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Journal of Food Technology Research

June 2020, Volume 7, 1, pp 69-77

Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit

Roland Monday Kayode


Victor Ephraim Edem


Niyi Julius Ogundun


Rilwan Olaitan Ajibola


Bukola Idowu Kayode

Roland Monday Kayode 1 Victor Ephraim Edem 2

Niyi Julius Ogundun 3
Rilwan Olaitan Ajibola 1 Bukola Idowu Kayode 1 

  1. University of Ilorin, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Home Economics and Food Science, Division of Food Preservation, Biotechnology, Waste Management and Safety, Ilorin, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Division of Microbiology, Crown-Hill University, Eiyenkorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. 2

  3. Forest Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 3

Pages: 69-77

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.69.77

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Article History:

Received: 20 January, 2020
Revised: 26 February, 2020
Accepted: 31 March, 2020
Published: 29 April, 2020


Biscuits were produced from the composite flour of grapefruit pulp and wheat flour. The Grapefruit pulp was boiled, fermented and some unfermented separately. Nine composite flours were made from the fermented, boiled and unfermented grapefruit pulp at different ratios of 10:90, 20:80 and 30:70 respectively while the control was 100% wheat flour. The proximate composition ranged from 6.50-8.25% (moisture), 5.46-11.36% (protein), 1.5-9.75% (crude fiber), 0.5-1.75% (ash), 2.93-4.35% (fat), and 62.77-80.04% (carbohydrate). The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity ranged from 1.01-1.42 g water/g flour and 0.94- 1.56 g oil/g flour respectively. The values obtained for fiber fraction analysis ranged from 24- 44% (neutral detergent soluble), 11-39.75% (acid detergent fiber), 6.50-34.50% (lignin), 2.75-6.63% (silica), 2.5-7.5% (cellulose) and 5.00-20.50% (hemicellulose). The sensory scores of the biscuits indicated that sample 10BGP had the best overall acceptability among the composite flour pointing out high acceptability at up to 10% inclusion of grapefruit pulp flour to wheat flour. This research recommended the inclusion of boiled grapefruit pulp flour up to 10% with wheat flour for the production of biscuit.
Contribution/ Originality
This study showed the variations in proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacities, fibre fraction, and sensory properties of biscuit as affected by different levels of grapefruit inclusion. The acceptable level of grapefruit pulp flour to wheat flour for biscuit production was established.


Biscuit, Composite-flour, Fiber-fraction, Grapefruit-pulp, Sensory-qualities, Proximate-composition, Wheat-flour, Water-absorption-capacity, Oil-absorption-capacity.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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