Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Food Technology Research

December 2014, Volume 1, 2, pp 96-110

Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil

Shaker M. Arafat


Mohamed E. EL-Sayed

Shaker M. Arafat 1
Mohamed E. EL-Sayed 2

  1. Oils & Fats Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt 1

  2. Olive and Semiarid Zone Fruits Dept., Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt 2

Pages: 96-110

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/

Share :


The objective of this work was study that the effect using one treatment of (Girdling at first week of January and Kaolin sprayed at rate 5% mid December) and chemical (Calcium carbonate, sprayed at rate 5% mid December, Naphthalene acetic acid at 100ppm mid December and Boric acid (17.50%) at 300ppm in first week of March) on oil yield, quality indices, minor components and fatty acids composition of olive Picual cv. during seasons 2012-2013. Yield/tree, fruit weight, seed weight, flesh weight, flesh/fruit weight, flesh/stone, moisture and oil contents (%) were determined. Quality indices (acid value, peroxide value, absorbance at K232nm, K270 nm and ∆k, value), sensory evaluation, total polyphenol, tocopherol, bitter index at K225, pigments content, oxidative stability and Fatty acid composition were determined. Results indicated that the treated tree (Picual cv.) by Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin gave a higher content in oil percentage/tree. Also, same the treatments gave best values in quality indices, total polyphenol, tocopherol and oxidative stability compared with untreated and treated samples with calcium carbonate. On the other hand, the treated trees by Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin surpassed on untreated and treated samples with calcium carbonate in oleic acid levels. Generally, can be used (Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin) to increase the productivity of olive trees Picual cv. and also improve the quality attributes of the oil extracted. Also these treatments increased the oleic acid more than untreated sample. 
Contribution/ Originality



  1. Abo-Taleb, S., 1998. Effect of girdling on olive trees as partial solution to biennial  bearing. Annals of Agric. Sc. Moshtohor, 36(1): 497-511.
  2. Aguilera, M., G. Beltran, D. Ortega, A. Fernandez, A. Jimmenez and M. Uceda, 2005. Characterization of virgin olive oil of Italian olive cultivars: Frantoio and Leccino, grown in Andalousia. Food Chem, 89(3): 387-391.
  3. Aparicio, R. and G. Luna, 2002. Characterization of monovarietal virgin olive oils. Eur. J Lipid Sci.Technol, 104(9-10): 614-627.
  4. Bacccouri, B., T.S. Ben, W. Taamalli, D. Daoud, M. M'sallem and M. Zarrouk, 2007. Analytical characteristics of virgin olive oils from two new varieties obtained by controlled crossing on meski variety. J. Food Lipids, 14(1): 19-34.
  5. Beltran, G., M. Ruano, A. Jimenez, M. Uceda and M. Aquilera, 2007. Evaluation of virgin olive oil bitterness by total phenol content analysis. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109(3): 193-197.
  6. Ben-Gal, A., A. Dag, L. Basheer, U. Yermiyahu, I. Zipori and Z. Kerem, 2011. The influence of bearing cycles on olive quality response to irrigation. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 59(21): 11667-11675.
  7. Ben, O.N., N. Roblain, P. Chammen and H.M. Thonart, 2009. Antioxidant phenolic compounds loss during the fermentation of chetoui olives. Food Chemistry, 116(3): 662-669.
  8. Ben, T. S., W. Taamalli, B. Bacccouri, L. Abaza, D. Daoud and M. Zarrouk, 2006. Changes in olive oil quality of chetoui variety according to origin of plantation. J. Food Lipids, 13(1): 88-99.
  9. Benincasa, C., A. Russo, E. Romano, M. Elsorady, E. Perri and I. Muzzalupo, 2011. Chemical and sensory analysis of some Egyptian virgin olive oils. J. Nutri. Food Sci., 5(1): 1-8.
  10. Boskou, D., 1996. Olive oil chemistry and technology. IL, USA: AOCS Press, Champaigen.
  11. Burme, L., N. Moallemi and S. Mortazavi, 2011. Anti-transpiration effect of kaolin on some physiological traits of four olive cultivars. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, Isf. Univ. Technol. Isf. Iran, 1(1). 11-23.
  12. Daood, E., 2002. Studies on fruit setting, development, ripening and improvement quality of olive Ph.D. Thesis AinShams Univ. Egypt.
  13. De, J.S. and C. Lanari, 2009. Extracts of olive polyphenols improve lipid stability in cooked beef and pork: Contribution of individual phenolics to the  antioxidant activity of the extract. Food Chemistry, 116(4): 892-897.
  14. EC, 1991. Characteristics of olive and olive pomace oils and their analytical  methods. Regulation EC/2568/91 and latter modifications. Official Journal of the European Communities.
  15. EL-Badry, 2012. Physicochemical characteristics and quality criteria of olive oil extracted from picual olive fruits treated by some growth regulators. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences, 2(1): 37-50.
  16. EL-Sayed, M., A. Gowda and M. Hassan, 2006. Studies on some olive cultivars under benisuev governorate conditions. Alex. J. Agric. Res., 51(2): 137-151.
  17. Faust, M., 1989. Physiology of temperate zone fruit trees. New York: Wiley. pp: 169-234.
  18. Frega, N., L. Caglioti, R. Strabbioli and F. Bocci, 2005. Stabilita del, olio extra vergin eottenuto da olive denoccilate. La Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse, 82(1): 55-58.
  19. Goldschmidt, E., 2005. Regulatory aspects of alternate bearing in fruit trees. Italus Hortus, 12(1): 11-17.
  20. Gutfinger, T., 1981. Polyphenols in olive virgin oils. J. Am. Oil Chem., 58(11): 996-998.
  21. Gutierrez, F., 1989. Determination of the oxidative stability of virgin olive oils. Comparison of the active oxygen and the rancimat methods. Grasas Aceites, 40(1): 1-5.
  22. Gutierrez, F. and J. Fernandez, 2002. Determinant parameters and components in  the storage of virgin olive oil. Prediction of storage time beyond which the oil is no longer of extra, quality. J Agric Food Chem., 50(3): 571-577.
  23. Gutierrez, F., J. Garrido, L. Gallardo, P. Gandul and M. Minguez, 1992. Action of chlorophylls on the stability of virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem., 69(9): 866-871.
  24. Inarejos-Garcia, A., A. Androulaki, M. Salvador, G. Freqapane and M. Tsimidou, 2009. Discussion on the objective evaluation of virgin olive oil bitterness. Food Research International, 42(2): 279-284.
  25. IOC, 2009. International olive council. International trade standard appling to olive  oils and olive- pomace oils. COI/T.15/NC 3/Rev. 2.
  26. Kalua, C., M. Allen, D. Bedgood, A. Bishop and P. Prenzler, 2007. Olive oil volatile compounds, flavor development and quality. A critical review. Food Chem., 100(1): 273-286.
  27. Kanavouras, A. and A. Coutelieris, 2006. Shelf-life predictions for packaged olive oil based on simulations. Food Chemistry, 96(1): 48-55.
  28. Khalil, F., K. Qureshi, A. Khan, H. Fakharul and N. Bibi, 2012. Effect of girdling and plant growth regulators on productivity olive (Olea Europaea). Pakistan, J. Agric. Res., 25(2): 120-128.
  29. Kiritsakis, A., A. Kanavouras and K. Kiritsakis, 2002. Chemical analysis, quality control and packaging issues of olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol, 104(9-10): 628- 638.
  30. Lavee, S., 1989. Involvement of plant growth regulators and endogenous growth substances in the control of alternate bearing. Acta Hort, 293(2): 311-322.
  31. Lavee, S., 2007. Biennial bearing in olive (Olea Europaea). Annales Ser. Hist. Nat, 17(1): 101-112.
  32. Ma, H. and Z. Liu, 1998. Gibberellins and the growth and development of  fruits. Chinese Bulletin of Botany, 15(1): 27-36.
  33. Mateos, L., S. Cunha, J. Amaral, J. Pereira, P. Andrade, R. Seabra and B. Oliveira, 2007. Chemometrics characterization of three variety olive oils (Cvs. Cobrancosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontona) extracted from olives with different maturation indices. Food Chemistry, 102(1): 406 - 414.
  34. Mínguez-Mosquera, M., B. Gandul and J. Garrid, 1990. Pigments presents in virgin olive oil. J Am Oil Chem. Soc., 67(3): 192-196.
  35. Mínguez-Mosquera, M., L. Rejano, A. Gandul, B. Sanchez and J. Garrido, 1991. Color pigment correlation in virgin olive oil. J. Am Oil Chem. Soc., 68(5): 322-337.
  36. Mohammed, S. and H. Shabana, 1980. Effects of naphthalene acetic acid on fruit size, quality, and ripening of zahdi date palm. Hort. Science, 15(6): 724-725.
  37. Morcello, J., S. Vuorela, M. Romero, M. Motilva and M. Heinonen, 2005. Antioxidant activity of olive pulp and olive oil phenolic compounds of the arbequina cultivar. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(6): 2002-2008.
  38. Morello, J., M. Motilva, M. Tovar and M. Romero, 2004. Changes in commercial virgin olive oil (cv. Arbequina) during storage with special emphasis  on the phenolic fraction. Food Chem, 85(3): 357-364.
  39. Moussa, M. and D. Gerasopoulos, 1996. Effect of altitude on fruit and oil quality characteristics of mastoides, olives. J. Sci. Food Agric., 71(3): 345–350.
  40. Naor, A., D. Schneider, A. Ben-Gal, I. Zipori, A. Dage, Z. Kerem, R. Birger, M. Peres and Y. Gal, 2013. The effects of crop load and irrigation rate in the oil accumulation stage on oil yield and water relations of koronakii olives. Irrig. Sci., 31(4): 781-791.
  41. Pinney, K. and V. Polito, 1990. Flower initiation in manzanillo olive. Acta Horticulturae, 286(1): 202-205.
  42. Ryan, D., K. Robarss and S. Lavee, 1998. Evolution de la qualite de l’huiled’olive. Olivae, 72: 23-41.
  43. Saad El-Din, I., A. Shereen and T. El-Bolok, 2010. Evaluation of some olive cultivars grown under sohag governorate conditions Egypt. J. Hort, 37(2): 235-256.
  44. Saour, G. and H. Makee, 2003. Effects of kaolin particle film on olive fruit yield, oil content and quality. Advances in Horticultural Science, 17 (4): 204-206.
  45. Skevin, D., D. Rade, D. Strucelj, Z. Mokrokak, S. Nederal and D. Bencic, 2003. The influence of variety and harvest time on the bitterness and phenolic compounds of olive oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 105(9): 536-541.
  46. SMA, 2006-2011. Statistics of the ministry of agriculture. 23: pp, 214-216.
  47. Tsimidou, M., 1998. Polyphenols and quality of virgin olive oil in retrospect. Ital J Food Sci, 10(1): 99-115.
  48. Westwood, M., 1993. Temperate-zone pomology: Physiology and culture. 3rd Edn.,Portland or USA:Timber Press. pp: 523.
  49. Wong, L., J. Timms, E. Rand and M. Goh, 1988. Colorimetric determination of total tocopherol in palm oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 65(2): 318-321.
  50. Zeitoun, M., N. Selke and W. Mourits, 1991. Analysis of vegetable triglyceride molecular species by reserved phase high performance liquid chromatography. J. Lipid Chromatography, 14(4): 2685-2698.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil
( 3 ) Impact of Laser Land Leveling On Water Productivity of Wheat under Deficit Irrigation Condations
( 4 ) Tree Species Diversity and Productivity Relationship in the Central Region of Bangladesh
( 5 ) Productivity of Farmland Values in Food Crop Production in the Natural Disasters Prone Areas of Imo State, Nigeria
( 6 ) Accelerating Agricultural Productivity to Enhance Economic Growth in Botswana
( 7 ) Improvement of Maize Productivity (Zea Mays L.) by Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Ferruginous Soil in Center of Benin
( 8 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 9 ) Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan
( 10 ) Boosting Farm Productivity through Intensification of Soybean Production Technology
( 13 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 14 ) Identification of Cattle Persistently Infected With BVDV (PI) By Ear-Notch Testing In Southeast of Iran
( 15 ) Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes
( 16 ) “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”
( 17 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 18 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 19 ) Evaluation of Chemical-Nutritional Characteristics of Rainbow Trout Samples Affected by the
( 20 ) Biochemical and Electron Microscopic Changes Induced by Giardia in Experimentally Infected Lambs
( 21 ) The Evaluation of Some Dietary Fiber Rich by-Products in Ice Creams Made from the Traditional Pudding - Kesme Muhallebi
( 22 ) Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old
( 23 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Silkworm (Bombyx Mori, L. 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Lines and their Conservation
( 25 ) Sooty Mold on Lemon Trees - First Recording from El-Beida City, Libya
( 26 ) Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain
( 27 ) Farm and Disease Management by Commercial Poultry Farmers
( 28 ) Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature
( 29 ) Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 30 ) Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Methods in Humid Subtropical Conditions
( 31 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 32 ) Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria
( 33 ) Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters
( 34 ) Comparative Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Equations in Semi-Arid Climatic Conditions
( 35 ) Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Modified Hargreaves Equations under Semi-Arid Environment
( 36 ) Characterization of a Novel Floral Mutation Induced by Gamma Irradiation of Philippine Rice Variety NSIC Rc9 (Apo)
( 37 ) Selection of Superior Clones by the Multi-Dimensional Decision-Making Techniques in Scots Pine Seed Orchard
( 38 ) Soil Properties and Growth of Maize as Affected by Slope Position and Fertilizer Type on Coastal Plain Sands
( 39 ) Storage Stability of Intermediate Moisture Cauliflower Brassica Oleracea, Var, Botrytis Cabbage Brassica Oleracea, Var, Capitata Using Radiation as Hurdle Technology
( 41 ) Description of Immature Stages of the Brown Dog Tick Rhipicephalus Sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Using Scanning Electron Microscopy
( 42 ) Effect of Using Different Pre-Storage Warming Times on Hatchability of White Hisex Breeders’ Eggs
( 43 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 44 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 45 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 46 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 47 ) Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network
( 48 ) Evaluating Variation in Seed Quality Attributes in Pinus Patula Clonal Orchards using Cone Cluster Analysis
( 49 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 50 ) Classification and Recognition of Urban Tree Defects in a Small Dataset using Convolutional Neural Network, Resnet-50 Architecture, and Data Augmentation
( 51 ) Alleviating Climate Change Effect using Environmentally Friendly Process to Preserve Wood against Biodeteriaorating Agent
( 52 ) Management of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Using Selected Plant Extracts
( 53 ) Nutritional Properties of Some Novel Selected Fish Species in Khuzestan Province, Iran
( 54 ) Quality Characteristics of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil Extracted from Some Hybrids Cultivated Under Egyptian Conditions
( 56 ) Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
( 57 ) Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years
( 58 ) Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices
( 59 ) Screening of Some Coffee Arabica Genotypes Against Coffee Wilt Diseases (Gibberella Xylarioides Heim And Saccus) At Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
( 60 ) Effect of Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants on Sclerotiumrolfsii, Causal Agent of Postharvest Rot of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.)
( 61 ) Stover Yield and Chemical Composition in Some Sorghum Varieties in Gadarif State, Sudan
( 62 ) Prevalence and Management of Some Surgical Affection in Cattle and Buffaloes at Qena Governorate in Field Situation
( 63 ) Physiological Effects of Some Artificial and Natural Food Coloring on Young Male Albino Rats
( 64 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 66 ) Nutrient Composition, Amylose Content and Pasting Characteristics of Some Elite Accessions of Nerica Rice
( 68 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 69 ) High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds
( 70 ) An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality
( 73 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 74 ) Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 75 ) Socio Economic Determinant and Profitability of Bari Mungbean Variety in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 77 ) Comparative Evaluation of Six Different Storage Materials for Long-Term Preservation of Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) Seeds
( 79 ) Characterization and Association among Yield and Yield Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus Annus L) Genotypes
( 80 ) Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan
( 81 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 83 ) Genotypic Difference in Growth and Yield Related Traits of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Southern Tigray
( 84 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 85 ) The Potential Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Reproductive Profile of Male Rat and its Possible Consequences
( 86 ) Report of an Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in Iran, Clinical, Epidemiological and Pathological Study
( 87 ) Determinants and Extent of Pre- and Postharvest Losses of Fruits in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 88 ) Contextual Estimation of Marketable and Marketed Surplus of Selected Seasonal Fruits: A Study Based on Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh
( 89 ) Agric Financing and its Impact on Agricultural GDP: An ARDL Approach
( 90 ) Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia
( 91 ) Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon
( 92 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 93 ) Growth Performance of Kit Rabbits Fed Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Varying Foliage Leaf Meals
( 94 ) Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province
( 95 ) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and its Effects on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows during the Postpartum Period in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 97 ) Technical-Economic Efficiencies of Snakehead Seed Production Under Impacts of Climate Change in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
( 98 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 99 ) Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria
( 100 ) Impacts of Rural Community on the Forest Estate in Ugbolu, Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 101 ) Coconut Growers Knowledge, Perception and Adoption on Impacts of Climate Change in Gampaha and Puttalam Districts in Sri Lanka: An Index-Based Approach
( 102 ) Agricultural Dualism, Wage Inequality and Development Policies
( 105 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 106 ) Effect of Sowing Date on Maize Seed Yield and Quality: A Review
( 107 ) Influence of Dehydrated Medicago Sativa on Quality Characteristics of Marchigiana Beef
( 108 ) Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 109 ) Correlation between Milk Yield, Somatic Cell Count and Milk Quality in Dairy Farming
( 110 ) Effects of Degasified Extender on Quality Parameters of Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa
( 111 ) Molecular Characterization of Parental Lines of Rice Aiming to Address High Yield and Nutritional Quality Under Drought and Cold Stress Condition
( 112 ) Harvesting Date Influences Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Yield and Quality of Based-Products
( 114 ) The Quality of Fried Chips Varies with Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Varieties and Soaking Regime
( 115 ) Determination of Microbiological Quality of White Cheeses Marketed in Afyonkarahisar
( 117 ) Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk
( 119 ) Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk
( 120 ) Exogenous Application of Antioxidants on Leaf Chlorophyll, Yield Dynamics and Berry Quality of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
( 121 ) Quality Evaluation of Instant Mosa (A Fried Maize Based Snack) Produced from Fermented Maize and Sorghum Flour
( 122 ) Effect of Blanching Time and Drying Method on Quality of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)
( 123 ) Cultivation and Nutritional Quality of Moringa Oleifera Lam. Produced Under Different Substrates in Semi-Arid Region in Northeast Brazil
( 124 ) Bacteriological Quality and Cyanide Contents of Different Cassava Products Processed in Benue State for Use as Food for Man or Feedstock for Animals
( 127 ) Heat Tolerance Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Early and Late Planting Environments through Stress Selection Indices
( 130 ) Reliability of Morphological Characters in Identification of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Varieties in Ex-Situ Conditions
( 131 ) Dietary Inclusion of Palm Oil in Bangladeshi Dietensures Better Nutrition with Minimal Cost: An Overview
( 134 ) Development of a Mathematical Model for Angle of Soil Failure Plane in Case of 3-Dimenssional Cutting
( 135 ) Soil-Blade Interaction of a Rotary Tiller: Soil Bin Evaluation
( 136 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 137 ) Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)