotypes Against Coffee Wilt Diseases (Gibberella Xylarioides Heim And Saccus) At Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
( 16 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 17 ) Evaluation of Repellency of Plant-Derived Insecticide against Brinjal and Pepper Pest Populations
( 18 ) Evaluation of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties against Faba Bean Gall Disease in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia