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Journal of Food Technology Research

December 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 57-71

Traditional Technologies and Probiotic Properties of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Kawal -A Chad Traditional Fermented Food Condiment

Abakar Idriss L


Abdelsalam Tidjani


Essodolom Taale


Abdoullahi Hissein O


Abel Tankoano


Savadogo Aly

Abakar Idriss L 1 Abdelsalam Tidjani 2
Essodolom Taale 3
Abdoullahi Hissein O 4
Abel Tankoano 1 Savadogo Aly 1 ,

  1. LABIA, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Applied Immunology, Joseph KIZERBO University, Burkina Faso. 1

  2. Faculty of Human Health Sciences (FSSH), Laboratory of Research in Food Science and Nutrition (LaRSAN), University of NDjamena, Chad. 2

  3. Higher Institute of Agricultural Trades (ISMA) / University of Kara, Togo. 3

  4. LABIA, Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Immunology of Joseph KIZERBO University, Burkina Faso, Faculty of Human Health Sciences (FSSH), Laboratory of Research in Food Sciences and Nutrition (LaRSAN), University of NDjamena, Chad, Faculty of Exa 4

Pages: 57-71

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.62.57.71

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Article History:

Received: 02 August, 2019
Revised: 04 September, 2019
Accepted: 10 October, 2019
Published: 21 November, 2019


Kawal is a condiment produced by the traditional fermentation of Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) leaves. Many people from the different part of Chad use it for flavoring as well as a substitute of meat. The fermentation techniques used in kawal production are often applied on a small scale and still mainly at the household level, characterized by the use of simple and rudiment equipment. This study was conducted firstly to investigate the Kawal traditional methods production. Secondly, to evaluate probiotic potential of Bacillus species isolated in order to develop starter cultures for kawal production. Protease, amylase and phytase activities of Bacillus strains were screened. The candidate were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activity against, Micococcus luteus LMG3293, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella spp. Biofilm synthesis, Antibiotics sensitivity, tolerance to simulated gastric and intestinal juice were also evaluated. The majority of selected strains formed bio?lms, produced amylase and protease, some of the strain produced phytase by forming clearing zones around the growth of the colonies. For biochemical conditions for simulated gastric and intestinal juice, among the selected strains tested, some had the highest survival in simulated gastric juice and better viability in simulated intestinal juice. The selected strains showed sensitive to a panel of antibiotics and they presented resistance to penicillin G, oxacycline and bacitracin. Some strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the indicator bacteria tested. Overall, some of these selected strains could be used as potential microbial starters for the controlled fermentation of kawal.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies, which have investigated the traditionnel technologies, and probiotic properties of Bacillus strains isolated from kawal, towards use as a starter culture for fermenting Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) leaves.


Kawal, Bacillus, Senna obtusifolia, Fermented food, Traditional, Probiotic.


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This study received financial support from our Laboratory.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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