Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Food Technology Research

June 2021, Volume 8, 1, pp 9-17

Reduction of Aflatoxins and Microorganisms in the Koura-Koura Produced in Burkina Faso with Spices and Aromatic Leaves

Yamkaye Aicha Sawadogo


Hama Cisse


Zongo Oumarou


Filbert Nikiema


Yves Traore


Aly Savadogo

Yamkaye Aicha Sawadogo 1 Hama Cisse 1 Zongo Oumarou 1 Filbert Nikiema 4
Yves Traore 1 Aly Savadogo 1 ,

  1. Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Immunology, University Joseph KI-ZERBO, Burkina Faso. 1

  2. National Public Health Laboratory, Burkina Faso. 4

Pages: 9-17

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.81.9.17

Share :

Article History:

Received: 04 November, 2020
Revised: 14 December, 2020
Accepted: 11 January, 2021
Published: 02 February, 2021


Koura-koura is a product resulting from the processing of peanut. This study consisted of producing koura-koura with garlic, pepper, ginger and mint to reduce aflatoxins and microorganisms. The objective of this work is the decontamination of koura-koura with spices and aromatic leaves. Aflatoxin determination was performed by HPLC and microbiological analyses were carried out according to standard methods. A total of 18 samples were analyzed, including 3 peanut samples, 2 peanut paste samples, 1 koura-koura control sample, and 12 samples of koura-koura spices and aromatic leaves. Total aflatoxin B1, B2, and aflatoxin levels in the samples ranged from 0.58±0.49 ?g/kg to 3.66±0.10 ?g/kg; 2.23±0.41 ?g/kg to 14.02±0.88 ?g/kg; 2.87±0.20 ?g/kg to 17.75±0.58 ?g/kg, respectively. Aflatoxins G1 and G2 were not detected in all samples. The total mesophilic aerobic flora (TMAF) ranged from 1.60±1.57 x101 CFU/g to 4.50±1.28 x105 CFU/g and the yeast and mould flora ranged from 1.80 ± 1.68 x101 CFU/g to 2.80±0.74 x101 CFU/g. No samples were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms and total coliforms were present in a single sample (1.30 ± 1.64 x 101 CFU/g). The results of the study on the reduction of aflatoxins and microorganisms in koura-koura with spices and aromatic leaves contribute significantly to food safety.
Contribution/ Originality
This study on the reduction of aflatoxins and microorganisms in the koura-koura contributes to the production of healthy food. Our study uses aflatoxin control means that are effective, very easy and inexpensive.


Peanut, Koura-koura, Aflatoxins, Detoxification, Spices, Aromatic leaves, Burkina Faso.


Adjou, E. S., Yehouenou, B., Sossou, C. M., Soumanou, M. M., & Souza, d. C. A. (2012). Occurrence of mycotoxins and associated mycoflora in peanut cake product (kulikuli) marketed in Benin. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(78),14354-14360.Available at:

Ayoade, F., & Adegbite, T. D. (2016). Microbiological screening of street-vended groundnut cake, Kulikuli and natural spices for reducing microbial contamination in the food snack. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 10(6),2677-2691.Available at:

Bbosa, G. S., Kitya, D., A. Lubega, J. Ogwal-Okeng, W.W. Anokbonggo, & D.B. Kyegombe. (2013). Review of the biological and health effects of aflatoxins on body organs and body systems. Aflatoxins-Recent Advances and Future Prospects, 12,239-265.Available at:

Bullerman, L. B., & Bianchini, A. (2007). Stability of mycotoxins during food processing. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119(1-2),140-146.Available at:

Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94(3),223–253.Available at:

Chen, R., Ma, F., Li, P. W., Zhang, W., Ding, X. X., Zhang, Q., . . . Xu, B. C. (2014). Effect of ozone on aflatoxins detoxification and nutritional quality of peanuts. Food Chemistry, 146:284–288. Available at:

Cui, Y., Zhao, S., Wang, J., Wang, X., Gao, B., Fan, Q., . . . Zhou, B. (2015). A novel mitochondrial carrier protein Mme1 acts as a yeast mitochondrial magnesium exporter. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research, 1853(3),724-732.Available at:

El Khoury, R. (2016). Control of the aflatoxic risk: Use of natural extracts and demonstration of their mechanisms of action. Doctoral thesis, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.  

Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., & Mandrell, R. E. (2002). Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Protection, 65(10),1545-1560.Available at:

Garba, K., Adeoti, K., Ohin, B., Baba-Moussa, L., Soumanou, M. M., & Toukourou, F. (2015). Conservation tests of Kluiklui from Agonlin district in Republic of Benin: Study of the Microbiological stability. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(1)),755-764.Available at:,%20et%20al.pdf .

Goetz, P., & Ghedira, K. (2012). Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae): Garlic. In: Anti-infectious phytotherapy. Practical phytotherapy collection (pp. 211-220). Paris: Springer.

ISO 4832. (2006). Microbiology of food - Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms - Colony count method.

ISO 4833. (2003). Microbiology of food - Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms - Colony count technique at 30 degrees C.

ISO 6887-6. (2013). Microbiology of foods-preparation of samples, Initial Suspension and Decimal Dilutions for Microbiological Examination.

ISO 21527-2. (2008). Food microbiology-Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and molds-Part 2: Colony count technique in products with water activity less than or equal to 0.95.

Mejrhit, N., Taouda, H., & Aarab, L. (2015). Evaluation of the hygienic quality of peanuts at the city Fes-Morocco]. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 10(1),268-277.

Olalekan-Adeniran, M. A., Adegoke, G. O., & Aroyeun, S. O. ( 2016). Anti-aflatoxigenic Effect of Aframomum danielli on Peanut Balls (Kulikuli). IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10(11),10-15.

Riley, R. T., & Norred, P. W. (1999). Mycotoxin prevention and decontamination: A case study on maize. Food Nutrition and Agriculture, 23,25-32.

Tajkarimi, M. M., Ibrahim, A. S., & Cliver, D. O. (2010). Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control, 21(9),1199-1218.Available at:

Tiwari, B. K., Valdramidis, V. P., O’Donnell, C. P., Muthukumarappan, K., Bourke, P., & Cullen, P. J. (2009). Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(4),5987-6000.Available at:

Wacoo, A. P., Wendiro, D., Vuzi, P. C., & Hawumba, J. F. (2014). Methods for detection of aflatoxins in agricultural food crops. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014(1-15),706291.Available at:

Wang, B., Mahoney, N. E., Pan, Z., Khir, R., Wu, B., Ma, H., & Zhao, L. (2016). Effectiveness of pulsed light treatment for degradation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in rough rice and rice bran. Food Control, 59,461-467.Available at:


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Authors thank their Laboratory (LaBIA), local direction of scholarship (National Center for Information, School and Professional Orientation and Scholarships of Burkina Faso) and the National Public Health Laboratory (LNSP). Authors also wish to thank the women who were interviewed in this study for the time they took to explain the different methods for the conceptualization the new diagram.

Related Article

( 1 ) Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
( 2 ) Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Culture with Reduction Feed on Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage in Cirata Reservoir
( 3 ) Reduction of the Carbon Footprint in Agricultural Greenhouses
( 4 ) Reduction of Aflatoxins and Microorganisms in the Koura-Koura Produced in Burkina Faso with Spices and Aromatic Leaves
( 5 ) Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad
( 9 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 10 ) Physico-Chemical Properties of Honey Produced In Masha, Gesha, and Sheko Districts in Southwestern Ethiopia
( 11 ) Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 12 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 13 ) Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk
( 14 ) Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso
( 15 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 16 ) Quality Evaluation of Instant Mosa (A Fried Maize Based Snack) Produced from Fermented Maize and Sorghum Flour
( 18 ) Cultivation and Nutritional Quality of Moringa Oleifera Lam. Produced Under Different Substrates in Semi-Arid Region in Northeast Brazil
( 19 ) Floristic Composition and Density of Main Woody Species of the Parklands in Two Phytogeographical Zones in Burkina Faso
( 25 ) Dietary Inclusion of Palm Oil in Bangladeshi Dietensures Better Nutrition with Minimal Cost: An Overview
( 26 ) Flaxseed Nutritied Meat Balls With High Antioxidant Potential
( 27 ) Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt
( 28 ) Mechanisms of the Decline in Reproductive Fitness with Age in the Moth Spodoptera Litura
( 29 ) Characteristics of Bread and Biscuit Made With Wheat and Rice Flour Composites
( 30 ) Identification of Cattle Persistently Infected With BVDV (PI) By Ear-Notch Testing In Southeast of Iran
( 31 ) Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi
( 32 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 33 ) Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat
( 34 ) Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
( 35 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 37 ) Straw Composting with Biological Agent Inoculation and Application Biofertilizer to Increase Rice Production
( 38 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 39 ) Management of Food Shelf Life and Energy Efficiency with Adaptive Food Preservation System (AFPS) Appliance